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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459836/treating-depression-with-transcutaneous-auricular-vagus-nerve-stimulation-state-of-the-art-and-future-perspectives
#1
Jian Kong, Jiliang Fang, Joel Park, Shaoyuan Li, Peijing Rong
Depression is a highly prevalent disorder, and its treatment is far from satisfactory. There is an urgent need to develop a new treatment for depression. Although still at its early stage, transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) has shown promising potential for treating depression. In this article, we first summarize the results of clinical studies on the treatment effect of taVNS on depression. Then, we re-analyze a previous study to identify the specific symptoms taVNS can relieve as indicated by subscores of the 24-item Hamilton Depression Scale in patients with depression...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453413/depression-and-obesity-evidence-of-shared-biological-mechanisms
#2
REVIEW
Yuri Milaneschi, W Kyle Simmons, Elisabeth F C van Rossum, Brenda Wjh Penninx
Depression and obesity are common conditions with major public health implications that tend to co-occur within individuals. The relationship between these conditions is bidirectional: the presence of one increases the risk for developing the other. It has thus become crucial to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the intertwined downward physiological spirals associated with both conditions. The present review focuses specifically on shared biological pathways that may mechanistically explain the depression-obesity link, including genetics, alterations in systems involved in homeostatic adjustments (HPA axis, immuno-inflammatory activation, neuroendocrine regulators of energy metabolism including leptin and insulin, and microbiome) and brain circuitries integrating homeostatic and mood regulatory responses...
February 16, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434743/anti-depressant-like-effect-of-atractylenolide-i-in-a-mouse-model-of-depression-induced-by-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress
#3
Haiyan Gao, Xianghua Zhu, Yang Xi, Qun Li, Zhenzhong Shen, Yongjie Yang
Atractylenolide I (AT-I), a major component of the rhizoma of Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz., exerts a wide range of activities. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the anti-depressant-like effect of AT-I in a mouse model of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), and to explore the possible molecular mechanism involved. It was revealed that AT-I significantly ameliorated CUMS-induced depressive-like behaviors, as evidenced by increased sucrose preference as well as shortened immobility time in the forced swimming and the tail suspension test...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425906/effects-of-vagal-neuromodulation-on-feeding-behavior
#4
Nicole A Pelot, Warren M Grill
Implanted vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) for obesity was recently approved by the FDA. However, its efficacy and mechanisms of action remain unclear. Herein, we synthesize clinical and preclinical effects of VNS on feeding behavior and energy balance and discuss engineering considerations for understanding and improving the therapy. Clinical cervical VNS (≤30 Hz) to treat epilepsy or depression has produced mixed effects on weight loss as a side effect, albeit in uncontrolled, retrospective studies. Conversely, preclinical studies (cervical and subdiaphragmatic VNS) mostly report decreased food intake and either decreased weight gain or weight loss...
February 6, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423878/ginger-rhizome-enhances-the-anti-inflammatory-and-anti-nociceptive-effects-of-paracetamol-in-an-experimental-mouse-model-of-fibromyalgia
#5
Sergio Montserrat-de la Paz, Maria Dolores Garcia-Gimenez, Ana Maria Quilez, Rocio De la Puerta, Angeles Fernandez-Arche
BACKGROUND: The dried rhizome of ginger has been widely used for more than 2500 years in folk medicine for the treatment of various diseases that involve inflammation or are caused by oxidative stress. AIMS: This study was designed to compare the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effect of dried powdered ginger rhizome (GR) and paracetamol (APAP) on an experimental mouse model of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) induced by intermittent cold stress (ICS). METHODS: Forty-eight female C57BL/6 J mice were used for the experiments...
February 8, 2018: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420166/curcumin-mediated-regulation-of-intestinal-barrier-function-the-mechanism-underlying-its-beneficial-effects
#6
Siddhartha S Ghosh, Hongliang He, Jing Wang, Todd W Gehr, Shobha Ghosh
Curcumin has anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-proliferative properties established largely by in vitro studies. Accordingly, oral administration of curcumin beneficially modulates many diseases including diabetes, fatty-liver disease, atherosclerosis, arthritis, cancer and neurological disorders such as depression, Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease. However, limited bioavailability and inability to detect curcumin in circulation or target tissues has hindered the validation of a causal role. We established curcumin-mediated decrease in the release of gut bacteria-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into circulation by maintaining the integrity of the intestinal barrier function as the mechanism underlying the attenuation of metabolic diseases (diabetes, atherosclerosis, kidney disease) by curcumin supplementation precluding the need for curcumin absorption...
January 8, 2018: Tissue Barriers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397672/depression-and-mania-induce-pro-inflammatory-activation-of-macrophages-following-application-of-serum-from-individuals-with-bipolar-disorder
#7
Pamela Ferrari, Mariana Migliorini Parisi, Rafael Colombo, Matheus Becker, Gabriel Fries, Bruna Maria Ascoli, Luiza Paul Géa, Márcia Kauer-Sant Anna, Flávio Kapczinski, Fábio Klamt, Fátima T C R Guma, Adriane Ribeiro Rosa, Florencia M Barbé-Tuana
Objective: Evidence has suggested that immune imbalance is involved with bipolar disorder (BD); however, its precise mechanism is poorly understood. This study investigated whether biochemical changes in the serum from BD patients could modulate the phenotype of cultured macrophages. Methods: Eighteen subjects with BD and five healthy individuals were included in this study. The human monocyte cell line U-937 was activated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and polarization was induced with RPMI-1640 media supplemented with 10% serum from each patient for 24 hours...
February 28, 2018: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397559/anti-oxidative-effects-of-melatonin-receptor-agonist-and-omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-in-neuronal-sh-sy5y-cells-deciphering-synergic-effects-on-anti-depressant-mechanisms
#8
Senthil Kumaran Satyanarayanan, Yin-Hwa Shih, Yu-Chuan Chien, Shih-Yi Huang, Piotr Gałecki, Siegfried Kasper, Jane Pei-Chen Chang, Kuan-Pin Su
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 or omega-3 PUFAs) and melatonin receptor agonist ramelteon (RMT) both display antidepressant effects, while their cellular effects on anti-oxidative and neuroprotective mechanisms might be different. In this study, we aimed to decipher the individual and synergistic actions of n-3 PUFAs and RMT, as compared with the conventional antidepressant fluoxetine (FLX), in a cellular model of oxidative stress, which might play an important role in the pathophysiology of depression and associated disorders...
February 3, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397536/rolipram-attenuates-early-brain-injury-following-experimental-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-in-rats-possibly-via-regulating-the-sirt1-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#9
Yucong Peng, Jianxiang Jin, Linfeng Fan, Hangzhe Xu, Pingyou He, Jianru Li, Ting Chen, Wu Ruan, Gao Chen
Early brain injury (EBI) is the primary cause of poor outcome in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients. Rolipram, a specific phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor which is traditionally used as an anti-depressant drug, has been recently proven to exert neuroprotective effects in several central nervous system insults. However, the role of rolipram in SAH remains uncertain. The current study was aimed to investigate the role of rolipram in EBI after SAH and explore the potential mechanism. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to an endovascular perforation process to produce an SAH model...
February 3, 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396460/epigenetic-modulation-of-inflammation-and-synaptic-plasticity-promotes-resilience-against-stress-in-mice
#10
Jun Wang, Georgia E Hodes, Hongxing Zhang, Song Zhang, Wei Zhao, Sam A Golden, Weina Bi, Caroline Menard, Veronika Kana, Marylene Leboeuf, Marc Xie, Dana Bregman, Madeline L Pfau, Meghan E Flanigan, Adelaida Esteban-Fernández, Shrishailam Yemul, Ali Sharma, Lap Ho, Richard Dixon, Miriam Merad, Ming-Hu Han, Scott J Russo, Giulio M Pasinetti
Major depressive disorder is associated with abnormalities in the brain and the immune system. Chronic stress in animals showed that epigenetic and inflammatory mechanisms play important roles in mediating resilience and susceptibility to depression. Here, through a high-throughput screening, we identify two phytochemicals, dihydrocaffeic acid (DHCA) and malvidin-3'-O-glucoside (Mal-gluc) that are effective in promoting resilience against stress by modulating brain synaptic plasticity and peripheral inflammation...
February 2, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393662/postpartum-depression-and-vitamin-d-a-systematic-review
#11
Shirin Amini, Sima Jafarirad, Reza Amani
Postpartum depression (PPD) is a prevalent mood disorder estimated to affect 20%-40% of women worldwide after childbirth. In recent studies, the effect of vitamin D on prevention of mood disorders and depression has been investigated, but it is still unclear how vitamin D may affect PPD. The evidence on the relevance between vitamin D deficiency and PPD is inconsistent, and assessment of the recent literature has not previously been carried out. Moreover, there are few clinical studies on PPD and vitamin D supplementation...
February 2, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390063/the-dopamine-receptor-d3-regulates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-depressive-like-behavior-in-mice
#12
Jing Wang, Yuwei Jia, Guodong Li, Biao Wang, Ting Zhou, Li Zhu, Teng Chen, Yanjiong Chen
Background: The altered expression and function of dopamine receptor D3 (D3R) in patients and animal models have been correlated with depression disease severity. However, the morphological alterations and biological effects of D3R in the brain after inflammation-induced depressive-like behavior remain elusive. Methods: In the present study, we ascertained the changes of D3R expression in the brain regions after depressive-like behavior induced by peripheral administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
January 30, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382825/ultramicronized-palmitoylethanolamide-rescues-learning-and-memory-impairments-in-a-triple-transgenic-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-by-exerting-anti-inflammatory-and-neuroprotective-effects
#13
Caterina Scuderi, Maria Rosanna Bronzuoli, Roberta Facchinetti, Lorenzo Pace, Luca Ferraro, Kevin Donald Broad, Gaetano Serviddio, Francesco Bellanti, Gianmauro Palombelli, Giulia Carpinelli, Rossella Canese, Silvana Gaetani, Luca Steardo, Luca Steardo, Tommaso Cassano
In an aging society, Alzheimer's disease (AD) exerts an increasingly serious health and economic burden. Current treatments provide inadequate symptomatic relief as several distinct pathological processes are thought to underlie the decline of cognitive and neural function seen in AD. This suggests that the efficacy of treatment requires a multitargeted approach. In this context, palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) provides a novel potential adjunct therapy that can be incorporated into a multitargeted treatment strategy...
January 31, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382344/age-related-cognitive-impairment-is-associated-with-long-term-neuroinflammation-and-oxidative-stress-in-a-mouse-model-of-episodic-systemic-inflammation
#14
Joana Costa d'Avila, Luciana Domett Siqueira, Aurélien Mazeraud, Estefania Pereira Azevedo, Debora Foguel, Hugo Caire Castro-Faria-Neto, Tarek Sharshar, Fabrice Chrétien, Fernando Augusto Bozza
BACKGROUND: Microglia function is essential to maintain the brain homeostasis. Evidence shows that aged microglia are primed and show exaggerated response to acute inflammatory challenge. Systemic inflammation signals to the brain inducing changes that impact cognitive function. However, the mechanisms involved in age-related cognitive decline associated to episodic systemic inflammation are not completely understood. The aim of this study was to identify neuropathological features associated to age-related cognitive decline in a mouse model of episodic systemic inflammation...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376460/anxiety-disorders-and-crp-in-a-population-cohort-study-with-54326-participants-the-lifelines-study
#15
Petrus J W Naudé, Annelieke M Roest, Dan J Stein, Peter de Jonge, Bennard Doornbos
Objectives - Growing evidence indicates that inflammatory processes may play a role in the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders. Nevertheless, much remains to be learned about the involvement of inflammation, including C-reactive protein (CRP), in specific anxiety disorders. This study examines the relation between anxiety disorders and CRP. Methods - Associations of serum CRP with anxiety disorders were determined in a large population study (n = 54,326 participants, mean age = 47 years; 59% female), the LifeLines cohort...
January 29, 2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367404/loss-of-eif4e-phosphorylation-engenders-depression-like-behaviors-via-selective-mrna-translation
#16
Inês Silva Amorim, Sonal Kedia, Stella Kouloulia, Konstanze Simbriger, Ilse Gantois, Seyed Mehdi Jafarnejad, Yupeng Li, Agniete Kampaite, Tine Pooters, Nicola Romanò, Christos G Gkogkas
The MAPK/ERK (Mitogen Activated Protein Kinases/Extracellular signal-Regulated Kinases) pathway is a cardinal regulator of synaptic plasticity, learning and memory in the hippocampus. One of major endpoints of this signaling cascade is the 5' mRNA cap-binding protein eIF4E (eukaryotic Initiation Factor 4E), which is phosphorylated on Ser 209 by MNK (MAPK-interacting protein kinases) and controls mRNA translation. The precise role of phospho-eIF4E in the brain is yet to be determined. Herein, we demonstrate that ablation of eIF4E phosphorylation in male mice (4Eki mice) does not impair long-term spatial or contextual fear memory, or the late phase of long-term potentiation (L-LTP)...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367100/expression-levels-of-interferon-%C3%A9-and-type-2-deiodinase-in-patients-diagnosed-with-recurrent-depressive-disorders
#17
Elżbieta Gałecka, Monika Talarowska, Michael Maes, Kuan-Pin Su, Paweł Górski, Anna Kumor-Kisielewska, Janusz Szemraj
BACKGROUND: Thyroid hormones (TH) are involved in modulation of the immune system and inflammation. TH dysregulation is associated with depressive disorders. The iodothyronine deiodinases (DIOs), the key enzymes for TH synthesis, can be affected and induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines. We aimed to investigate the levels of and correlation between type 2 DIO (DIO2) and interferon-gamma (IFN-ɣ) in patients with recurrent depressive disorders (rDD). METHODS: Data from 91 rDD patients and 105 healthy controls were analyzed...
January 20, 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359338/pi3k-akt-jnk-p38-signalling-pathway-mediated-neural-apoptosis-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-mice-is-involved-in-the-antidepressant-like-effect-of-pioglitazone
#18
Jie Li, Bing Xu, Zhi Chen, Chanjuan Zhou, Li Liao, Yinghua Qin, Chuangchuang Yang, Xiaodong Zhang, Zicheng Hu, Lin Sun, Dan Zhu, Peng Xie
Numerous studies have reported that inflammation is involved in the pathophysiology of depression. Pioglitazone, a PPAR-γ agonist, has potential anti-inflammatory and antidepressive effects. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of the antidepressant-like effect of pioglitazone on an inflammation-related mouse model of depression remain to be fully elucidated. Herein, we aimed to explore the effects of pioglitazone on depressive-like behaviours of mice exposed to lipopolysaccharides (LPS), and elucidate the underlying mechanisms...
January 23, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357878/unconjugated-bilirubin-induces-pyroptosis-in-cultured-rat-cortical-astrocytes
#19
Jie Feng, Mengwen Li, Qian Wei, Shengjun Li, Sijie Song, Ziyu Hua
BACKGROUND: Bilirubin-induced neurological dysfunction (BIND), a severe complication of extreme neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, could develop into permanent neurodevelopmental impairments. Several studies have demonstrated that inflammation and nerve cell death play important roles in bilirubin-induced neurotoxicity; however, the underlying mechanism remains unidentified. METHODS: The present study was intended to investigate whether pyroptosis, a highly inflammatory form of programmed cell death, participated in the bilirubin-mediated toxicity on cultured rat cortical astrocytes...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343269/microglial-activation-mediates-chronic-mild-stress-induced-depressive-and-anxiety-like-behavior-in-adult-rats
#20
Ya-Lin Wang, Qiu-Qin Han, Wen-Qing Gong, Dong-Hui Pan, Li-Zheng Wang, Wei Hu, Min Yang, Bing Li, Jin Yu, Qiong Liu
BACKGROUND: Depression is a heterogeneous disorder, with the exact neuronal mechanisms causing the disease yet to be discovered. Recent work suggests it is accompanied by neuro-inflammation, characterized, in particular, by microglial activation. However, microglial activation and its involvement in neuro-inflammation and stress-related depressive disorders are far from understood. METHODS: We utilized multiple detection methods to detect the neuro-inflammation in the hippocampus of rats after exposure to chronic mild stress (CMS)...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
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