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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211824/impact-of-the-brain-injury-family-intervention-bifi-training-on-rehabilitation-providers-a-mixed-methods-study
#1
Cara Meixner, Cynthia R O'Donoghue, Vesna Hart
BACKGROUND: The psychological impact of TBI is vast, leading to adverse effects on survivors and their caregivers. Unhealthy family functioning may be mitigated by therapeutic strategies, particularly interdisciplinary family systems approaches like the well-documented Brain Injury Family Intervention (BIFI). Little is known about the experience of providers who offer such interventions. OBJECTIVE: This mixed method study aims to demonstrate that a structured three-day training on the BIFI protocol improves providers' knowledge and confidence in working with survivors and families, and that this outcome is sustainable...
February 15, 2017: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210983/multi-view-ensemble-classification-of-brain-connectivity-images-for-neurodegeneration-type-discrimination
#2
Michele Fratello, Giuseppina Caiazzo, Francesca Trojsi, Antonio Russo, Gioacchino Tedeschi, Roberto Tagliaferri, Fabrizio Esposito
Brain connectivity analyses using voxels as features are not robust enough for single-patient classification because of the inter-subject anatomical and functional variability. To construct more robust features, voxels can be aggregated into clusters that are maximally coherent across subjects. Moreover, combining multi-modal neuroimaging and multi-view data integration techniques allows generating multiple independent connectivity features for the same patient. Structural and functional connectivity features were extracted from multi-modal MRI images with a clustering technique, and used for the multi-view classification of different phenotypes of neurodegeneration by an ensemble learning method (random forest)...
February 16, 2017: Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210220/mri-based-classification-models-in-prediction-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia-in-late-life-depression
#3
Aleksandra K Lebedeva, Eric Westman, Tom Borza, Mona K Beyer, Knut Engedal, Dag Aarsland, Geir Selbaek, Asta K Haberg
Objective: Late-life depression (LLD) is associated with development of different types of dementia. Identification of LLD patients, who will develop cognitive decline, i.e., the early stage of dementia would help to implement interventions earlier. The purpose of this study was to assess whether structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in LLD patients can predict mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia 1 year prior to the diagnosis. Methods: LLD patients underwent brain MRI at baseline and repeated clinical assessment after 1-year...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210218/phasic-firing-and-coincidence-detection-by-subthreshold-negative-feedback-divisive-or-subtractive-or-better-both
#4
Gemma Huguet, Xiangying Meng, John Rinzel
Phasic neurons typically fire only for a fast-rising input, say at the onset of a step current, but not for steady or slow inputs, a property associated with type III excitability. Phasic neurons can show extraordinary temporal precision for phase locking and coincidence detection. Exemplars are found in the auditory brain stem where precise timing is used in sound localization. Phasicness at the cellular level arises from a dynamic, voltage-gated, negative feedback that can be recruited subthreshold, preventing the neuron from reaching spike threshold if the voltage does not rise fast enough...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208505/solving-the-two-dimensional-fokker-planck-equation-for-strongly-correlated-neurons
#5
Taşkın Deniz, Stefan Rotter
Pairs of neurons in brain networks often share much of the input they receive from other neurons. Due to essential nonlinearities of the neuronal dynamics, the consequences for the correlation of the output spike trains are generally not well understood. Here we analyze the case of two leaky integrate-and-fire neurons using an approach which is nonperturbative with respect to the degree of input correlation. Our treatment covers both weakly and strongly correlated dynamics, generalizing previous results based on linear response theory...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207604/memory-rehabilitation-strategies-in-nonsurgical-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-a-review
#6
Alessandra Del Felice, Marzia Alderighi, Matteo Martinato, Davide Grisafi, Anna Bosco, Pamela J Thompson, Josemir W Sander, Stefano Masiero
People with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) who have not undergone epilepsy surgery often complain of memory deficits. Cognitive rehabilitation is employed as a remedial intervention in clinical settings, but research is limited and findings concerning efficacy and the criteria for choosing different approaches have been inconsistent. We aimed to appraise existing evidence on memory rehabilitation in nonsurgical individuals with temporal lobe epilepsy and to ascertain the effectiveness of specific strategies. A scoping review was preferred given the heterogeneous nature of the interventions...
February 15, 2017: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206800/perspectives-of-veterans-with-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-on-community-reintegration-making-sense-of-unplanned-separation-from-service
#7
Alexander V Libin, Manon Maitland Schladen, Ellen Danford, Samantha Cichon, Dwan Bruner, Joel Scholten, Maria Llorente, Slavomir Zapata, Alexander W Dromerick, Marc R Blackman, Kathryn M Magruder
For veterans separated from the military as a result of acquired mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), the transition from a military identity to a civilian one is complicated by health, cognitive, and psychosocial factors. We conducted in-depth interviews with 8 veterans with mTBI to understand how they perceived the experience of departure from the military, rehabilitation services provided at a Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Polytrauma Network Site, and reentry into civilian life. Two distinct patterns of thinking about community reintegration emerged...
2017: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205602/a-new-joint-blade-sense-reconstruction-for-accelerated-propeller-mri
#8
Mengye Lyu, Yilong Liu, Victor B Xie, Yanqiu Feng, Hua Guo, Ed X Wu
PROPELLER technique is widely used in MRI examinations for being motion insensitive, but it prolongs scan time and is restricted mainly to T2 contrast. Parallel imaging can accelerate PROPELLER and enable more flexible contrasts. Here, we propose a multi-step joint-blade (MJB) SENSE reconstruction to reduce the noise amplification in parallel imaging accelerated PROPELLER. MJB SENSE utilizes the fact that PROPELLER blades contain sharable information and blade-combined images can serve as regularization references...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205131/what-to-expect-from-your-remote-eye-tracker-when-participants-are-unrestrained
#9
Diederick C Niehorster, Tim H W Cornelissen, Kenneth Holmqvist, Ignace T C Hooge, Roy S Hessels
The marketing materials of remote eye-trackers suggest that data quality is invariant to the position and orientation of the participant as long as the eyes of the participant are within the eye-tracker's headbox, the area where tracking is possible. As such, remote eye-trackers are marketed as allowing the reliable recording of gaze from participant groups that cannot be restrained, such as infants, schoolchildren and patients with muscular or brain disorders. Practical experience and previous research, however, tells us that eye-tracking data quality, e...
February 15, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203607/epigallocatechin-gallate-a-useful-therapy-for-cognitive-disability-in-down-syndrome
#10
Fiorenza Stagni, Andrea Giacomini, Marco Emili, Sandra Guidi, Elisabetta Ciani, Renata Bartesaghi
Neurodevelopmental alterations and cognitive disability are constant features of Down syndrome (DS), a genetic condition due to triplication of chromosome 21. DYRK1A is one of the triplicated genes that is thought to be strongly involved in brain alterations. Treatment of Dyrk1A transgenic mice with epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), an inhibitor of DYRK1A, improves cognitive performance, suggesting that EGCG may represent a suitable treatment of DS. Evidence in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS shows that EGCG restores hippocampal development, although this effect is ephemeral...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203039/quality-assurance-using-outlier-detection-on-an-automatic-segmentation-method-for-the-cerebellar-peduncles
#11
Ke Li, Chuyang Ye, Zhen Yang, Aaron Carass, Sarah H Ying, Jerry L Prince
Cerebellar peduncles (CPs) are white matter tracts connecting the cerebellum to other brain regions. Automatic segmentation methods of the CPs have been proposed for studying their structure and function. Usually the performance of these methods is evaluated by comparing segmentation results with manual delineations (ground truth). However, when a segmentation method is run on new data (for which no ground truth exists) it is highly desirable to efficiently detect and assess algorithm failures so that these cases can be excluded from scientific analysis...
February 27, 2016: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202615/il-13-mediated-regulation-of-learning-and-memory
#12
Tiroyaone M Brombacher, Justin K Nono, Keisha S De Gouveia, Nokuthula Makena, Matthew Darby, Jacqueline Womersley, Ousman Tamgue, Frank Brombacher
The role of proinflammatory cytokines in cognitive function has been investigated with both beneficial and possible detrimental effects, depending on the cytokine. More recently, the type 2 IL-4 has been demonstrated to play a role in cognition. In this study, using the Morris water maze task, we demonstrate that IL-13-deficient mice are significantly impaired in working memory as well as attenuated reference memory, both functions essential for effective complex learning. During the learning process, wild-type mice increased the number of CD4(+) T cells in the meninges and production of IL-13, whereas neither Morris water maze-trained IL-4 nor trained IL-13-deficient mice were able to increase CD4(+) T cells in the meninges...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198354/noise-robust-unsupervised-spike-sorting-based-on-discriminative-subspace-learning-with-outlier-handling
#13
Mohammad Reza Keshtkaran, Zhi Yang
OBJECTIVE: Spike sorting is a fundamental preprocessing step for many neuroscience studies which rely on the analysis of spike trains. Most of the feature extraction and dimensionality reduction techniques that have been used for spike sorting give a projection subspace which is not necessarily the most discriminative one. Therefore, the clusters which appear inherently separable in some discriminative subspace may overlap if projected using conventional feature extraction approaches leading to a poor sorting accuracy especially when the noise level is high...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197747/upper-alpha-based-neurofeedback-training-in-chronic-stroke-brain-plasticity-processes-and-cognitive-effects
#14
Silvia Erika Kober, Daniela Schweiger, Johanna Louise Reichert, Christa Neuper, Guilherme Wood
In the present study, we investigated the effects of upper alpha based neurofeedback (NF) training on electrical brain activity and cognitive functions in stroke survivors. Therefore, two single chronic stroke patients with memory deficits (subject A with a bilateral subarachnoid hemorrhage; subject B with an ischemic stroke in the left arteria cerebri media) and a healthy elderly control group (N = 24) received up to ten NF training sessions. To evaluate NF training effects, all participants performed multichannel electroencephalogram (EEG) resting measurements and a neuropsychological test battery assessing different cognitive functions before and after NF training...
February 14, 2017: Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197089/hierarchical-neural-representation-of-dreamed-objects-revealed-by-brain-decoding-with-deep-neural-network-features
#15
Tomoyasu Horikawa, Yukiyasu Kamitani
Dreaming is generally thought to be generated by spontaneous brain activity during sleep with patterns common to waking experience. This view is supported by a recent study demonstrating that dreamed objects can be predicted from brain activity during sleep using statistical decoders trained with stimulus-induced brain activity. However, it remains unclear whether and how visual image features associated with dreamed objects are represented in the brain. In this study, we used a deep neural network (DNN) model for object recognition as a proxy for hierarchical visual feature representation, and DNN features for dreamed objects were analyzed with brain decoding of fMRI data collected during dreaming...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197085/anodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-does-not-facilitate-dynamic-balance-task-learning-in-healthy-old-adults
#16
Elisabeth Kaminski, Maike Hoff, Viola Rjosk, Christopher J Steele, Christopher Gundlach, Bernhard Sehm, Arno Villringer, Patrick Ragert
Older adults frequently experience a decrease in balance control that leads to increased numbers of falls, injuries and hospitalization. Therefore, evaluating older adults' ability to maintain balance and examining new approaches to counteract age-related decline in balance control is of great importance for fall prevention and healthy aging. Non-invasive brain stimulation techniques such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) have been shown to beneficially influence motor behavior and motor learning...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196280/cuda-based-acceleration-and-bpn-assisted-automation-of-bilateral-filtering-for-brain-mr-image-restoration
#17
Herng-Hua Chang, Yu-Ning Chang
PURPOSE: Bilateral filters have been substantially exploited in numerous magnetic resonance (MR) image restoration applications for decades. Due to the deficiency of theoretical basis on the filter parameter setting, empirical manipulation with fixed values and noise variance related adjustments has generally been employed. The outcome of these strategies is usually sensitive to the variation of the brain structures and not all the three parameter values are optimal. This article is in an attempt to investigate the optimal setting of the bilateral filter, from which an accelerated and automated restoration framework is developed...
February 14, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195520/creating-colored-letters-familial-markers-of-grapheme-color-synesthesia-in-parietal-lobe-activation-and-structure
#18
Olympia Colizoli, Jaap M J Murre, H Steven Scholte, Romke Rouw
Perception is inherently subjective, and individual differences in phenomenology are well illustrated by the phenomenon of synesthesia (highly specific, consistent, and automatic cross-modal experiences, in which the external stimulus corresponding to the additional sensation is absent). It is unknown why some people develop synesthesia and others do not. In the current study, we tested whether neural markers related to having synesthesia in the family were evident in brain function and structure. Relatives of synesthetes (who did not have any type of synesthesia themselves) and matched controls read specially prepared books with colored letters for several weeks and were scanned before and after reading using magnetic resonance imaging...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195170/quantifying-cerebral-contributions-to-pain-beyond-nociception
#19
Choong-Wan Woo, Liane Schmidt, Anjali Krishnan, Marieke Jepma, Mathieu Roy, Martin A Lindquist, Lauren Y Atlas, Tor D Wager
Cerebral processes contribute to pain beyond the level of nociceptive input and mediate psychological and behavioural influences. However, cerebral contributions beyond nociception are not yet well characterized, leading to a predominant focus on nociception when studying pain and developing interventions. Here we use functional magnetic resonance imaging combined with machine learning to develop a multivariate pattern signature-termed the stimulus intensity independent pain signature-1 (SIIPS1)-that predicts pain above and beyond nociceptive input in four training data sets (Studies 1-4, N=137)...
February 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194104/electrophysiological-correlates-of-error-monitoring-and-feedback-processing-in-second-language-learning
#20
Sybrine Bultena, Claudia Danielmeier, Harold Bekkering, Kristin Lemhöfer
Humans monitor their behavior to optimize performance, which presumably relies on stable representations of correct responses. During second language (L2) learning, however, stable representations have yet to be formed while knowledge of the first language (L1) can interfere with learning, which in some cases results in persistent errors. In order to examine how correct L2 representations are stabilized, this study examined performance monitoring in the learning process of second language learners for a feature that conflicts with their first language...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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