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Brain training

Taro Tezuka
A spike train kernel provides an effective way of decoding information represented by a spike train. Some spike train kernels have been extended to multineuron spike trains, which are simultaneously recorded spike trains obtained from multiple neurons. However, most of these multineuron extensions were carried out in a kernel-specific manner. In this paper, a general framework is proposed for extending any single-neuron spike train kernel to multineuron spike trains, based on the R-convolution kernel. Special subclasses of the proposed R-convolution linear combination kernel are explored...
March 6, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
Lieselot Decroix, Cajsa Tonoli, Elodie Lespagnol, Constantino Balestra, Amandine Descat, Marie Jose Drittij-Reijnders, Jamie R Blackwell, Wilhelm Stahl, Andrew M Jones, Antje R Weseler, Aalt Bast, Romain Meeusen, Elsa Heyman
INTRODUCTION: During exercise in hypoxia, O2 delivery to brain and muscle is compromised and oxidative stress is elicited. Cocoa flavanols (CF) have antioxidant capacities and can increase blood flow by stimulating endothelial function. We aimed to examine the effects of 7-day CF intake on oxidative stress, nitric oxide production and tissue oxygenation in response to exercise in hypoxia (14.3% O2 ). METHODS: In a randomized, double blind, cross-over study, 14 well-trained male cyclists completed 4 trials: exercise in normoxia or hypoxia, after 7-day CF or placebo intake...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
B M Fitzgibbon, K E Hoy, L A Knox, E K Guymer, G Littlejohn, D Elliot, L E Wambeek, S McQueen, K A Elford, S J Lee, P G Enticott, P B Fitzgerald
BACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia is a complex chronic disorder with few effective treatments currently available. One promising treatment option is repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS), a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that has shown promise in disorders effecting the central nervous system. METHODS: We assessed the efficacy of a course of high-frequency (10Hz) left-hemisphere dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) rTMS in 26 patients (14 active; 12 sham) with a diagnosis of fibromyalgia...
March 15, 2018: European Journal of Pain: EJP
Stefan Elmer, Lutz Jäncke
Numerous studies have documented the behavioral advantages conferred on professional musicians and children undergoing music training in processing speech sounds varying in the spectral and temporal dimensions. These beneficial effects have previously often been associated with local functional and structural changes in the auditory cortex (AC). However, this perspective is oversimplified, in that it does not take into account the intrinsic organization of the human brain, namely, neural networks and oscillatory dynamics...
March 15, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Laura Bon, Nicolas Franck
Context: cognitive remediation involves either intensive training of impaired functions or implementing strategies to compensate for these impairments. In cases of schizophrenia, both methods have demonstrated benefits in terms of behavior and cerebral activity. However, despite the major differences between these two approaches, their impact has not yet been compared. Method: We searched the PsychInfo, Pubmed, and ScienceDirect databases using the key words "cognitive remediation," "schizophrenia," "cerebral activity," and "magnetic resonance imaging," in order to select studies investigating the effects of cognitive remediation on patients with schizophrenia...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
Jacob C Easaw, Susan McCall, Adrian Azim
Stable cancer patients diagnosed with a pulmonary embolus or deep vein thrombosis are commonly referred to the emergency department for management. This practice strains an already overburdened emergency department and is associated with long wait times and poor disease/injection education for patients. This pilot study sought to determine if stable cancer patients with newly diagnosed cancer-associated thrombosis could be effectively managed by community-based pharmacists who followed an evidence-based protocol to prescribe and initiate low-molecular weight heparin therapy...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
Zhizhou Deng, Bharath Chandrasekaran, Suiping Wang, Patrick C M Wong
In second language acquisition studies, the high talker variability training approach has been frequently used to train participants to learn new speech patterns. However, the neuroplasticity induced by training is poorly understood. In the present study, native English speakers were trained on non-native pitch patterns (linguistic tones from Mandarin Chinese) in multi-talker (N = 16) or single-talker (N = 16) training conditions. We focused on two aspects of multi-talker training, voice processing and lexical phonology accessing, and used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure brain activation and functional connectivity (FC) of two regions of interest in a tone identification task conducted before and after training, namely the anterior part of the right superior temporal gyrus (aRSTG) and the posterior left superior temporal gyrus (pLSTG)...
March 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Yogev Koren, Yoav Raanan, Yisrael Parmet, Simona Bar-Haim
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Walking is a complex human behavior, usually performed in a dynamic environment. Gait parameters are thought to reflect this complexity. Re-StepTM is a therapy system in the form of a computerized shoe, originally developed for the training and rehabilitation of individuals with brain damage. This system may be used as model for studying the complexity that underlies gait. As the first step, we present here the feasibility of the model, after establishing the validity and reliability of stride time and stride-time variability, observed in healthy adults...
March 13, 2018: Physiological Measurement
Damian Jacob Sendler
INTRODUCTION: Erotic asphyxiation is a sexual phenomenon in which one partner reduces the other person's brain oxygen level through strangulation. This study analyzes deaths caused by sexually-motivated strangulation to cases of homicidal choking - summarizing criminal penalties for defendants, depending on the presence of drugs, or alcohol intoxication. METHODS: The mode of analysis involves three sources of data. First, a retrospective chart review of our clinics' two recent cases...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Sara Abolahrari-Shirazi, Javad Kojuri, Zahra Bagheri, Zahra Rojhani-Shirazi
Background: This study aimed to compare the effects of combined endurance-resistance training (CT) versus endurance training (ET) on some cardiovascular markers in patients with heart failure after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Materials and Methods: The study applied a randomized, controlled design in which 75 patients with heart failure who had undergone PCI were randomly assigned to one of three groups: ET, CT, and control. The ET group performed ET for 45 min, three times a week for 7 weeks...
2018: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
Christophe Gardella, Olivier Marre, Thierry Mora
The brain has no direct access to physical stimuli but only to the spiking activity evoked in sensory organs. It is unclear how the brain can learn representations of the stimuli based on those noisy, correlated responses alone. Here we show how to build an accurate distance map of responses solely from the structure of the population activity of retinal ganglion cells. We introduce the Temporal Restricted Boltzmann Machine to learn the spatiotemporal structure of the population activity and use this model to define a distance between spike trains...
March 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Farhana Sakloth, S Stevens Negus
Pharmacotherapy to treat stimulant use disorders continues to be an unmet medical need. Some evidence supports both the role of opioids in mediating abuse-related amphetamine effects and the potential utility of opioid antagonists as therapeutic candidates for treating amphetamine abuse. This study used intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) to evaluate effects of exposure to and termination of naltrexone maintenance on rewarding amphetamine effects in an ICSS procedure in rats. Morphine and cocaine were included as positive and negative controls, respectively...
March 12, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
R Guerrero, C Qin, O Oktay, C Bowles, L Chen, R Joules, R Wolz, M C Valdés-Hernández, D A Dickie, J Wardlaw, D Rueckert
White matter hyperintensities (WMH) are a feature of sporadic small vessel disease also frequently observed in magnetic resonance images (MRI) of healthy elderly subjects. The accurate assessment of WMH burden is of crucial importance for epidemiological studies to determine association between WMHs, cognitive and clinical data; their causes, and the effects of new treatments in randomized trials. The manual delineation of WMHs is a very tedious, costly and time consuming process, that needs to be carried out by an expert annotator (e...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Thibault Verhoeven, Ana Coito, Gijs Plomp, Aljoscha Thomschewski, Francesca Pittau, Eugen Trinka, Roland Wiest, Karl Schaller, Christoph Michel, Margitta Seeck, Joni Dambre, Serge Vulliemoz, Pieter van Mierlo
Objective: To diagnose and lateralise temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) by building a classification system that uses directed functional connectivity patterns estimated during EEG periods without visible pathological activity. Methods: Resting-state high-density EEG recording data from 20 left TLE patients, 20 right TLE patients and 35 healthy controls was used. Epochs without interictal spikes were selected. The cortical source activity was obtained for 82 regions of interest and whole-brain directed functional connectivity was estimated in the theta, alpha and beta frequency bands...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Alessandro Picelli, Elena Chemello, Paola Castellazzi, Mirko Filippetti, Annalisa Brugnera, Marialuisa Gandolfi, Andreas Waldner, Leopold Saltuari, Nicola Smania
BACKGROUND: Preliminary evidence showed additional effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation over the damaged cerebral hemisphere combined with cathodal transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation during robot-assisted gait training in chronic stroke patients. This is consistent with the neural organization of locomotion involving cortical and spinal control. The cerebellum is crucial for locomotor control, in particular for avoidance of obstacles, and adaptation to novel conditions during walking...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Nuria Mendoza Laiz, Sagrario Del Valle Díaz, Natalia Rioja Collado, Javier Gomez-Pilar, Roberto Hornero
BACKGROUND: Dementia is a disease that is constantly evolving in older people. Its diverse symptoms appear with varying degrees of severity affecting the daily life of those who suffer from it. The rate in which dementia progresses depends on different aspects of the treatment, chosen to try to control and slow down the development of the illness. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of cognitive training through a Brain Computer Interface (BCI) and the NeuronUp platform in two age groups whose MMSE is between 18-23 MCI (mild dementia)...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Synthia Guimond, Shezal Padani, Olivia Lutz, Shaun Eack, Heidi Thermenos, Matcheri Keshavan
Schizophrenia (SZ) patients exhibit deficits in emotion regulation that affect their daily functioning. There is evidence that the prefrontal cortex plays an important role in emotion regulation. However, it remains unclear how this brain region is involved in emotion regulation deficits in SZ, and how such deficits impact performance on cognitively demanding tasks. We examined how happy and fearful emotional distractors impact performance on working memory (WM) tasks of varying difficulty (0-back, 2-back), and brain activity using fMRI...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Jesús Cespón, Carlo Miniussi, Maria Concetta Pellicciari
A growing body of evidence suggests that healthy elderly individuals and patients with Alzheimer's disease retain an important potential for neuroplasticity. This review summarizes studies investigating the modulation of neural activity and structural brain integrity in response to interventions involving cognitive training, physical exercise and non-invasive brain stimulation in healthy elderly and cognitively impaired subjects (including patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease)...
March 6, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Rasoul Rezaee, Sanaz Nasoohi, Abbas Haghparast, Fariba Khodagholi, Mohammadreza Bigdeli, Maryam Nourshahi
AIMS: Different modes of physical activity provide cerebrovascular protection against thromboembolic events. Based on recent reports high intensity exercise protocols appear to raise cerebral VEGF levels leading to efficient cerebral angiogenesis. The present study aims to address if moderate continuous training (MCT) and high intensity interval training (HIT) differ in preconditioning against ischemic stroke. METHODS: Wistar rats were subjected to HIT or MCT for 8 weeks before transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) surgery...
March 6, 2018: Life Sciences
Xiaofeng Xie, Zhu Liang Yu, Zhenghui Gu, Jun Zhang, Ling Cen, Yuanqing Li
In off-line training of motor imagery-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs), to enhance the generalization performance of the learned classifier, the local information contained in test data could be used to improve the performance of motor imagery as well. Further considering that the covariance matrices of electroencephalogram (EEG) signal lie on Riemannian manifold, in this paper, we construct a Riemannian graph to incorporate the information of training and test data into processing. The adjacency and weight in Riemannian graph are determined by the geodesic distance of Riemannian manifold...
March 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
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