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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864066/stimulus-control-in-two-rodent-models-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#1
Adam E Fox, Sierra R Caramia, Molly M Haskell, Aerial L Ramey, Depika Singha
The spontaneously hypertensive (SHR/NCrl) rat from Charles River is one of the most widely used models of the combined subtype of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD-C). Although often used as its control strain, the Wistar Kyoto (WKY/NCrl) from Charles River has been proposed as a model of the predominately inattentive subtype of ADHD (ADHD-PI). In Experiment 1 SHR/NCrl, WKY/NCrl, and Wistar (WI; the progenitor strain for the two models) rats were trained on a left→right lever-press sequence in the presence of light discriminative stimuli that signaled the active lever in the sequence...
November 15, 2016: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807606/bdnf-concentrations-and-daily-fluctuations-differ-among-adhd-children-and-respond-differently-to-methylphenidate-with-no-relationship-with-depressive-symptomatology
#2
Isabel Cubero-Millán, María-José Ruiz-Ramos, Antonio Molina-Carballo, Sylvia Martínez-Serrano, Luisa Fernández-López, Irene Machado-Casas, Pilar Tortosa-Pinto, Aida Ruiz-López, Juan-de-Dios Luna-Del-Castillo, José Uberos, Antonio Muñoz-Hoyos
RATIONALE: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) enhances the growth and maintenance of several monoamine neuronal systems, serves as a neurotransmitter modulator and participates in the mechanisms of neuronal plasticity. Therefore, BDNF is a good candidate for interventions in the pathogenesis and/or treatment response of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). OBJECTIVE: We quantified the basal concentration and daily fluctuation of serum BDNF, as well as changes after methylphenidate treatment...
November 3, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803356/bullying-mediates-between-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-childhood-and-psychotic-experiences-in-early-adolescence
#3
Timo Hennig, Edo S Jaya, Tania M Lincoln
Although a childhood diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is known to be linked to psychotic experiences and psychotic disorders in later life, the developmental trajectories that could explain this association are unknown. Using a sample from the prospective population-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) (N = 8247), we hypothesized that the previously reported association of ADHD combined subtype in childhood and psychotic experiences in early adolescence is mediated by traumatic events and by involvement in bullying...
November 1, 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757130/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-gene-val66met-polymorphism-is-a-risk-factor-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-a-turkish-sample
#4
Onder Ozturk, Burge Kabukcu Basay, Ahmet Buber, Omer Basay, Huseyin Alacam, Ali Bacanlı, Şenay Görücü Yılmaz, Mehmet Emin Erdal, Hasan Herken, Eyup Sabri Ercan
OBJECTIVE: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that negatively affects different areas of life. We aimed to evaluate the associations between the Val66Met polymorphism of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and ADHD and to assess the effect of the BDNF polymorphism on the neurocognitive profile and clinical symptomatology in ADHD. METHODS: Two hundred one ADHD cases and 99 typically developing subjects (TD) between the ages of 8 and 15 years were involved in the study...
September 2016: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751959/function-of-brain-%C3%AE-2b-adrenergic-receptor-characterized-with-subtype-selective-%C3%AE-2b-antagonist-and-ko-mice
#5
Lauren Luhrs, Cynthia Manlapaz, Karen Kedzie, Sandhya Rao, Sara Cabrera-Ghayouri, John Donello, Daniel Gil
Noradrenergic signaling, through the α2A and α2C adrenergic receptors modulates the cognitive and behavioral symptoms of disorders such as schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and addiction. However, it is unknown whether the α2B receptor has any significant role in CNS function. The present study elucidates the potential role of the α2B receptor in CNS function via the discovery and use of the first subtype-selective α2B antagonist (AGN-209419), and behavioral analyses of α-receptor knockout (KO) mice...
December 17, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746700/effects-of-maternal-symptom-ratings-and-other-clinical-features-on-short-term-treatment-response-to-oros-methylphenidate-in-children-and-adolescents-with-adhd-in-a-naturalistic-clinical-setting
#6
Esra Cop Tasgin, Ozgur Oner, Pinar Yurtbasi, Kerim Munir
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), antisocial behavior and anxiety/depression ratings of mothers, and child and adolescents' age, gender, ADHD subtype, and comorbidity on one-month drug treatment response to OROS methylphenidate in ADHD in a naturalistic setting. METHODS: The analyses included 223 subjects (191 boys, 32 girls; age 6-15 years, mean: 9.4) treated with OROS methylphenidate (18-72 mg/day, mean: 31 mg/d; 0...
2016: Bulletin of Clinical Psychopharmacology [Klinik Psikofarmakoloji Bülteni]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690740/effect-of-trait-anxiety-on-cognitive-test-performance-in-adolescents-with-and-without-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#7
Barbara M Ruf, Katie L Bessette, Godfrey D Pearlson, Michael C Stevens
INTRODUCTION: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety are frequently comorbid disorders associated with different types of abnormal performance on neuropsychological tests. Although some studies have shown that comorbid anxiety alters ADHD test performance, results inconsistently show both improvements and worsening of different abilities, with failures to replicate across different anxiety disorders. Alternatively, trait anxiety may reflect a more stable influence on ADHD test performance than various diagnosable anxiety disorders...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648500/sluggish-cognitive-tempo-in-a-child-and-adolescent-clinical-outpatient-setting
#8
Ester Camprodon-Rosanas, Santiago Batlle, Xavier Estrada-Prat, Marta Aceña-Díaz, Araitz Petrizan-Aleman, Elena Pujals, Luis M Martin-López, Víctor Pérez-Solá, Núria Ribas-Fitó
Sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptoms have largely emerged from investigations of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Recent research has demonstrated the relevance of SCT symptoms in the field of clinical child and adolescent psychiatry. The goal of this research was to study the symptoms of SCT in a clinical child and adolescent sample and to define its features and comorbid conditions. We reviewed 834 clinical records of patients referred to Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services and examined SCT symptoms and their relation with sociodemographic data, clinical diagnosis, comorbid conditions, Child Behavior Checklist dimensions, and intelligence quotient...
September 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631146/tic-related-versus-tic-free-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-clinical-picture-and-2-year-natural-course
#9
Froukje E de Vries, Danielle C Cath, Adriaan W Hoogendoorn, Patricia van Oppen, Gerrit Glas, Dick J Veltman, Odile A van den Heuvel, Anton J L M van Balkom
OBJECTIVE: The tic-related subtype of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has a distinct clinical profile. The course of tic-related OCD has previously been investigated in treatment studies, with inconclusive results. This study aimed to compare clinical profiles between tic-related and tic-free OCD patients and to establish the influence of tics on the 2-year natural course in adult OCD patients. METHODS: Within the Netherlands OCD Association cohort, 377 patients with a current DSM-IV diagnosis of OCD were divided into a tic-related group (28%) and a tic-free group and compared on clinical variables with t tests or χ² tests...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624427/diagnostic-profiles-of-adult-psychiatric-outpatients-with-and-without-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#10
Eugenia I Gorlin, Kristy Dalrymple, Iwona Chelminski, Mark Zimmerman
OBJECTIVE: Despite growing recognition that attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly prevalent, impairing, and comorbid disorder that persists into adulthood, reports on the nature and extent of its psychiatric comorbidities have been mixed to date. This study compared the prevalence rates of all major Axis I disorders as well as borderline personality disorder in an unselected sample of adult psychiatric outpatients with and without ADHD. METHODS: As part of the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services (MIDAS) project, we administered a DSM-IV-based semi-structured diagnostic interview assessing ADHD and other psychiatric disorders to 1134 patients presenting for initial evaluation at an outpatient psychiatric practice...
October 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623819/associations-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-and-other-childhood-disorders-with-psychotic-experiences-and-disorders-in-adolescence
#11
Timo Hennig, Edo S Jaya, Ute Koglin, Tania M Lincoln
Prodromal symptoms of psychosis are associated with an increased risk of transition, functional impairment, poor mental health, and unfavorable developmental prospects. Existing interventions targeting the prodrome are non-satisfactory. It may thus be more promising to attempt to identify risk factors in the premorbid phase preceding the prodrome to increase the chances of successful preventive approaches. Here, we investigate whether childhood mental disorders in general and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) specifically indicate a risk for subsequent psychotic experiences and disorders...
September 13, 2016: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27601909/neurobiology-of-hedonic-tone-the-relationship-between-treatment-resistant-depression-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-substance-abuse
#12
REVIEW
Tia Sternat, Martin A Katzman
Anhedonia, defined as the state of reduced ability to experience feelings of pleasure, is one of the hallmarks of depression. Hedonic tone is the trait underlying one's characteristic ability to feel pleasure. Low hedonic tone represents a reduced capacity to experience pleasure, thus increasing the likelihood of experiencing anhedonia. Low hedonic tone has been associated with several psychopathologies, including major depressive disorder (MDD), substance use, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27585832/developmental-relations-between-adhd-symptoms-and-reactive-versus-proactive-aggression-across-childhood-and-adolescence
#13
Aja Louise Murray, Ingrid Obsuth, Jan Zirk-Sadowski, Denis Ribeaud, Manuel Eisner
OBJECTIVE: Past research has provided some preliminary evidence that ADHD and reactive aggression have overlapping neurocognitive bases. Based on this, we tested the hypothesis that ADHD symptoms are closely coupled in developmental terms with reactive aggression, more so than with proactive aggression with which it has been postulated to be only indirectly linked. METHOD: We used latent growth curve analysis to estimate the developmental relations between ADHD symptoms and subtypes of aggressive behavior in a normative sample of 1,571 youth (761 female, 810 male) measured from ages 7 to 15...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581245/psychiatric-comorbidity-and-demographic-characteristics-of-1-000-children-and-adolescents-with-adhd-in-turkey
#14
Sevim Berrin Inci, Melis Ipci, Ulkü Akyol Ardıç, Eyüp Sabri Ercan
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine the frequency of comorbid disorders in children and adolescents with ADHD in Turkey and to evaluate the distribution of comorbidities according to the subtypes of ADHD and sociodemographic features. METHOD: The sample consisted of 1,000 children, 6 to 18 years of age, including 242 females and 758 males, from Ege University who were diagnosed with ADHD. RESULTS: The overall prevalence rate of psychiatric comorbidity in the study was 56...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27561999/behaviour-planning-and-problem-solving-deficiencies-in-children-with-symptoms-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-from-the-balobedu-culture-limpopo-province-south-africa
#15
Refilwe Gloria Pila-Nemutandani, Anneke Meyer
OBJECTIVE: To compare planning behaviour (frontal lobe functioning) in children with and without symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHOD: A total of 90 children (45 with symptoms of ADHD and 45 matched controls without ADHD symptoms) of both genders, who were medication naïve, from the Balobedu culture (Limpopo province, South Africa), aged 7-13 years, participated in the study. The performance of the two groups was compared on a test of planning and problem solving, the Tower of London (ToL) task...
July 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553218/decision-making-in-social-contexts-in-youth-with-adhd
#16
Ili Ma, Nanda N J Lambregts-Rommelse, Jan K Buitelaar, Antonius H N Cillessen, Anouk P J Scheres
This study examined reward-related decision-making in children and adolescents with ADHD in a social context, using economic games. We furthermore examined the role of individual differences in reward-related decision-making, specifically, the roles of reward sensitivity and prosocial skills. Children and adolescents (9-17 years) with ADHD-combined subtype (n = 29; 20 boys) and healthy controls (n = 38; 20 boys) completed the ultimatum game and dictator game as measures of reward-related decision-making in social contexts...
August 23, 2016: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27500640/multiclass-classification-for-the-differential-diagnosis-on-the-adhd-subtypes-using-recursive-feature-elimination-and-hierarchical-extreme-learning-machine-structural-mri-study
#17
Muhammad Naveed Iqbal Qureshi, Beomjun Min, Hang Joon Jo, Boreom Lee
The classification of neuroimaging data for the diagnosis of certain brain diseases is one of the main research goals of the neuroscience and clinical communities. In this study, we performed multiclass classification using a hierarchical extreme learning machine (H-ELM) classifier. We compared the performance of this classifier with that of a support vector machine (SVM) and basic extreme learning machine (ELM) for cortical MRI data from attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients. We used 159 structural MRI images of children from the publicly available ADHD-200 MRI dataset...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27473346/is-emotion-recognition-the-only-problem-in-adhd-effects-of-pharmacotherapy-on-face-and-emotion-recognition-in-children-with-adhd
#18
Esra Demirci, Ayten Erdogan
The objectives of this study were to evaluate both face and emotion recognition, to detect differences among attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) subgroups, to identify effects of the gender and to assess the effects of methylphenidate and atomoxetine treatment on both face and emotion recognition in patients with ADHD. The study sample consisted of 41 male, 29 female patients, 8-15 years of age, who were diagnosed as having combined type ADHD (N = 26), hyperactive/impulsive type ADHD (N = 21) or inattentive type ADHD (N = 23) but had not previously used any medication for ADHD and 35 male, 25 female healthy individuals...
December 2016: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27471442/neural-biomarkers-for-dyslexia-adhd-and-add-in-the-auditory-cortex-of-children
#19
Bettina Serrallach, Christine Groß, Valdis Bernhofs, Dorte Engelmann, Jan Benner, Nadine Gündert, Maria Blatow, Martina Wengenroth, Angelika Seitz, Monika Brunner, Stefan Seither, Richard Parncutt, Peter Schneider, Annemarie Seither-Preisler
Dyslexia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and attention deficit disorder (ADD) show distinct clinical profiles that may include auditory and language-related impairments. Currently, an objective brain-based diagnosis of these developmental disorders is still unavailable. We investigated the neuro-auditory systems of dyslexic, ADHD, ADD, and age-matched control children (N = 147) using neuroimaging, magnetencephalography and psychoacoustics. All disorder subgroups exhibited an oversized left planum temporale and an abnormal interhemispheric asynchrony (10-40 ms) of the primary auditory evoked P1-response...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27468523/clinical-profile-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-impact-of-ethnic-and-social-diversities-in-israel
#20
Muhammad Mahaj, Rajech Sharkia, Nadeem Shorbaji, Nathanel Zelnik
BACKGROUND: Despite the increased worldwide recognition of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), there is a variability in the diagnostic rate of both ADHD and its co-morbidities. These diversities are probably related to the methodology and instruments used for the diagnosis of ADHD and to awareness and cultural interpretation of its existence. OBJECTIVES: To identify consistent differences in the clinical profile of Arab and Jewish children with ADHD in Israel who differ in cultural, ethnic and socioeconomic background...
June 2016: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
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