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Kristy Pilbeam, Hongbo Wang, Elizabeth Taras, Rachel J Bergerson, Brianna Ettestad, Todd DeFor, Antonella Borgatti, Daniel A Vallera, Michael R Verneris
Children with high risk sarcoma have a poor prognosis despite surgical resection, irradiation and chemotherapy. Alternative therapies are urgently needed. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are surface proteins expressed by some pediatric sarcomas. We show for the first time that a de-immunized bispecific ligand toxin, EGFATFKDEL, directed against EGFR and uPAR, successfully targets pediatric sarcoma. Using flow cytometry, we identified a rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) cell line, RH30, that expresses both uPAR and EGFR, and a Ewing sarcoma (EWS) cell line, TC-71, that expresses only uPAR...
February 23, 2018: Oncotarget
Bastien Provost, Gilles Missenard, Ciprian Pricopi, Olaf Mercier, Sacha Mussot, Dominique Fabre, Nathaniel Langer, Olivier Mir, Cécile Le Pechoux, Philippe Dartevelle, Elie Fadel
BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy has long been the treatment of choice for local control of Ewing sarcoma of the chest wall (ESCW). However, there is debate regarding the use of surgery versus RT. Our objective was to identify risk factors that may affect long-term outcomes of non-metastatic ESCW all treated with preoperative chemotherapy followed by en-bloc resection and adjuvant Chemotherapy or Chemoradiation. METHODS: Between 1996 and 2014, 30 patients with a median age of 25 years (SD +/-8...
March 15, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Jeremy T Smith, Antonia Roseweir, Michael Millar, Iain Clarke, Robert P Millar
Kisspeptin signalling is indispensable for fertility, stimulating gonadotropin- releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion and mediating gonadal steroid feedback on GnRH neurons. Moreover, kisspeptin neurons have been implicated in other non-reproductive neuroendocrine roles. Kisspeptin appears to also regulate growth hormone secretion but much of the data appear contradictory. We sought to clarify a potential role of kisspeptin in GH regulation by examining the effect of kisspeptin antagonists on growth hormone (GH) secretion in ewes under various physiological conditions...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
(no author information available yet)
Transcriptional dysregulation promotes R-loops and impairs homologous recombination in Ewing sarcoma.
March 16, 2018: Cancer Discovery
N M Hashem, K M El-Azrak, A N M Nour El-Din, S M Sallam, T A Taha, M H Salem
Phytoestrogens are classified as naturally occurring endocrine disrupting chemicals that may affect reproductive performance of farm animals. To investigate the effects of Berseem clover phytoestrogens on reproductive performance of seasonal anoestrus ewes, twenty four late pregnant Rahmani ewes were fed either Berseem clover or maize silage (n = 12/treatment). Treatment started 2 months prepartum and continued until oestrous induction (week 8 postpartum), using the CIDR-eCG based protocol, and early pregnancy...
March 8, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Rika Fukumori, Yoji Masuda, Ayaka Takeuchi, Rina Yanai, Khurchabiling Atchalalt, Borjigin Sarentonglaga, Kazuko Ogata, Mio Yamaguchi, Asuka Hara, Akane Sato, Toshihisa Sugino, Yoshikazu Nagao
The aim of this study was to investigate how intra-duodenal infusions of fatty acids (FA) affect appetite-related gut peptides such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and ghrelin in sheep. We hypothesized that these peptides can be highly reactive to unsaturated long-chain FA, because they are well known to decrease DMI. Four ewes were fitted with a duodenal cannula and a jugular vein catheter for a 6-h duodenal infusion of the nine FA (C8:0, C10:0, C12:0, C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, C18:3) and water (control)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Danny Mangual, Luis A Bisbal-Matos, Ricardo Jiménez-Lee, Román Vélez, Miguel Noy
The case of a 27-year-old Hispanic female who presented with an occipito-parietal tumor after suffering trauma to the area. A physical examination revealed no tenderness to palpation and with evidence of healing ulcerations. The biopsy was consistent with a synovial sarcoma. A wide excision of the mass (15cm x 14cm x 6cm) followed by a pericranial flap was performed. A follow-up CT showed recurrence involving the parietal sagittal sinus. After a second biopsy the mass was determined to be a small-cell sarcoma, consistent with Ewing's sarcoma...
March 2018: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
Marcela Ewing, Peter Naredi, Chenyang Zhang, Jörgen Månsson
Background: Many patients with common cancers are late diagnosed. Objectives: Identify consultation profiles and clinical features in patients with the seven most common cancers, who had consulted a general practitioner (GP) frequently before their cancer diagnosis. Methods: A case-control study was conducted in Region Västra Götaland, Sweden. A total of 2570 patients, diagnosed in 2011 with prostate, breast, colorectal, lung, gynaecological and skin cancers including malignant melanoma, and 9424 controls were selected from the Swedish Cancer Register and a regional health care database...
March 13, 2018: Family Practice
Kyriakos Paraskeva, Dimitrios Giakoumettis, Ioannis Nikas, George Georgoulis, George Sfakianos, Marios S Themistocleous
INTRODUCTION: Neck pain and torticollis are common symptoms in the pediatric population that rarely requires further investigation. However, in case symptoms persist, then a more meticulously approach should be considered. Underlying conditions such as infections, neck injury, autoimmune disorders or even cervical spine cancer should be excluded from diagnosis. Cervical spine cancer is a rare neurosurgical entity in the pediatric population and even rarer is atlantoaxial Ewing's sarcoma...
March 3, 2018: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
Hanane Eddaoualline, Khadija Mazouz, Bouchra Rafiq, Ghizlane El Mghari Tabib, Nawal El Ansari, Rhizlane Belbaraka, Abdelhamid El Omrani, Mouna Khouchani
BACKGROUND: Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor is a family of highly malignant proliferation of neuroectodermal origin, most often skeletal, adrenal localization is extremely rare. Only few cases have been reported in the literature. Classical management includes radical surgery with adjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy or both. This case report is the only one where recurrence was surgically removed, and it confirms the importance of adjuvant treatment, and the efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Paula Marrano, Mary Shago, Gino R Somers, Paul S Thorner
Osteogenic sarcoma (OS) is the most common malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents. Despite advances in molecular genetic characterization of pediatric and adult tumors, the diagnosis of OS still depends almost entirely on light microscopy. The lack of consistent genetic changes in OS has greatly hindered the development of any diagnostic molecular test. Recently, whole-genome sequencing has shown that ~50% of cases of OS have a translocation involving the TP53 gene with breakpoints confined to the first intron...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
Francesca Mossa, Daniela Bebbere, Antonello Ledda, Giovanni P Burrai, Imane Chebli, Elisabetta Antuofermo, Sergio Ledda, Antonello Cannas, Francesco Fancello, Alberto S Atzori
Maternal nutrition during critical gestation periods impacts on offspring in later life; effects of high-starch maternal diet on testicular development in lambs were addressed. Dairy ewes were fed diets providing either 27% (Starch, S) or 11% (Fiber, F) of starch from mating to lambing (∼147 days; S147, F147) or for the last 75 days of gestation (S75, F75). Testes of single male lambs were measured and then sampled for histological and gene expression analyses at selected ages. Testicular dimensions and weight were similar among groups, but the total area of seminiferous tubules increased with age and tended to be higher (P = 0...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Paul J Choi, Joe Iwanaga, R Shane Tubbs, Emre Yilmaz
Owing to its rarity, rhabdomyosarcoma of the head and neck (HNRMS) has seldom been discussed in the literature. As most of the data is based only on the retrospective experiences of tertiary healthcare centers, there are difficulties in formulating a standard treatment protocol. Moreover, the disease is poorly understood at its pathological, genetic, and molecular levels. For instance, 20% of all histological assessment is inaccurate; even an experienced pathologist can confuse rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) with neuroblastoma, Ewing's sarcoma, and lymphoma...
January 9, 2018: Curēus
Conglin Ye, Xiaolong Yu, Xuqiang Liu, Min Dai, Bin Zhang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, single-stranded, non-coding RNA molecules involved in cancer initiation and progression. The present study aimed to determine the effect of miRNA-30d (miR-30d) on the growth, malignant phenotype, and apoptosis of Ewing's sarcoma (ES) SK-ES-1 cells, and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism and signaling pathway involved. Cell proliferation, invasion, migration, morphological changes, cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were investigated. Furthermore, the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) were examined, as was the activity of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathways...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Alexandra Okihiro, Rachana Hasija, Lillia Fung, Bonnie Cameron, Brian M Feldman, Ronald Laxer, Rayfel Schneider, Earl Silverman, Lynn Spiegel, Rae S M Yeung, Shirley M L Tse
BACKGROUND: Anti-TNF (Tumor necrosis factor) therapy is effective in treating pediatric patients with refractory rheumatic disease. There is however a concern that anti-TNF usage may increase the risk of malignancy. Reports on specific types of malignancy in this patient population have been emerging over the past decade, but there is a need for additional malignancy reports, as these events are rare. Therefore, a retrospective chart review was performed on the biologic database of pediatric rheumatology patients at The Hospital for Sick Children (SickKids) from 1997 to 2013 for neoplasms, patient demographic information and rheumatologic treatment course...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
Nathália Kersting, Bárbara Kunzler Souza, Igor Araujo Vieira, Rafael Pereira Dos Santos, Danielly Brufatto Olguins, Lauro José Gregianin, André Tesainer Brunetto, Algemir Lunardi Brunetto, Rafael Roesler, Caroline Brunetto de Farias, Gilberto Schwartsmann
OBJECTIVE: Ewing sarcoma (ES) is a type of childhood cancer probably arising from stem mesenchymal or neural crest cells. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) acts as a driver oncogene in many types of solid tumors. However, its involvement in ES remains poorly understood. METHODS: Human SK-ES-1 and RD-ES ES cells were treated with EGF, the EGFR inhibitor tyrphostin (AG1478), or phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) or extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK)/mitogen-activated kinase (MAPK) inhibitors...
March 14, 2018: Oncology
Wen-Tong Zhang, Wen-Wen Zhang, Zhen-Yu He, Jia-Yuan Sun, Lei Zhang, Qing Xia, San-Gang Wu
BACKGROUND: To investigate the optimal local treatment strategies for patients with non-metastatic Ewing sarcoma (ES) of bone. METHODS: Patients with ES of bone were identified using the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database. Kaplan-Meier log-rank test and Cox regression models were performed to assess the effect of the types of local treatment strategies on cause-specific survival and overall survival. RESULTS: 560 patients were included with a median age of 16 years...
March 14, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Ravi Kumar Venkatraman, Surajit Kayal, Arvind Barak, Andrew J Orr-Ewing, Siva Umapathy
Solvation plays a critical role in various physicochemical and biological processes. Here, the rate of intersystem crossing (ISC) of benzophenone from its S1(nπ*) state to its triplet manifold of states is shown to be modified by hydrogen-bonding interactions with protic solvent molecules. We selectively photo-excite benzophenone with its carbonyl group either solvent coordinated or uncoordinated by tuning the excitation wavelength to the band center (λ = 340 nm) or the long-wavelength edge (λ = 380 nm) of its π*←n absorption band...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Xin Shi, Shengcai Wei, Kevin J Simms, Devan N Cumpston, Thomas J Ewing, Ping Zhang
Activation and reprogramming of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells play a critical role in the granulopoietic response to bacterial infection. Our current study determined the significance of Sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling in the regulation of hematopoietic precursor cell activity during the host defense response to systemic bacterial infection. Bacteremia was induced in male Balb/c mice via intravenous injection (i.v.) of Escherichia coli (5 × 107 CFUs/mouse). Control mice received i.v. saline. SHH protein level in bone marrow cell (BMC) lysates was markedly increased at both 24 and 48 h of bacteremia...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Mary Carroll Shapiro, Tien Tang, Atreyi Dasgupta, Lyazat Kurenbekova, Ryan Shuck, M Waleed Gaber, Jason T Yustein
PURPOSE: Radiation therapy (RT) is a viable therapeutic option for Ewing sarcoma (ES) patients. However, little progress has been made to elucidate the mechanisms of radioresistance. This study establishes a novel ES irradiation-adapted model designed to assess molecular and18 F fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) alterations secondary to RT. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Radiation-adapted cell lines (RACLs) were created in vitro by exposing ES human cell lines to fractionated doses of radiation...
February 5, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
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