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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350399/biological-functions-of-elabela-a-novel-endogenous-ligand-of-apj-receptor
#1
REVIEW
Jin Xu, Linxi Chen, Zhisheng Jiang, Lanfang Li
The G protein-coupled receptor APJ and its cognate ligand, apelin, are widely expressed throughout human body. They are implicated in different key physiological processes such as angiogenesis, cardiovascular functions, fluid homeostasis and energy metabolism regulation. Recently, a new endogenous peptidic ligand of APJ, named Elabela, has been identified and shown to play a crucial role in embryonic development. In addition, increasing evidences show that Elabela is also intimate associated with a large number of physiological processes in adulthood...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348441/sdf1-gradient-associates-with-the-distribution-of-c-kit-cardiac-cells-in-the-heart
#2
Outi Renko, Anna-Maria Tolonen, Jaana Rysä, Johanna Magga, Erja Mustonen, Heikki Ruskoaho, Raisa Serpi
Identification of the adult cardiac stem cells (CSCs) has offered new therapeutic possibilities for treating ischemic myocardium. CSCs positive for the cell surface antigen c-Kit are known as the primary source for cardiac regeneration. Accumulating evidence shows that chemokines play important roles in stem cell homing. Here we investigated molecular targets to be utilized in modulating the mobility of endogenous CSCs. In a four week follow-up after experimental acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with ligation of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery of Sprague-Dawley rats c-Kit+ CSCs redistributed in the heart...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348408/nipbl-haploinsufficiency-reveals-a-constellation-of-transcriptome-disruptions-in-the-pluripotent-and-cardiac-states
#3
Jason A Mills, Pamela S Herrera, Maninder Kaur, Lanfranco Leo, Deborah McEldrew, Jesus A Tintos-Hernandez, Ramakrishnan Rajagopalan, Alyssa Gagne, Zhe Zhang, Xilma R Ortiz-Gonzalez, Ian D Krantz
Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a complex disorder with multiple structural and developmental defects caused by mutations in structural and regulatory proteins involved in the cohesin complex. NIPBL, a cohesin regulatory protein, has been identified as a critical protein responsible for the orchestration of transcriptomic regulatory networks necessary for embryonic development. Mutations in NIPBL are responsible for the majority of cases of CdLS. Through RNA-sequencing of human induced pluripotent stem cells and in vitro-derived cardiomyocytes, we identified hundreds of mRNAs, pseudogenes, and non-coding RNAs with altered expression in NIPBL+/- patient-derived cells...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347847/combining-cell-and-gene-therapy-to-advance-cardiac-regeneration
#4
Pina Marotta, Eleonora Cianflone, Iolanda Aquila, Carla Vicinanza, Mariangela Scalise, Fabiola Marino, Teresa Mancuso, Michele Torella, Ciro Indolfi, Daniele Torella
The characterization of multipotent endogenous cardiac stem cells (eCSCs) and the breakthroughs of somatic cell reprogramming to boost cardiomyocyte replacement have fostered the prospect of achieving functional heart repair/regeneration. Areas covered: Allogeneic CSC therapy through its paracrine stimulation of the endogenous resident reparative/regenerative process produces functional meaningful myocardial regeneration in pre-clinical porcine myocardial infarction models and is currently tested in the first-in-man human trial...
January 19, 2018: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346763/derepression-of-the-iroquois-homeodomain-transcription-factor-gene-irx3-confers-differentiation-block-in-acute-leukemia
#5
Tim D D Somerville, Fabrizio Simeoni, John A Chadwick, Emma L Williams, Gary J Spencer, Katalin Boros, Christopher Wirth, Eleni Tholouli, Richard J Byers, Tim C P Somervaille
The Iroquois homeodomain transcription factor gene IRX3 is expressed in the developing nervous system, limb buds, and heart, and transcript levels specify obesity risk in humans. We now report a functional role for IRX3 in human acute leukemia. Although transcript levels are very low in normal human bone marrow cells, high IRX3 expression is found in ∼30% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), ∼50% with T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and ∼20% with B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia, frequently in association with high-level HOXA gene expression...
January 16, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344085/synthesis-secretion-function-metabolism-and-application-of-natriuretic-peptides-in-heart-failure
#6
REVIEW
Shihui Fu, Ping Ping, Fengqi Wang, Leiming Luo
As a family of hormones with pleiotropic effects, natriuretic peptide (NP) system includes atrial NP (ANP), B-type NP (BNP), C-type NP (CNP), dendroaspis NP and urodilatin, with NP receptor-A (guanylate cyclase-A), NP receptor-B (guanylate cyclase-B) and NP receptor-C (clearance receptor). These peptides are genetically distinct, but structurally and functionally related for regulating circulatory homeostasis in vertebrates. In humans, ANP and BNP are encoded by NP precursor A (NPPA) and NPPB genes on chromosome 1, whereas CNP is encoded by NPPC on chromosome 2...
2018: Journal of Biological Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343525/lack-of-remuscularization-following-transplantation-of-human-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-cardiovascular-progenitor-cells-in-infarcted-nonhuman-primates
#7
Keyang Zhu, Qiang Wu, Cheng Ni, Peng Zhang, Zhiwei Zhong, Yan Wu, Yingchao Wang, Yinchuan Xu, Minjian Kong, Haifeng Cheng, Zhihua Tao, Qian Yang, He Liang, Yun Jiang, Qingju Li, Jing Zhao, Jijun Huang, Fengjiang Zhang, Qi Chen, Yi Li, Jinghai Chen, Wei Zhu, Hong Yu, Jianyi Zhang, Huang-Tian Yang, Xinyang Hu, Jian'an Wang
Rationale: Human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiovascular progenitor cells (hPSC-CVPCs) should be thoroughly investigated in large animal studies before testing in clinical trials. Objective: To clarify if hPSC-CVPCs can engraft for long time in the heart of primates after myo-cardial infarction (MI) and compare the effectiveness and safety of immunosuppression with cy-closporine alone or multiple-drug regimen (MDR) containing cyclosporine, methylprednisolone, and Simulect in cynomolgous monkeys that had received intramyocardial injections of 1×107 EGFP-expressing hPSC-CVPCs after MI...
January 17, 2018: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343412/implementing-genome-driven-personalized-cardiology-in-clinical-practice
#8
REVIEW
Ares Pasipoularides
Genomics designates the coordinated investigation of a large number of genes in the context of a biological process or disease. It may be long before we attain comprehensive understanding of the genomics of common complex cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) such as inherited cardiomyopathies, valvular diseases, primary arrhythmogenic conditions, congenital heart syndromes, hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerotic heart disease, hypertensive syndromes, and heart failure with preserved/reduced ejection fraction. Nonetheless, as genomics is evolving rapidly, it is constructive to survey now pertinent concepts and breakthroughs...
January 14, 2018: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337667/revised-roles-of-isl1-in-a-hes-cell-based-model-of-human-heart-chamber-specification
#9
Roberto Quaranta, Jakob Fell, Frank Rühle, Jyoti Rao, Ilaria Piccini, Marcos J Araúzo-Bravo, Arie O Verkerk, Monika Stoll, Boris Greber
The transcription factor ISL1 is thought to be key for conveying the multipotent and proliferative properties of cardiac precursor cells. Here, we investigate its function upon cardiac induction of human embryonic stem cells. We find that ISL1 does not stabilize the transient cardiac precursor cell state but rather serves to accelerate cardiomyocyte differentiation. Conversely, ISL1 depletion delays cardiac differentiation and respecifies nascent cardiomyocytes from a ventricular to an atrial identity. Mechanistic analyses integrate this unrecognized anti-atrial function of ISL1 with known and newly identified atrial inducers...
January 16, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336212/simulated-microgravity-impairs-cardiac-autonomic-neurogenesis-from-neural-crest-cells
#10
Konstantinos E Hatzistergos, Zhijie Jiang, Krystalenia Valasaki, Lauro M Takeuchi, Wayne Balkan, Preethi Atluri, Dieter Saur, Barbara Seidler, Nicholas Tsinoremas, Darcy DiFede, Joshua M Hare
Microgravity-induced alterations in the autonomic nervous system (ANS) contribute to derangements in both the mechanical and electrophysiologic function of the cardiovascular system, leading to severe symptoms in humans following space travel. Because the ANS forms embryonically from neural crest progenitors (NCs), we hypothesized that microgravity can impair NC derived cardiac structures. Accordingly, we conducted in vitro simulated microgravity experiments employing NC genetic lineage-tracing in mice with cKitCreERT2/+, Isl1nLacZ and Wnt1-Cre reporter alleles...
January 16, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335067/gata6-in-pluripotent-stem-cells-enhance-the-potential-to-differentiate-into-cardiomyocytes
#11
Chang-Hwan Yoon, Tae-Won Kim, Seok-Jin Koh, Young-Eun Choi, Jin Hur, Yoo-Wook Kwon, Hyun-Jai Cho, Hyo-Soo Kim
Pluripotent stem cell (PSC) variations can cause significant differences in the efficiency of cardiac differentiation. This process is unpredictable, as there is not an adequate indicator at the undifferentiated stage of the PSCs. We compared global gene expression profiles of two PSCs showing significant differences in cardiac differentiation potential. We identified 12 up-regulated genes related to heart development, and we found that 4 genes interacted with multiple genes. Among these genes, Gata6 is the only gene that was significantly induced at the early stage of differentiation of PSCs to cardiomyocytes...
January 16, 2018: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331210/to-roll-the-eyes-and-snap-a-bite-function-development-and-evolution-of-craniofacial-muscles
#12
REVIEW
Frank R Schubert, Arun J Singh, Oluwatomisin Afoyalan, Chrissa Kioussi, Susanne Dietrich
Craniofacial muscles, muscles that move the eyes, control facial expression and allow food uptake and speech, have long been regarded as a variation on the general body muscle scheme. However, evidence has accumulated that the function of head muscles, their developmental anatomy and the underlying regulatory cascades are distinct. This article reviews the key aspects of craniofacial muscle and muscle stem cell formation and discusses how this differs from the trunk programme of myogenesis; we show novel RNAseq data to support this notion...
January 10, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330880/concise-review-optimized-strategies-for-stem-cell-based-therapy-in-myocardial-repair-clinical-translatability-and-potential-limitation
#13
REVIEW
Rongrong Wu, Xinyang Hu, Jian'an Wang
Ischemic heart diseases (IHDs) remain major public health problems with high rates of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite significant advances, current therapeutic approaches are unable to rescue the extensive and irreversible loss of cardiomyocytes caused by severe ischemia. Over the past 16 years, stem cell-based therapy has been recognized as an innovative strategy for cardiac repair/regeneration and functional recovery after IHDs. Although substantial preclinical animal studies using a variety of stem/progenitor cells have shown promising results, there is a tremendous degree of skepticism in the clinical community as many stem cell trials do not confer any beneficial effects...
January 13, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328364/genetically%C3%A2-modified-stem-cells-in-treatment-of-human-diseases-tissue-kallikrein-klk1-%C3%A2-based-targeted-therapy-review
#14
Marina Devetzi, Maria Goulielmaki, Nicolas Khoury, Demetrios A Spandidos, Georgia Sotiropoulou, Ioannis Christodoulou, Vassilis Zoumpourlis
The tissue kallikrein‑kinin system (KKS) is an endogenous multiprotein metabolic cascade which is implicated in the homeostasis of the cardiovascular, renal and central nervous system. Human tissue kallikrein (KLK1) is a serine protease, component of the KKS that has been demonstrated to exert pleiotropic beneficial effects in protection from tissue injury through its anti‑inflammatory, anti‑apoptotic, anti‑fibrotic and anti‑oxidative actions. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) or endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) constitute populations of well‑characterized, readily obtainable multipotent cells with special immunomodulatory, migratory and paracrine properties rendering them appealing potential therapeutics in experimental animal models of various diseases...
January 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327894/cell-therapy-for-heart-disease-current-status-and-future-directions
#15
Arunpreet Kahlon, Gaurang Vaidya, Roberto Bolli
Treatment of ischemic heart disease has evolved considerably over time, seeing a technological impetus in recent times. Prompt diagnosis and progressively earlier reperfusion of the infarct artery have become the cornerstone of the early myocardial ischemia management. However, treatment of post-infarction sequelae resulting from ischemic damage sustained within the myocardium remains a considerable challenge. In this setting, stem cell therapy has emerged as an exciting regenerative modality with a promise to arrest or even reverse the pathological myocardial remodeling...
January 10, 2018: Minerva Cardioangiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327399/plga-mpeg-nanoparticles-loaded-with-melatonin-protect-adipose-derived-stem-cells-transplanted-in-infarcted-heart-tissue
#16
Qiang Ma, Junjie Yang, Xu Huang, Weisheng Guo, Sulei Li, Hao Zhou, Jingwei Li, Yundai Chen
Stem cell transplantation is a promising therapeutic strategy for myocardial infarction. However, transplanted cells face low survival rates due to oxidative stress and the inflammatory microenvironment in ischemic heart tissue. Melatonin has been used as a powerful endogenous antioxidant to protect cells from oxidative injury. However, melatonin cannot play a long lasting effect against the hostile microenvironment. Nano drug delivery carriers have the ability to protect the loaded drug from degradation in physiological environments in a controlled manner, which results in longer effects and decreased side effects...
January 12, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321822/pursuing-meaningful-end-points-for-stem-cell-therapy-assessment-in-ischemic-cardiac-disease
#17
REVIEW
Maria Dorobantu, Nicoleta-Monica Popa-Fotea, Mihaela Popa, Iulia Rusu, Miruna Mihaela Micheu
Despite optimal interventional and medical therapy, ischemic heart disease is still an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although not included in standard of care rehabilitation, stem cell therapy (SCT) could be a solution for prompting cardiac regeneration. Multiple studies have been published from the beginning of SCT until now, but overall no unanimous conclusion could be drawn in part due to the lack of appropriate end-points. In order to appreciate the impact of SCT, multiple markers from different categories should be considered: Structural, biological, functional, physiological, but also major adverse cardiac events or quality of life...
December 26, 2017: World Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320747/identification-of-cardiomyocyte-fated-progenitors-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-marked-with-cd82
#18
Masafumi Takeda, Yasuharu Kanki, Hidetoshi Masumoto, Shunsuke Funakoshi, Takeshi Hatani, Hiroyuki Fukushima, Akashi Izumi-Taguchi, Yusuke Matsui, Teppei Shimamura, Yoshinori Yoshida, Jun K Yamashita
Here, we find that human-induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived cardiomyocyte (CM)-fated progenitors (CFPs) that express a tetraspanin family glycoprotein, CD82, almost exclusively differentiate into CMs both in vitro and in vivo. CD82 is transiently expressed in late-stage mesoderm cells during hiPSC differentiation. Purified CD82+ cells gave rise to CMs under nonspecific in vitro culture conditions with serum, as well as in vivo after transplantation to the subrenal space or injured hearts in mice, indicating that CD82 successfully marks CFPs...
January 9, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320711/anatomical-physiological-and-functional-diversity-of-adipose-tissue
#19
REVIEW
Rachel K Zwick, Christian F Guerrero-Juarez, Valerie Horsley, Maksim V Plikus
Adipose tissue depots can exist in close association with other organs, where they assume diverse, often non-traditional functions. In stem cell-rich skin, bone marrow, and mammary glands, adipocytes signal to and modulate organ regeneration and remodeling. Skin adipocytes and their progenitors signal to hair follicles, promoting epithelial stem cell quiescence and activation, respectively. Hair follicles signal back to adipocyte progenitors, inducing their expansion and regeneration, as in skin scars. In mammary glands and heart, adipocytes supply lipids to neighboring cells for nutritional and metabolic functions, respectively...
January 9, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312561/therapeutic-effects-of-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-against-brain-death-induced-remote-organ-damage-and-post-heart-transplant-acute-rejection
#20
Hon-Kan Yip, Mel S Lee, Cheuk-Kwan Sun, Kuan-Hung Chen, Han-Tan Chai, Pei-Hsun Sung, Kun-Chen Lin, Sheung-Fat Ko, Chun-Man Yuen, Chu-Feng Liu, Pei-Lin Shao, Fan-Yen Lee
We tested the hypothesis that allogenic adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) alleviated brain death (BD)-induced remote organ damage and events of post heart-transplant acute rejection. To determine the impact of BD on remote organ damage, adult-male F344 rats (n=24) were categorized sham-control (SC), BD and BDMSC (allogenic ADMSC/1.2 × 106 cells/derived from F344 by intravenous transfusion 3 h after BD procedure). To determine the protective effect of allogenic ADMSCs, animals (n=8/each group in F344/Lewis) were categorized into groups BD-T(F344 heart transplanted into Lewis by 6h after BD), BD-TMSC(D1/3) (BD induction for 6h then heart transplantation, and allogenic ADMSCs transfusion at days 1 and 5 after heart transplantation), BD-TMSC(3h) (BD + ADMSC/1...
December 12, 2017: Oncotarget
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