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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161113/disseminability-of-computerized-cognitive-training-performance-across-coaches
#1
Ashley S Fournier-Goodnight, Jason M Ashford, Kellie N Clark, Karen Martin-Elbahesh, Kristina K Hardy, Thomas E Merchant, Sima Jeha, Robert J Ogg, Hui Zhang, Lei Wang, Heather M Conklin
Cogmed is a computerized cognitive intervention utilizing coaches who receive standardized instruction in analyzing training indices and tailoring feedback to remotely monitor participant's performance. The goal of this study was to examine adherence, satisfaction, and efficacy of Cogmed across coaches. Survivors of pediatric brain tumors and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (N = 68) were randomized to intervention (Cogmed) or waitlist control. The intervention group was matched with one of two coaches. Cognitive assessments were completed before and after intervention, and participants and caregivers in the intervention group completed satisfaction surveys...
November 21, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160740/effects-of-regular-physical-activity-on-the-cognitive-performance-of-type-2-diabetic-patients-a-systematic-review
#2
Natalie Podolski, Klara Brixius, Hans G Predel, Christian Brinkmann
BACKGROUND: Cognitive decline has been shown to be associated with long-term type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This review analyzes the present literature to ascertain the role of regular physical activity (PA) for the functioning of the diabetic brain. METHODS: PubMed was systematically searched for relevant publications up to July 2017. RESULTS: Four cross-sectional, one longitudinal observational, and nine interventional studies with a total of ∼7000 T2DM subjects are included in this review...
November 21, 2017: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160240/remapping-cortical-modulation-for-electrocorticographic-brain-computer-interfaces-a-somatotopy-based-approach-in-individuals-with-upper-limb-paralysis
#3
Alan D Degenhart, Shivayogi V Hiremath, Ying Yang, Stephen T Foldes, Jennifer L Collinger, Michael L Boninger, Elizabeth C Tyler-Kabara, Wei Wang
OBJECTIVE: Brain-computer interface (BCI) technology aims to provide individuals with paralysis a means to restore function. Electrocorticography (ECoG) uses disc electrodes placed on either the surface of the dura or the cortex to record field potential activity. ECoG has been proposed as a viable neural recording modality for BCI systems, potentially providing stable, long-term recordings of cortical activity with high spatial and temporal resolution. Previously we have demonstrated that a subject with spinal cord injury (SCI) could control an ECoG-based BCI system with up to three degrees of freedom [Wang et al...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159914/gaba-concentration-in-sensorimotor-cortex-following-high-intensity-exercise-and-relationship-to-lactate-levels
#4
James P Coxon, Robin F H Cash, Joshua J Hendrikse, Nigel C Rogasch, Ellen Stavrinos, Chao Suo, Murat Yücel
High-intensity exercise increases the concentration of circulating lactate. Cortical uptake of blood borne lactate increases during and following exercise, however the potential relationship with changes in the concentration of neurometabolites remains unclear. While changes in neurometabolite concentration have previously been demonstrated in primary visual cortex following exercise, it remains unknown whether these changes extend to regions such as sensorimotor cortex (SM) or executive regions such as dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159706/alcoholism-detection-by-data-augmentation-and-convolutional-neural-network-with-stochastic-pooling
#5
Shui-Hua Wang, Yi-Ding Lv, Yuxiu Sui, Shuai Liu, Su-Jing Wang, Yu-Dong Zhang
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is an important brain disease. It alters the brain structure. Recently, scholars tend to use computer vision based techniques to detect AUD. We collected 235 subjects, 114 alcoholic and 121 non-alcoholic. Among the 235 image, 100 images were used as training set, and data augmentation method was used. The rest 135 images were used as test set. Further, we chose the latest powerful technique-convolutional neural network (CNN) based on convolutional layer, rectified linear unit layer, pooling layer, fully connected layer, and softmax layer...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158111/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-bdnf-determines-a-sex-difference-in-cue-conditioned-alcohol-seeking-in-rats
#6
Samuel J Hogarth, Emily J Jaehne, Maarten van den Buuse, Elvan Djouma
Alcohol use disorder is a detrimental addictive disease that develops through prolonged ethanol exposure and regular intoxication. However, the changes in the underlying neurobiology leading to alcohol addiction remain unclear. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is implicated in substance abuse disorders including alcoholism. As the vast majority of previous animal model studies have concentrated on males only, the aim of this study was to determine whether endogenous BDNF mediates alcohol seeking in a sex-specific manner...
November 17, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157904/anti-fatigue-activity-of-an-arabinan-rich-pectin-from-acerola-malpighia-emarginata
#7
Rafael Roberto Klosterhoff, Luiz K S Kanazawa, Ana L D M Furlanetto, Joao V C Peixoto, Claudia R Corso, Eliana R Adami, Marcello Iacomini, Rosalvo T H Fogaça, Alexandra Acco, Silvia M S C Cadena, Roberto Andreatini, Lucimara M C Cordeiro
A fraction composed of an arabinan-rich pectin was extracted from acerola fruit (Malpighia emarginata) and named ACWS. This fraction presented 93% of total carbohydrate, relative molecular weight of 7.5×10(4)g/mol, galacturonic acid, arabinose, galactose, xylose and rhamnose in 52.1:32.4:7.2:4.8:3.5 molar ratio and had its structure confirmed by NMR analysis. The anti-fatigue activity of ACWS was evaluated using the weight load swim test on trained mice. ACWS was orally administered at doses of 50mg/kg, 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg for 28 days...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157218/brain-medical-image-diagnosis-based-on-corners-with-importance-values
#8
Linlin Gao, Haiwei Pan, Qing Li, Xiaoqin Xie, Zhiqiang Zhang, Jinming Han, Xiao Zhai
BACKGROUND: Brain disorders are one of the top causes of human death. Generally, neurologists analyze brain medical images for diagnosis. In the image analysis field, corners are one of the most important features, which makes corner detection and matching studies essential. However, existing corner detection studies do not consider the domain information of brain. This leads to many useless corners and the loss of significant information. Regarding corner matching, the uncertainty and structure of brain are not employed in existing methods...
November 21, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157195/management-of-transient-ischemic-attacks-diagnosed-by-early-career-general-practitioners-a-cross-sectional-study
#9
Andrew R Davey, Daniel S Lasserson, Christopher R Levi, Amanda Tapley, Simon Morgan, Kim Henderson, Elizabeth G Holliday, Jean Ball, Mieke L van Driel, Lawrie McArthur, Neil A Spike, Parker J Magin
Background Transient ischemic attack incurs a risk of recurrent stroke that can be dramatically reduced by urgent guideline-recommended management at the point of first medical contact. Aims This study describes the prevalence and associations of new transient ischemic attack presentations to general practice registrars and the management undertaken. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of the Registrar Clinical Encounters in Training cohort study. General practice registrars from five Australian states (urban to very remote practices) collected data on 60 consecutive patient encounters during each of their three six-month training terms...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156419/segmentation-of-the-hippocampus-by-transferring-algorithmic-knowledge-for-large-cohort-processing
#10
Benjamin Thyreau, Kazunori Sato, Hiroshi Fukuda, Yasuyuki Taki
The hippocampus is a particularly interesting target for neuroscience research studies due to its essential role within the human brain. In large human cohort studies, bilateral hippocampal structures are frequently identified and measured to gain insight into human behaviour or genomic variability in neuropsychiatric disorders of interest. Automatic segmentation is performed using various algorithms, with FreeSurfer being a popular option. In this manuscript, we present a method to segment the bilateral hippocampus using a deep-learned appearance model...
November 10, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155768/slice-patch-clamp-technique-for-analyzing-learning-induced-plasticity
#11
Hiroyuki Kida, Yuya Sakimoto, Dai Mitsushima
The slice patch clamp technique is a powerful tool for investigating learning-induced neural plasticity in specific brain regions. To analyze motor-learning induced plasticity, we trained rats using an accelerated rotor rod task. Rats performed the task 10 times at 30-s intervals for 1 or 2 days. Performance was significantly improved on the training days compared to the first trial. We then prepared acute brain slices of the primary motor cortex (M1) in untrained and trained rats. Current-clamp analysis showed dynamic changes in resting membrane potential, spike threshold, afterhyperpolarization, and membrane resistance in layer II/III pyramidal neurons...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155095/behavioral-and-neural-mechanisms-by-which-prior-experience-impacts-subsequent-learning
#12
Ryan G Parsons
Memory is often thought about in terms of its ability to recollect and store information about the past, but its function likely rests with the fact that it permits adaptation to ongoing and future experience. Thus, the brain circuitry that encodes memory must act as if stored information is likely to be modified by subsequent experience. Considerable progress has been made in identifying the behavioral and neural mechanisms supporting the acquisition and consolidation of memories, but this knowledge comes largely from studies in laboratory animals in which the training experience is presented in isolation from prior experimentally-controlled events...
November 16, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154858/visuospatial-function-predicts-one-week-motor-skill-retention-in-cognitively-intact-older-adults
#13
Jennapher Lingo VanGilder, Caitlin R Hengge, Kevin Duff, Sydney Y Schaefer
Motor learning declines with aging, such that older adults retain less motor skill after practice compared to younger adults. However, it remains unclear if these motor learning declines are related to normal cognitive changes associated with aging. The purpose of this study was to examine which cognitive domains would best predict the amount of retention on a motor task one week after training in cognitively intact older adults. Twenty-one adults ages 65-84 years old were assessed with Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status, which assesses five cognitive domains (immediate and delayed memory, visuospatial/constructional, language, and attention)...
November 14, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154696/applied-machine-learning-method-to-predict-children-with-adhd-using-prefrontal-cortex-activity-a-multicenter-study-in-japan
#14
Akira Yasumura, Mikimasa Omori, Ayako Fukuda, Junichi Takahashi, Yukiko Yasumura, Eiji Nakagawa, Toshihide Koike, Yushiro Yamashita, Tasuku Miyajima, Tatsuya Koeda, Masao Aihara, Hisateru Tachimori, Masumi Inagaki
OBJECTIVE: To establish valid, objective biomarkers for ADHD using machine learning. METHOD: Machine learning was used to predict disorder severity from new brain function data, using a support vector machine (SVM). A multicenter approach was used to collect data for machine learning training, including behavioral and physiological indicators, age, and reverse Stroop task (RST) data from 108 children with ADHD and 108 typically developing (TD) children. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to quantify change in prefrontal cortex oxygenated hemoglobin during RST...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154367/effects-of-amphetamine-on-sensorimotor-gating-and-neurocognition-in-antipsychotic-medicated-schizophrenia-patients
#15
Neal R Swerdlow, Savita G Bhakta, Jo A Talledo, Daniel M Franz, Erica L Hughes, Brinda K Rana, Gregory A Light
Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle is being explored both as an indicator of target engagement for, and a biomarker predicting sensitivity to, pro-cognitive effects of drugs. We now report the effects of the pro-attentional drug, d-amphetamine, on PPI and neurocognition in antipsychotic-medicated schizophrenia patients and healthy subjects (HS) who were also tested in a targeted cognitive training (TCT) module. 44 HS and 38 schizophrenia patients completed a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study of the effects of a single dose of amphetamine (10 mg po) on PPI and MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) performance; TCT results were previously reported from 60 of these subjects...
November 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150299/a-new-analytical-model-for-the-changes-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-in-ischemic-diseases
#16
Feng Qiu, Hui Cao, Yue Wu
Vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) play an important role in ischemic diseases. However, few studies focused on the generation and decay process of VEGF and no model yet can quantify different VEGF behavior caused in different area, like heart or brain. We compare the results across different groups and quantify the effectiveness of the selected training protocols. By applying the model to experimental data, the analytical model has been proposed to simulate the changes of vascular endothelial growth factor as a function of time and training protocols in ischemic diseases...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150296/structural-mri-based-measures-of-neuroplasticity-in-an-extended-amygdala-network-as-a-target-for-attention-bias-modification-treatment-outcome
#17
Jacob Aday, Joshua M Carlson
Increased attentional bias to threat has been identified as a causal mechanism in the development of anxiety. As such, attention bias modification (ABM) was conceived as a treatment option where anxiety is alleviated through a computerized cognitive training regimen that reduces an individual's attentional bias to threat. Although ABM appears to be a promising treatment option for anxiety, the mechanism of action by which the treatment is effective is unknown. We hypothesize that effective ABM treatment is associated with neuroplasticity-related structural changes in an extended amygdala - prefrontal cortex network that can be detected with standard T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149948/knowledge-and-attitudes-toward-organ-donation-in-health-care-undergraduate-students-in-italy
#18
F Fontana, M Massari, L Giovannini, G Alfano, G Cappelli
INTRODUCTION: The number of organ donors in Italy is increasing, but with still disappointing living donation activity and relatively frequent objection by potential deceased donors' relatives to organ recovery. Few studies have assessed health care students' knowledge and attitude on donation. METHODS: We administered a questionnaire to medical (MS) and nursing students (NS) at University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy, and 749 students (406 MS and 343 NS) completed the questionnaire...
November 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148137/brain-computer-interfaces-with-multi-sensory-feedback-for-stroke-rehabilitation-a-case-study
#19
Danut C Irimia, Woosang Cho, Rupert Ortner, Brendan Z Allison, Bogdan E Ignat, Guenter Edlinger, Christoph Guger
Conventional therapies do not provide paralyzed patients with closed-loop sensorimotor integration for motor rehabilitation. This work presents the recoveriX system, a hardware and software platform that combines a motor imagery (MI)-based brain-computer interface (BCI), functional electrical stimulation (FES), and visual feedback technologies for a complete sensorimotor closed-loop therapy system for poststroke rehabilitation. The proposed system was tested on two chronic stroke patients in a clinical environment...
November 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147661/an-eeg-tool-for-monitoring-patient-engagement-during-stroke-rehabilitation-a-feasibility-study
#20
Gadi Bartur, Katherin Joubran, Sara Peleg-Shani, Jean-Jacques Vatine, Goded Shahaf
Objective: Patient engagement is of major significance in neural rehabilitation. We developed a real-time EEG marker for attention, the Brain Engagement Index (BEI). In this work we investigate the relation between the BEI and temporary functional change during a rehabilitation session. Methods: First part: 13 unimpaired controls underwent BEI monitoring during motor exercise of varying levels of difficulty. Second part: 18 subacute stroke patients underwent standard motor rehabilitation with and without use of real-time BEI feedback regarding their level of engagement...
2017: BioMed Research International
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