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Biological therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679795/self-controlled-release-of-oxaliplatin-prodrug-from-d-%C3%AE-tocopheryl-polyethylene-glycol-1000-succinate-tpgs-functionalized-mesoporous-silica-nanoparticles-for-cancer-therapy
#1
Chaoyu Liang, Heping Wang, Min Zhang, Wei Cheng, Zihuang Li, Junpeng Nie, Gan Liu, Daizheng Lian, Zhenhua Xie, Laiqiang Huang, Xiaowei Zeng
Oxaliplatin is a promising antitumor drug, but its effectiveness is limited by its side effects in vivo. In this study, we introduced an Oxaliplatin prodrug (Oxa(IV)) self-controlled release strategy, in which Oxa(IV) is encapsulated by TPGS functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), and its release is controlled by biological stimuli, such as acidic environments in tumor tissue and high concentrations of reductants in cancer cells. Despite the lack of auxiliary "gatekeepers" to MSNs, this simplified model of Oxa(IV)-MSNs-TPGS could fine-tune the movements of the drug release...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678878/a-bispecific-antibody-that-targets-il-6-receptor-and-il-17a-for-the-potential-therapy-of-patients-with-autoimmune-and-inflammatory-diseases
#2
Michael Lyman, Vincent Lieuw, Robyn Richardson, Anjuli Timmer, Christine Stewart, Steve Granger, Richard Woods, Michela Silacci, Dragan Grabulovski, Roland Newman
Despite the success of current biological therapeutics for rheumatoid arthritis, these therapies, targeting individual cytokines or pathways, produce beneficial responses in only about half of patients. Therefore, better therapeutics are needed. IL-6 and IL-17A are pro-inflammatory cytokines in many autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, and several therapeutics have been developed to specifically inhibit them. However, targeting both of these cytokines with a bispecific therapeutic agent could account for their non-overlapping pro-inflammatory functions and for the fact that IL-6 and IL-17A act in a positive feedback loop...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678877/deferoxamine-ameliorates-adipocyte-dysfunction-by-modulating-iron-metabolism-in-ob-ob-mice
#3
Hong-Fa Yan, Zhao-Yu Liu, Zhi-Ang Guan, Chuang Guo
OBJECTIVE: The mechanisms underlying obesity and anti-obesity processes have garnered remarkable attention as potential therapeutic targets for obesity-associated metabolic syndromes. Our prior work has shown the healing efficacy of iron reduction therapies for hepatic steatosis in a rodent model of diabetes and obesity. In this study, we investigated how iron depletion by deferoxamine (DFO) affected adipocyte dysfunction in the epididymal adipose tissues of ob/ob mice. METHODS: Male ob/ob mice were assigned to either a vehicle-treated or DFO-treated group...
April 2018: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678528/endocrine-remission-after-pituitary-stereotactic-radiosurgery-differences-in-rates-of-response-for-matched-cohorts-of-cushing-disease-and-acromegaly-patients
#4
Daniel M Trifiletti, Zhiyuan Xu, Sunil W Dutta, Alfredo Quiñones-Hinojosa, Jennifer Peterson, Mary Lee Vance, Jason P Sheehan
PURPOSE: To compare and describe the time to endocrine remission and new hypopituitarism among patients with growth hormone (GH) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting pituitary adenomas after radiosurgery, controlling for several known prognostic factors. METHODS AND MATERIALS: An institutional review board-approved, institutional retrospective analysis of patients with GH- and ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas was performed, with matching for patient sex, age at radiosurgery, interval between the last resection and radiosurgery, use of previous radiation therapy, whole sella treatment, suprasellar extension, cavernous sinus invasion, and margin dose...
February 20, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678526/long-term-outcomes-after-stereotactic-radiosurgery-for-spine-metastases-radiation-dose-response-for-late-toxicity
#5
Diane C Ling, John C Flickinger, Steven A Burton, Dwight E Heron, Annette E Quinn, Ghassan K Bejjani, Johnathan A Engh, Peter C Gerszten, Nduka M Amankulor, John A Vargo
PURPOSE: To document the 5- and 10-year rates of late toxicity and vertebral compression fracture (VCF) in long-term survivors after stereotactic radiosurgery for spine metastases. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A retrospective review was performed on 562 patients treated with SRS for spine metastases between April 2001 and July 2011. Selecting those with at least 5-year survival after SRS, included were 43 patients who collectively underwent 84 treatments at 54 spine sites...
March 6, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677520/stable-black-phosphorus-bi-2-o-3-heterostructures-for-synergistic-cancer-radiotherapy
#6
Hao Huang, Lizhen He, Wenhua Zhou, Guangbo Qu, Jiahong Wang, Na Yang, Jie Gao, Tianfeng Chen, Paul K Chu, Xue-Feng Yu
X-ray induced photodynamic therapy (X-ray-PDT) is a promising approach for synergistic cancer radiotherapy and development of suitable radiosensitizers is highly desired. In this paper, we propose black phosphorus/Bi2 O3 (BP/Bi2 O3 ) heterostructures as efficient and biocompatible radiosensitizers for synergistic cancer radiotherapy. The heterostructures are synthesized by growth of ultrasmall Bi2 O3 nanoparticles onto BP nanosheets. The Bi2 O3 decoration inhibits the rapid degradation of BP nanosheets by occupation of the defect sites, and the synergistic effects of BP and Bi2 O3 enable 1 O2 overproduction under X-ray irradiation...
April 13, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677483/design-synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-pyrimidine-based-derivatives-as-vegfr-2-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors
#7
Wuji Sun, Shengquan Hu, Shubiao Fang, Hong Yan
Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) plays a crucial role in tumor angiogenesis, and inhibition of the VEGFR-2 signaling pathway has already become an attractive approach for cancer therapy. In this study, a novel pyrimidine-based derivative 7j was designed as lead compound, and three series of potent VEGFR-2 inhibitors were synthesized and biologically evaluated against A549 and HepG2 cell lines. Compounds 7d, 9s and 13n exhibited superior inhibitory activities against A549 cell with IC50 ranged from 9...
April 13, 2018: Bioorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677173/what-does-this-mutation-mean-the-tools-and-pitfalls-of-variant-interpretation-in-lymphoid-malignancies
#8
REVIEW
Guillermin Yann, Lopez Jonathan, Chabane Kaddour, Hayette Sandrine, Bardel Claire, Salles Gilles, Sujobert Pierre, Huet Sarah
High throughput sequencing (HTS) is increasingly important in determining cancer diagnoses, with subsequent prognostic and therapeutic implications. The biology of cancer is becoming increasingly deciphered and it is clear that therapy needs to be individually tailored. Whilst translational research plays an important role in lymphoid malignancies, few guidelines exist to guide biologists and routine laboratories through this constantly evolving field. In this article, we review the challenges of interpreting HTS in lymphoid malignancies and provide a toolkit to interpret single nucleotide variants obtained from HTS...
April 20, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677122/applications-of-the-fiv-model-to-study-hiv-pathogenesis
#9
REVIEW
Craig Miller, Zaid Abdo, Aaron Ericsson, John Elder, Sue VandeWoude
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a naturally-occurring retrovirus that infects domestic and non-domestic feline species, producing progressive immune depletion that results in an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Much has been learned about FIV since it was first described in 1987, particularly in regard to its application as a model to study the closely related lentivirus, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In particular, FIV and HIV share remarkable structure and sequence organization, utilize parallel modes of receptor-mediated entry, and result in a similar spectrum of immunodeficiency-related diseases due to analogous modes of immune dysfunction...
April 20, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676642/immunomethylomics-a-novel-cancer-risk-prediction-tool
#10
Karl T Kelsey, John K Wiencke
There is emerging evidence that the immune biology associated with lung and other solid tumors, as well as patient immune genetic traits, contributes to individual survival. At this time, dramatic advances in immunologic approaches to the study and management of human cancers are taking place, including lung and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. However, major obstacles for therapies are the profound immune alterations in blood and in the tumor microenvironment that arise in tandem with the cancer. Although there is a significant current effort underway across the cancer research community to probe the tumor environment to uncover the dynamics of the immune response, little similar work is being done to understand the dynamics of immune alterations in peripheral blood, despite evidence showing the prognostic relevance of the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio for these cancers...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676467/immunophenotypic-analysis-of-cell-cycle-status-in-acute-myeloid-leukaemia-relationship-to-cytogenetics-genotype-and-clinical-outcome
#11
Rob S Sellar, Rosemary E Gale, Asim Khwaja, Maciej Garbowski, Marco Loddo, Kai Stoeber, Gareth H Williams, David C Linch
Cell cycle status may play an important role in directing patient therapy. We therefore determined the cell cycle status of leukaemic cells by immunophenotypic analysis of bone marrow trephine biopsies from 181 patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and correlated the results with biological features and clinical outcome. There was considerable heterogeneity between patients. The presenting white cell count significantly correlated with the proportion of non-quiescent cells (P < 0·0001), of cycling cells beyond G1 (P < 0·0001) and the speed of cycling (P < 0·0001)...
April 20, 2018: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676189/association-between-clinical-factors-and-dose-modification-strategies-in-the-treatment-with-ustekinumab-for-moderate-to-severe-plaque-psoriasis
#12
Rosa M Romero-Jimenez, Vicente Escudero-Vilaplana, Ofelia Baniandres Rodriguez, Estela García Martín, Ana Mateos Mayo, Maria Sanjurjo Saez
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to identify clinical factors associated with dose reduction and dose escalation in the treatment with ustekinumab in patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An observational, longitudinal and retrospective study was conducted using patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. We reviewed clinical histories and variables were recorded on a database (patients' characteristics, pharmacotherapeutics, effectiveness and safety)...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676014/autoinflammatory-disease-in-the-lung
#13
REVIEW
Thomas Scambler, Jonathan Holbrook, Sinisa Savic, Michael F McDermott, Daniel Peckham
Ascertaining the dominant cell type driving an immunological disease is essential to understanding the causal pathology and, therefore, selecting or developing an effective treatment. Classifying immunological diseases in this way has led to successful treatment regimens for many monogenic diseases; however, when the dominant cell type is unclear and there is no obvious causal genetic mutation, then identifying the correct disease classification and appropriate therapy can be challenging. In this review we focus on pulmonary immunological diseases where an innate immune signature has been identified as a predominant aspect of the immunopathology...
April 19, 2018: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675900/virus-inspired-nanogenes-free-from-man-made-materials-for-host-specific-transfection-and-bio-aided-mr-imaging
#14
Jing-Yi Zhu, Ming-Kang Zhang, Xian-Guang Ding, Wen-Xiu Qiu, Wu-Yang Yu, Jun Feng, Xian-Zheng Zhang
Many viruses have a lipid envelope derived from the host cell membrane that contributes much to the host specificity and the cellular invasion. This study puts forward a virus-inspired technology that allows targeted genetic delivery free from man-made materials. Genetic therapeutics, metal ions, and biologically derived cell membranes are nanointegrated. Vulnerable genetic therapeutics contained in the formed "nanogene" can be well protected from unwanted attacks by blood components and enzymes. The surface envelope composed of cancer cell membrane fragments enables host-specific targeting of the nanogene to the source cancer cells and homologous tumors while effectively inhibiting recognition by macrophages...
April 20, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675790/patterns-of-breast-cancer-relapse-in-accordance-to-biological-subtype
#15
Atanas Ignatov, Holm Eggemann, Elke Burger, Tanja Ignatov
PURPOSE: To evaluate the pattern of recurrence of breast cancer according to its biological subtype in a large cohort of patients treated with therapy representative of current practice. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients treated between 2000 and 2016 with known biological subtype were eligible. Data were prospectively collected. Primary endpoint was the subtype-dependent pattern and time of recurrence. Loco-regional and distant site and time of recurrence were assessed...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675776/pluripotent-stem-cells-for-retinal-tissue-engineering-current-status-and-future-prospects
#16
REVIEW
Ratnesh Singh, Oscar Cuzzani, François Binette, Hal Sternberg, Michael D West, Igor O Nasonkin
The retina is a very fine and layered neural tissue, which vitally depends on the preservation of cells, structure, connectivity and vasculature to maintain vision. There is an urgent need to find technical and biological solutions to major challenges associated with functional replacement of retinal cells. The major unmet challenges include generating sufficient numbers of specific cell types, achieving functional integration of transplanted cells, especially photoreceptors, and surgical delivery of retinal cells or tissue without triggering immune responses, inflammation and/or remodeling...
April 19, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675656/ligand-doped-copper-oxo-hydroxide-nanoparticles-are-effective-antimicrobials
#17
Carlos A P Bastos, Nuno Faria, Angela Ivask, Olesja M Bondarenko, Anne Kahru, Jonathan Powell
Bacterial resistance to antimicrobial therapies is an increasing clinical problem. This is as true for topical applications as it is for systemic therapy. Topically, copper ions may be effective and cheap antimicrobials that act through multiple pathways thereby limiting opportunities to bacteria for resistance. However, the chemistry of copper does not lend itself to facile formulations that will readily release copper ions at biologically compatible pHs. Here, we have developed nanoparticulate copper hydroxide adipate tartrate (CHAT) as a cheap, safe, and readily synthesised material that should enable antimicrobial copper ion release in an infected wound environment...
April 19, 2018: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675647/fabrication-of-agarose-concave-petridish-for-3d-culture-microarray-method-for-spheroids-formation-of-hepatic-cells
#18
Binbin Zhang, Yang Li, Gaoshang Wang, Zhidong Jia, Haiyan Li, Qing Peng, Yi Gao
Liver is one of the most important organ in the body. But there are many limitations about liver transplantation for liver failure. It is quite important to develop the xenogeneic biological liver for providing an alternation to transplantation or liver regeneration. In this paper, we proposed a method to construct a novel kind of agarose 3D-culture concave microwell array for spheroids formation of hepatic cells. Using the 3D printing method, the microwell array was fabricated with an overall size of 6.4 mm × 6...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674756/quantifying-solid-stress-and-elastic-energy-from-excised-or-in-situ-tumors
#19
Hadi T Nia, Meenal Datta, Giorgio Seano, Peigen Huang, Lance L Munn, Rakesh K Jain
Solid stress, distinct from both tissue stiffness and fluid pressure, is a mechanical stress that is often elevated in both murine and human tumors. The importance of solid stress in tumor biology has been recognized in initial studies: solid stress promotes tumor progression and lowers the efficacy of anticancer therapies by compressing blood vessels and contributing to hypoxia. However, robust, reproducible, and objective methods that go beyond demonstration and bulk measurements have not yet been established...
May 2018: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674709/known-and-novel-roles-of-the-met-oncogene-in-cancer-a-coherent-approach-to-targeted-therapy
#20
REVIEW
Paolo M Comoglio, Livio Trusolino, Carla Boccaccio
The MET oncogene encodes an unconventional receptor tyrosine kinase with pleiotropic functions: it initiates and sustains neoplastic transformation when genetically altered ('oncogene addiction') and fosters cancer cell survival and tumour dissemination when transcriptionally activated in the context of an adaptive response to adverse microenvironmental conditions ('oncogene expedience'). Moreover, MET is an intrinsic modulator of the self-renewal and clonogenic ability of cancer stem cells ('oncogene inherence')...
April 19, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cancer
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