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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344096/dissociable-effects-of-systemic-and-orbitofrontal-administration-of-adrenoceptor-antagonists-on-yohimbine-induced-motor-impulsivity
#1
Wendy K Adams, Michael M Barrus, Fiona D Zeeb, Paul J Cocker, James Benoit, Catharine A Winstanley
The α2-adrenoceptor antagonist, yohimbine, is commonly used as a pharmacological stressor. Its behavioural effects are typically attributed to elevated noradrenaline release via blockade of central, inhibitory autoreceptors. We have previously reported that yohimbine increases motor impulsivity in rats on the five-choice serial reaction time task (5CSRTT), a cognitive behavioural assessment which measures motor impulsivity and visuospatial attention. Furthermore, this effect depended on cyclic adenomonophosphate (cAMP) signalling via cAMP response element binding (CREB) protein in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)...
March 23, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343558/simulator-based-obstetric-ultrasound-training-a-prospective-randomized-single-blinded-study
#2
Hadar Rosen, Rory Windrim, Yee Man Lee, Lara Gotha, Vsevolod Perelman, Stefania Ronzoni
OBJECTIVE: To compare the use of simulator-based and patient-based obstetric ultrasound training. METHODS: This was a prospective, randomized, single-blinded trial. Eighteen consenting obstetric trainees with minimal previous ultrasound exposure were recruited. Enrolled patients were also fully consenting. Mid-trimester fetal brain anatomy in the standard planes (i.e., biparietal diameter and head circumference, cavum septum pellucidum, posterior fossa, and lateral ventricle) was chosen as a surrogate for all fetal anatomy ultrasound training...
March 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343333/use-of-phase-locking-value-in-sensorimotor-rhythm-based-brain-computer-interface-zero-phase-coupling-and-effects-of-spatial-filters
#3
Wenjuan Jian, Minyou Chen, Dennis J McFarland
Phase-locking value (PLV) is a potentially useful feature in sensorimotor rhythm-based brain-computer interface (BCI). However, volume conduction may cause spurious zero-phase coupling between two EEG signals and it is not clear whether PLV effects are independent of spectral amplitude. Volume conduction might be reduced by spatial filtering, but it is uncertain what impact this might have on PLV. Therefore, the goal of this study was to explore whether zero-phase PLV is meaningful and how it is affected by spatial filtering...
March 25, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343000/evidence-for-similar-patterns-of-neural-activity-elicted-by-picture-and-word-based-representations-of-natural-scenes
#4
Manoj Kumar, Kara D Federmeier, Li Fei-Fei, Diane M Beck
A long-standing core question in cognitive science is whether different modalities and representation types (pictures, words, sounds, etc.) access a common store of semantic information. Although different input types have been shown to activate a shared network of brain regions, this does not necessitate that there is a common representation, as the neurons in these regions could still differentially process the different modalities. However, multi-voxel pattern analysis can be used to assess whether, e.g...
March 22, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342259/age-related-impairments-in-discriminating-perceptually-similar-objects-parallel-those-observed-in-humans
#5
Sarah A Johnson, Sean M Turner, Lindsay A Santacroce, Katelyn N Carty, Leila Shafiq, Jennifer L Bizon, Andrew P Maurer, Sara N Burke
The ability to accurately remember distinct episodes is supported by high-level sensory discrimination. Performance on mnemonic similarity tasks, which test high-level discrimination, declines with advancing age in humans and these deficits have been linked to altered activity in hippocampal CA3 and dentate gyrus. Lesion studies in animal models, however, point to the perirhinal cortex as a brain region critical for sensory discriminations that serve memory. Reconciliation of the contributions of different regions within the cortical-hippocampal circuit requires the development of a discrimination paradigm comparable to the human mnemonic similarity task that can be used in rodents...
March 25, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339593/selective-pharmacological-augmentation-of-hippocampal-activity-produces-a-sustained-antidepressant-like-response-without-abuse-related-or-psychotomimetic-effects
#6
Flavia R Carreno, Gregory T Collins, Alan Frazer, Daniel J Lodge
Background: Selective augmentation of hippocampal activity in ways similar to that caused by ketamine may have therapeutic advantages over ketamine, which has psychotomimetic and reinforcing effects likely due to effects outside the hippocampus (i.e., off-target effects). Methods: Here we evaluated the antidepressant-like response to a negative allosteric modulator of α5 subunit- containing gamma aminobutyric acid subtype A receptors, L-655,708, as these receptors are expressed to a much greater extent in the hippocampus than in other brain areas...
January 25, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339575/histaminergic-neurotransmission-as-a-gateway-for-the-cognitive-effect-of-oleoylethanolamide-in-contextual-fear-conditioning
#7
Gustavo Provensi, Roberta Fabbri, Leonardo Munari, Alessia Costa, Elisabetta Baldi, Corrado Bucherelli, Patrizio Blandina, Maria Beatrice Passani
Background: The integrity of the brain histaminergic system is necessary for the unfolding of homeostatic and cognitive processes through the recruitment of alternative circuits with distinct temporal patterns. We recently demonstrated that the fat-sensing lipid mediator oleoylethanolamide indirectly activates histaminergic neurons to exerts its hypophagic effects. The present experiments investigated whether histaminergic neurotransmission is necessary also for the modulation of emotional memory induced by oleoylethanolamide in a contextual fear conditioning paradigm...
January 19, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339428/does-conservative-treatment-change-the-brain-in-patients-with-chronic-musculoskeletal-pain-a-systematic-review
#8
Jeroen Kregel, Iris Coppieters, Robby DePauw, Anneleen Malfliet, Lieven Danneels, Jo Nijs, Barbara Cagnie, Mira Meeus
BACKGROUND: Chronic musculoskeletal pain is characterized by maladaptive central neuroplastic changes. Many observational studies have demonstrated that chronic pain states are associated with brain alterations regarding structure and/or function. Rehabilitation of patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain may include cognitive, exercise, or multimodal therapies. OBJECTIVE: The current review aims to provide a constructive overview of the existing literature reporting neural correlates, based on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, following conservative treatment in chronic musculoskeletal pain patients...
March 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338578/spinal-cord-is-the-primary-site-of-action-for-skeletal-muscle-relaxation-by-sevoflurane
#9
Peng Zhang, Pingliang Yang, Ling Ye, Tao Zhu
STUDY DESIGN: A randomized, in vivo study was performed to explore the skeletal muscle relaxation action site of sevoflurane. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the skeletal muscle relaxation action of sevoflurane by a modified selective anesthetics delivery rabbit model. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The action site and mechanisms of skeletal muscle relaxation caused by sevoflurane was unclear. So a modified selective anesthetics delivery model was used...
March 23, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338438/learning-brain-aneurysm-microsurgical-skills-in-a-human-placenta-model-predictive-validity
#10
Marcelo Magaldi Ribeiro de Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo Ferrarez, Taise Mosso Ramos, Jose Augusto Malheiros, Arthur Nicolato, Carla Jorge Machado, Mauro Tostes Ferreira, Fellype Borges de Oliveira, Cecília Félix Penido Mendes de Sousa, Pollyana Helena Vieira Costa, Sebastiao Gusmao, Giuseppe Lanzino, Rolando Del Maestro
OBJECTIVE Surgery for brain aneurysms is technically demanding. In recent years, the process to learn the technical skills necessary for these challenging procedures has been affected by a decrease in the number of surgical cases available and progressive restrictions on resident training hours. To overcome these limitations, surgical simulators such as cadaver heads and human placenta models have been developed. However, the effectiveness of these models in improving technical skills is unknown. This study assessed concurrent and predictive validity of brain aneurysm surgery simulation in a human placenta model compared with a "live" human brain cadaveric model...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336444/tool-tissue-interaction-forces-in-brain-arteriovenous-malformation-surgery
#11
Taku Sugiyama, Liu Shi Gan, Kourosh Zareinia, Sanju Lama, Garnette R Sutherland
OBJECTIVE: Surgical resection of a brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM) poses a technical challenge due to the fragility and number of small feeding and draining vessels around the nidus. Acquiring knowledge of optimal force applied to such tissue is important in surgical performance and education. METHODS: A force sensing bipolar forceps was developed through installation of strain gauge sensors, and force profiles were obtained from two AVM surgeries. The force data associated with vessel injury, unsuccessful trial, was compared with that from successful trials...
March 20, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336296/serotonin-and-dopamine-transporter-pet-changes-in-the-premotor-phase-of-lrrk2-parkinsonism-cross-sectional-studies
#12
Daryl J Wile, Pankaj A Agarwal, Michael Schulzer, Edwin Mak, Katherine Dinelle, Elham Shahinfard, Nasim Vafai, Kazuko Hasegawa, Jing Zhang, Jessamyn McKenzie, Nicole Neilson, Audrey Strongosky, Ryan J Uitti, Mark Guttman, Cyrus P Zabetian, Yu-Shin Ding, Mike Adam, Jan Aasly, Zbigniew K Wszolek, Matthew Farrer, Vesna Sossi, A Jon Stoessl
BACKGROUND: People with Parkinson's disease can show premotor neurochemical changes in the dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic systems. Using PET, we assessed whether dopaminergic and serotonin transporter changes are similar in LRRK2 mutation carriers with Parkinson's disease and individuals with sporadic Parkinson's disease, and whether LRRK2 mutation carriers without motor symptoms show PET changes. METHODS: We did two cross-sectional PET studies at the Pacific Parkinson's Research Centre in Vancouver, BC, Canada...
March 20, 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334675/exercise-increases-serum-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#13
A Kerling, M Kück, U Tegtbur, L Grams, S Weber-Spickschen, A Hanke, B Stubbs, K G Kahl
BACKGROUND: Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). Existing data on exercise treatment in people with MDD are inconsistent concerning the effect of exercise on BDNF pointing either to increased or unaltered BDNF concentrations. However, studies in non-depressed persons demonstrated a significant effect on resting peripheral BDNF concentrations in aerobic training interventions. Given the lack of clarity mentioned above, the current study aimed at examining the effect of adjunctive exercise on serum BDNF levels in guideline based treated patients with MDD...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334401/vocal-tract-images-reveal-neural-representations-of-sensorimotor-transformation-during-speech-imitation
#14
Daniel Carey, Marc E Miquel, Bronwen G Evans, Patti Adank, Carolyn McGettigan
Imitating speech necessitates the transformation from sensory targets to vocal tract motor output, yet little is known about the representational basis of this process in the human brain. Here, we address this question by using real-time MR imaging (rtMRI) of the vocal tract and functional MRI (fMRI) of the brain in a speech imitation paradigm. Participants trained on imitating a native vowel and a similar nonnative vowel that required lip rounding. Later, participants imitated these vowels and an untrained vowel pair during separate fMRI and rtMRI runs...
March 18, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334110/long-time-no-see-enduring-behavioral-and-neuronal-changes-in-perceptual-learning-of-motion-trajectories-3-years-after-training
#15
Sebastian M Frank, Mark W Greenlee, Peter U Tse
Here, we report on the long-term stability of changes in behavior and brain activity following perceptual learning of conjunctions of simple motion features. Participants were trained for 3 weeks on a visual search task involving the detection of a dot moving in a "v"-shaped target trajectory among inverted "v"-shaped distractor trajectories. The first and last training sessions were carried out during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Learning stability was again examined behaviorally and using fMRI 3 years after the end of training...
February 23, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334082/decoding-grasping-movements-from-the-parieto-frontal-reaching-circuit-in-the-nonhuman-primate
#16
Koen Nelissen, Prosper Agbesi Fiave, Wim Vanduffel
Prehension movements typically include a reaching phase, guiding the hand toward the object, and a grip phase, shaping the hand around it. The dominant view posits that these components rely upon largely independent parieto-frontal circuits: a dorso-medial circuit involved in reaching and a dorso-lateral circuit involved in grasping. However, mounting evidence suggests a more complex arrangement, with dorso-medial areas contributing to both reaching and grasping. To investigate the role of the dorso-medial reaching circuit in grasping, we trained monkeys to reach-and-grasp different objects in the dark and determined if hand configurations could be decoded from functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) responses obtained from the reaching and grasping circuits...
February 18, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332115/periodized-nutrition-for-athletes
#17
REVIEW
Asker E Jeukendrup
It is becoming increasingly clear that adaptations, initiated by exercise, can be amplified or reduced by nutrition. Various methods have been discussed to optimize training adaptations and some of these methods have been subject to extensive study. To date, most methods have focused on skeletal muscle, but it is important to note that training effects also include adaptations in other tissues (e.g., brain, vasculature), improvements in the absorptive capacity of the intestine, increases in tolerance to dehydration, and other effects that have received less attention in the literature...
March 22, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331022/effect-of-non-pharmacological-intervention-for-apathy-response-to-one-on-one-reminiscence-based-intervention
#18
Akira Okada, Tetsuya Ueda
Apathy has adverse consequences for patients and caregivers. However, the therapeutic approach remains uncertain. Here, we present the case of a man aged 67 years who only developed apathy after surgery for oesophageal cancer. He showed no response to intervention with donepezil, a 'brain training' video game and psychoeducation for apathy. Subsequently, we implemented a programme designed to facilitate recall of 2 themes (editorial content and television shows during the week) once a week. After 3 months, the scores of 2 apathy scales rated by the patient's wife, psychological test scores and brain perfusion single-photon emission CT data improved compared with those obtained before intervention...
March 22, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330743/temporal-dynamics-of-immediate-early-gene-expression-during-cellular-consolidation-of-spatial-memory
#19
Daniel N Barry, Sean Commins
The consolidation of newly acquired memories on a cellular level is thought to take place in the first few hours following learning. This process is dependent on de novo protein synthesis during this time, which ultimately leads to long-term structural and functional neuronal changes and the stabilisation of a memory trace. Immediate early genes (IEGs) are rapidly expressed in neurons following learning, and previous research has suggested more than one wave of IEG expression facilitates consolidation in the hours following learning...
March 19, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329757/neural-ensemble-dynamics-underlying-a-long-term-associative-memory
#20
Benjamin F Grewe, Jan Gründemann, Lacey J Kitch, Jerome A Lecoq, Jones G Parker, Jesse D Marshall, Margaret C Larkin, Pablo E Jercog, Francois Grenier, Jin Zhong Li, Andreas Lüthi, Mark J Schnitzer
The brain's ability to associate different stimuli is vital for long-term memory, but how neural ensembles encode associative memories is unknown. Here we studied how cell ensembles in the basal and lateral amygdala encode associations between conditioned and unconditioned stimuli (CS and US, respectively). Using a miniature fluorescence microscope, we tracked the Ca(2+) dynamics of ensembles of amygdalar neurons during fear learning and extinction over 6 days in behaving mice. Fear conditioning induced both up- and down-regulation of individual cells' CS-evoked responses...
March 22, 2017: Nature
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