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Cardiac heart failure

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679303/do-the-sglt-2-inhibitors-offer-more-than-hypoglycemic-activity
#1
REVIEW
Eduardo Flores, Carlos G Santos-Gallego, Nely Diaz-Mejía, Juan Jose Badimon
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most common chronic health conditions in the USA; it affects approximately 10% of adults with up to one-quarter being undiagnosed. T2DM is associated with substantial cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. T2DM is a pathological condition characterized by elevated levels of glucose and associated with high CV risk. Traditional hypoglycemic drugs have demonstrated their capability for effective and maintained management of high glucose levels, but they have not significantly impacted on the incidence of CV events...
April 20, 2018: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679284/garlic-allium-sativum-exhibits-a-cardioprotective-effect-in-experimental-chronic-renal-failure-rat-model-by-reducing-oxidative-stress-and-controlling-cardiac-na-k-atpase-activity-and-ca-2-levels
#2
Asmaa M S Gomaa, Alaa T Abdelhafez, Hazem A Aamer
Gentamicin (GNT)-induced nephrotoxicity culminates into renal failure with a possible cardiovascular impact. Garlic extract (GE) is a cardiovascular protectant with limited mechanistic data. Therefore, we assessed the disturbance in specific cardiac parameters and the potential protective effect of GE supplementation against them in a rat model of GNT-induced chronic renal failure (CRF). Adult male rats (n = 24) were randomly assigned into four groups (n = 6 each): normal controls (CON), garlic extract controls (GE; 250 mg kg-1 , orally), GNT-induced CRF (GNT; 100 mg kg-1 , i...
April 21, 2018: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678661/role-of-heat-shock-transcription-factor-1-hsf1-upregulated-macrophage-in-ameliorating-pressure-overload-induced-heart-failure-in-mice
#3
Peizhao Du, Yaowei Chang, Fangjie Dai, Chunyan Wei, Qi Zhang, Jiming Li
In order to explore the role of macrophages in HSF1-mediated alleviation of heart failure, mice model of pressure overload-induced heart failure was established using transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Changes in cardiac function and morphology were studied in TAC and SHAM groups using ultrasonic device, tissue staining, electron microscopy, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-QPCR), and Western blotting. We found that mice in the TAC group showed evidence of impaired cardiac function and aggravation of fibrosis on ultrasonic and histopathological examination when compared to those in the SHAM group...
April 17, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678624/autonomic-cardiovascular-control-and-cardiac-arrhythmia-in-two-pregnant-women-with-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy-insights-from-icd-monitoring
#4
Pietro Francia, Carmen Adduci, Beatrice Musumeci, Lorenzo Semprini, Francesca Palano, Luigi Zezza, Massimo Volpe, Camillo Autore
In women with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), pregnancy prompts major changes in hemodynamic and cardiac autonomic function that may precipitate heart failure (HF) or increase the risk of cardiac arrhythmia. We report the clinical follow-up of two patients with non-obstructive HCM implanted with a cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) allowing for continuous analysis of heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV) and cardiac arrhythmia throughout the entire course of pregnancy. Both patients experienced increased HR and decreased HRV from the early stages of pregnancy, which persisted until delivery...
April 17, 2018: Portuguese Journal of Cardiology: An Official Journal of the Portuguese Society of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678608/clinical-and-hemodynamic-effects-of-intra-aortic-balloon-pump-therapy-in-chronic-heart-failure-patients-with-cardiogenic-shock
#5
Justin A Fried, Abhinav Nair, Koji Takeda, Kevin Clerkin, Veli K Topkara, Amirali Masoumi, Melana Yuzefpolskaya, Hiroo Takayama, Yoshifumi Naka, Daniel Burkhoff, Ajay Kirtane, S M Dimitrios Karmpaliotis, Jeffrey Moses, Paolo C Colombo, A Reshad Garan
BACKGROUND: The role of the intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) in acute decompensated heart failure (HF) with cardiogenic shock (CS) is largely undefined. In this study we sought to assess the hemodynamic and clinical response to IABP in chronic HF patients with CS and identify predictors of response to this device. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all patients undergoing IABP implantation from 2011 to 2016 at our institution to identify chronic HF patients with acute decompensation and CS (cardiac index <2...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677191/type-2-diabetic-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-2-mutant-mice-aldh-2-2-exhibiting-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction-phenotype-can-be-determined-by-exercise-stress-echocardiography
#6
Guodong Pan, Srikar Munukutla, Ananya Kar, Joseph Gardinier, Rajarajan A Thandavarayan, Suresh Selvaraj Palaniyandi
E487K point mutation of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) 2 (ALDH2*2) in East Asians intrinsically lowers ALDH2 activity. ALDH2*2 is associated with diabetic cardiomyopathy. Diabetic patients exhibit heart failure of preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) i.e. while the systolic heart function is preserved in them, they may exhibit diastolic dysfunction, implying a jeopardized myocardial health. Currently, it is challenging to detect cardiac functional deterioration in diabetic mice. Stress echocardiography (echo) in the clinical set-up is a procedure used to measure cardiac reserve and impaired cardiac function in coronary artery diseases...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677073/outcomes-after-cardiac-transplant-for-wild-type-transthyretin-amyloidosis
#7
Andrew N Rosenbaum, Omar F Abou Ezzeddine, Martha Grogan, Angela Dispenzieri, Sudhir Kushwaha, Alfredo Clavell, Richard C Daly, Brooks S Edwards
BACKGROUND: The true prevalence of heart failure (HF) due to wild type transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTRwt) is likely underestimated. There is a paucity of data with regard to the management of ATTRwt-related advanced HF and the natural history of extracardiac ATTRwt. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing cardiac transplant (HTx) for ATTRwt at a single institution. Comprehensive clinical data, including baseline hemodynamic and echocardiographic characteristics, and posttransplant outcomes were obtained...
April 19, 2018: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677037/small-left-ventricular-size-is-an-independent-risk-factor-for-ventricular-assist-device-thrombosis
#8
Venkat Keshav Chivukula, Jennifer A Beckman, Anthony R Prisco, Shin Lin, Todd F Dardas, Richard K Cheng, Stephen D Farris, Jason W Smith, Nahush A Mokadam, Claudius Mahr, Alberto Aliseda
The prevalence of ventricular assist device (VAD) therapy has continued to increase due to a stagnant donor supply and growing advanced heart failure (HF) population. We hypothesize that left ventricular (LV) size strongly influences biocompatibility and risk of thrombosis. Unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used in conjunction with patient-derived computational modeling and virtual surgery with a standard, apically implanted inflow cannula. A dual-focus approach of evaluating thrombogenicity was employed: platelet-based metrics to characterize the platelet environment and flow-based metrics to investigate hemodynamics...
April 18, 2018: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676043/mitral-valve-interventions-in-heart-failure
#9
REVIEW
Daniel Lavall, Andreas Hagendorff, Stephan H Schirmer, Michael Böhm, Michael A Borger, Ulrich Laufs
Secondary mitral regurgitation (MR) results from left ventricular dilatation and dysfunction. Quantification of secondary MR is challenging because of the underlying myocardial disease. Clinical and echocardiographic evaluation requires a multi-parametric approach. Severe secondary MR occurs in up to one-fourth of patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, which is associated with a mortality rate of 40% to 50% in 3 years. Percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve repair (MitraClip) has emerged as an alternative to surgical valve repair to improve symptoms, functional capacity, heart failure hospitalizations, and cardiac haemodynamics...
April 19, 2018: ESC Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675571/prognostic-value-of-n-terminal-pro-b-type-natriuretic-peptide-in-takotsubo-syndrome
#10
Thomas Stiermaier, Francesco Santoro, Tobias Graf, Francesca Guastafierro, Nicola Tarantino, Luisa De Gennaro, Pasquale Caldarola, Matteo Di Biase, Holger Thiele, Natale D Brunetti, Christian Möller, Ingo Eitel
BACKGROUND: Takotsubo syndrome (TTS), a form of acute transient heart failure, has been associated with severe complications and considerable mortality rates. N-Terminal Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide (NT-proBNP) might serve as a marker to identify high-risk patients but has not yet been investigated regarding prognostic implications in TTS. Aim of this study was to determine the short- and long-term prognostic utility of NT-proBNP in patients with TTS. METHODS: The predictive value of admission NT-proBNP was assessed in an international, multicenter study including 177 consecutive TTS patients...
April 19, 2018: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674714/mechanisms-of-physiological-and-pathological-cardiac-hypertrophy
#11
REVIEW
Michinari Nakamura, Junichi Sadoshima
Cardiomyocytes exit the cell cycle and become terminally differentiated soon after birth. Therefore, in the adult heart, instead of an increase in cardiomyocyte number, individual cardiomyocytes increase in size, and the heart develops hypertrophy to reduce ventricular wall stress and maintain function and efficiency in response to an increased workload. There are two types of hypertrophy: physiological and pathological. Hypertrophy initially develops as an adaptive response to physiological and pathological stimuli, but pathological hypertrophy generally progresses to heart failure...
April 19, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674526/galectin-3-downregulates-antioxidant-peroxiredoxin-4-in-human-cardiac-fibroblasts-a-new-pathway-to-induce-cardiac-damage
#12
Jaime Ibarrola, Vanessa Arrieta, Rafael Sádaba, Ernesto Martínez-Martínez, Amaia García-Peña, Virginia Alvarez, Amaya Fernández-Celis, Alicia Gainza, Enrique Santamaría, Joaquin Fernández-Irigoyen, Victoria Cachofeiro, Guillermo Zalba, Renaud Fay, Patrick Rossignol, Natalia López-Andrés
Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is increased in heart failure (HF) and promotes cardiac fibrosis and inflammation. We investigated whether Gal-3 modulates oxidative stress in human cardiac fibroblasts, in experimental animal models and in human aortic stenosis (AS). Using proteomics and immunodetection approaches, we have identified that Gal-3 down-regulated the anti-oxidant peroxiredoxin-4 (Prx-4) in cardiac fibroblasts. In parallel, Gal-3 increased peroxide, nitrotyrosine, malondialdehyde and N-carboxymethyl-lysine levels and decreased total antioxidant capacity...
April 19, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673908/mechanism-underlying-the-contractile-activity-of-utp-in-the-mammalian-heart
#13
Ulrich Gergs, Daniel Rothkirch, Britt Hofmann, Hendrik Treede, Bernard Robaye, Andreas Simm, Christa E Müller, Joachim Neumann
We previously reported that uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP), a pyrimidine nucleoside triphosphate produced a concentration- and time-dependent increase in the contraction force in isolated right atrial preparations from patients undergoing cardiac bypass surgery due to angina pectoris. The stimulation of the force of contraction was sustained rather than transient. In the present study, we tried to elucidate the underlying receptor and signal transduction for this effect of UTP. Therefore, we measured the effect of UTP on force of contraction, phosphorylation of p38 and ERK1/2, in human atrial preparations, atrial preparations from genetically modified mice, cardiomyocytes from adult mice and cardiomyocytes from neonatal rats...
April 16, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673639/left-ventricular-diastolic-function-after-aortic-valve-replacement-for-chronic-aortic-regurgitation
#14
Wenrui Ma, Wei Zhang, Wei Shi, Ye Kong, Xinyu Ma
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to investigate the evolution of left ventricular diastolic function after aortic valve replacement (AVR) for chronic severe aortic regurgitation. METHODS: Patients (n=183) who underwent isolated AVR for severe aortic regurgitation were included in this study. Degrees of left ventricular diastolic function were designated, according to the integration of two echocardiographic parameters: left atrial volume index and average E/e' ratio...
April 16, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672210/prognostic-utility-of-stress-testing-and-cardiac-biomarkers-in-menopausal-women-at-low-to-intermediate-risk-for-coronary-artery-disease-smart-study-5-year-outcome
#15
Sahar S Abdelmoneim, Caroline A Ball, Francesca Mantovani, Mary E Hagen, Susan Eifert-Rain, Susan Wilansky, Ramon Castello, Patricia A Pellikka, Patricia J M Best, Sharon L Mulvagh
BACKGROUND: In women with low to intermediate risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), prognostic detection strategies have been controversial. We present the follow-up data of the SMART trial in peri/postmenopausal women at low to intermediate risk of CAD. OBJECTIVES: To determine the value of contrast stress echocardiography (CSE), stress electrocardiogram (sECG), and serum biomarkers for prediction of cardiovascular events (CE) in peri/postmenopausal women at low to intermediate risk of CAD...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671622/changes-in-kidney-tissue-and-effects-of-erythropoietin-after-acute-heart-failure
#16
A Güven Bağla, M Içkin Gülen, F Ercan, F Aşgün, E Ercan, C Bakar
Impairment of cardiac function causes renal damage. Renal failure after heart failure is attributed to hemodynamic derangement including reduced renal perfusion and increased venous pressure. One mechanism involves apoptosis and is defined as cardiorenal syndrome type 1. Erythropoietin (EPO) is a cytokine that induces erythropoiesis under hypoxic conditions. Hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) plays a regulatory role in cellular response to hypoxia. Protective effects of EPO on heart, kidney and nervous system are unrelated to red blood cell production...
April 19, 2018: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670765/mending-a-broken-heart-treatment-of-stress-induced-heart-failure-after-solid-organ-transplantation
#17
REVIEW
N Thao Galván, Kayla Kumm, Michael Kueht, Cindy P Ha, Dor Yoeli, Ronald T Cotton, Abbas Rana, Christine A O'Mahony, Glenn Halff, John A Goss
Stress-induced heart failure, also known as Broken Heart Syndrome or Takotsubo Syndrome, is a phenomenon characterized as rare but well described in the literature, with increasing incidence. While more commonly associated with postmenopausal women with psychiatric disorders, this entity is found in the postoperative patient. The nonischemic cardiogenic shock manifests as biventricular failure with significant decreases in ejection fraction and cardiac function. In a review of over 3000 kidney and liver transplantations over the course of 17 years within two transplant centers, we describe a series of 7 patients with Takotsubo Syndrome after solid organ transplantation...
2018: Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670531/beat-to-beat-variability-of-ventricular-action-potential-duration-oscillates-at-low-frequency-during-sympathetic-provocation-in-humans
#18
Bradley Porter, Stefan van Duijvenboden, Martin J Bishop, Michele Orini, Simon Claridge, Justin Gould, Benjamin J Sieniewicz, Baldeep Sidhu, Reza Razavi, Christopher A Rinaldi, Jaswinder S Gill, Peter Taggart
Background: The temporal pattern of ventricular repolarization is of critical importance in arrhythmogenesis. Enhanced beat-to-beat variability (BBV) of ventricular action potential duration (APD) is pro-arrhythmic and is increased during sympathetic provocation. Since sympathetic nerve activity characteristically exhibits burst patterning in the low frequency range, we hypothesized that physiologically enhanced sympathetic activity may not only increase BBV of left ventricular APD but also impose a low frequency oscillation which further increases repolarization instability in humans...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670472/seasonal-incidence-of-acute-coronary-syndrome-and-its-features
#19
Enisa Hodzic, Semir Perla, Amer Iglica, Marina Vucijak
Introduction: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is one of the most common health problems in the world and the leading cause of death. Goal: The goals of this study are to determine: ACS type, risk factors, incidence and the seasonal distribution of occurrence Spring/Summer, Autumn/Winter, ACS incidence by age and gender, and complications (post-infarction angina and heart failure) and fatal outcomes of ACS per season. Material and methodology: This study is designed as retrospective-prospective and analytical, which included 250 patients hospitalized in the Intensive Cardiac care unit of the Clinic for heart disease, blood vessels and rheumatism in the period from June 2013 to July 2014...
March 2018: Materia Socio-medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669970/prognostic-relevance-of-liver-stiffness-assessed-by-transient-elastography-in-patients-with-acute-decompensated-heart-failure
#20
Yuki Saito, Mahoto Kato, Koichi Nagashima, Koyuru Monno, Yoshihiro Aizawa, Yasuo Okumura, Naoki Matsumoto, Mitsuhiko Moriyama, Atsushi Hirayama
BACKGROUND: Acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) is often accompanied by liver congestion through increased right atrial pressure (RAP). Liver stiffness (LS) assessed non-invasively using transient elastography is related to increased RAP and liver congestion in patients with general HF. We investigated the relationship of LS with clinical and echocardiographic variables and outcomes in patients with ADHF.Methods and Results:The subjects were 105 patients with ADHF admitted to hospital between October 2016 and June 2017...
April 17, 2018: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
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