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Natashya Falcone, Heinz-Bernhard Kraatz
Supramolecular gels are a fascinating class of soft materials that have attracted significant attention in recent years. They are composed of small molecule gelators that assemble into supramolecular network structures. The resulting space is filled with solvent. Some gel materials are able to respond to various stimuli making them attractive drug delivery vehicles and as matrices for tissue regeneration. Peptide based gel materials are particularly attractive as they possess numerous advantages including biocompatibility and biodegradability...
April 18, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Anja Greule, Jeanette E Stok, James J De Voss, Max J Cryle
Covering: 2000 up to 2018The cytochromes P450 (P450s) are a superfamily of heme-containing monooxygenases that perform diverse catalytic roles in many species, including bacteria. The P450 superfamily is widely known for the hydroxylation of unactivated C-H bonds, but the diversity of reactions that P450s can perform vastly exceeds this undoubtedly impressive chemical transformation. Within bacteria, P450s play important roles in many biosynthetic and biodegradative processes that span a wide range of secondary metabolite pathways and present diverse chemical transformations...
April 18, 2018: Natural Product Reports
Christoph Rücker, Waleed M M Mahmoud, Dirk Schwartz, Klaus Kümmerer
Mercaptocarboxylic acids and their esters, a class of difunctional compounds bearing both a mercapto and a carboxylic acid or ester functional group, are industrial chemicals of potential environmental concern. Biodegradation of such compounds was systematically investigated here, both by literature search and by experiments (Closed Bottle Test OECD 301D and Manometric Respirometry Test OECD 301F). These compounds were found either readily biodegradable or at least biodegradable to a significant extent. Some related compounds of divalent sulfur were tested for comparison (mercaptans, sulfides, disulfides)...
April 17, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Tiantian Liu, Chongwei Cui, Junguo He, Jian Tang
Biodrying was first used for the post-treatment of long-term storage sludge with vinasse as bulking agents. The effect of different bulking agents on water and heat variation and their respective contributions to bio-generated heat during storage sludge biodrying were investigated. Three different bulking agents (beer lees and distillers grains, with conventional straw used for comparison) were mixed with storage sludge for biodrying for an 18-day period. The results revealed the treatment with beer lees as bulking agent achieved the best performance with the highest water removal capacity (658 g kg-1 initial water)...
April 17, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
David Vrbata, Mariusz Uchman
The present study describes the synthesis, self-assembly and responsiveness to glucose and lactic acid of biocompatible and biodegradable block copolymer micelles using phenylboronic ester as the linkage between hydrophobic poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and hydrophilic poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). The PCL block with pendant phenylboronic acid (PCLBA) was synthesized by combining ε-caprolactone (ε-CL) ring-opening polymerisation (ROP), using 4-hydroxymethyl(phenylboronic) acid pinacolate as the initiator, and pinacol deprotection...
April 18, 2018: Nanoscale
Butsadee Iamareerat, Manisha Singh, Muhammad Bilal Sadiq, Anil Kumar Anal
Biodegradable packaging in food materials is a green technology based novel approach to replace the synthetic and conventional packaging systems. This study is aimed to formulate the biodegradable cassava starch based films incorporated with cinnamon essential oil and sodium bentonite clay nanoparticles. The films were characterized for their application as a packaging material for meatballs. The cassava starch films incorporated with sodium bentonite and cinnamon oil showed significant antibacterial potential against all test bacteria; Escherichia coli , Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus...
May 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Zhenjie Liu, Zhengqing Hu
A microfiber platform that is able to enhance neuronal differentiation and guide aligned neurite outgrowths is essential to the repair of nerve damage. To achieve this aim, we utilized biocompatible and biodegradable poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) to design a novel Aligned Contiguous Microfiber Platform (ACMFP) as substrates for the neuronal induction of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. To generate the ACMFP, a modified micro-fluid chip system was established to control microfiber parameters including fiber diameter, alignment, and the distance between fibers...
April 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Harry P Austin, Mark D Allen, Bryon S Donohoe, Nicholas A Rorrer, Fiona L Kearns, Rodrigo L Silveira, Benjamin C Pollard, Graham Dominick, Ramona Duman, Kamel El Omari, Vitaliy Mykhaylyk, Armin Wagner, William E Michener, Antonella Amore, Munir S Skaf, Michael F Crowley, Alan W Thorne, Christopher W Johnson, H Lee Woodcock, John E McGeehan, Gregg T Beckham
Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) is one of the most abundantly produced synthetic polymers and is accumulating in the environment at a staggering rate as discarded packaging and textiles. The properties that make PET so useful also endow it with an alarming resistance to biodegradation, likely lasting centuries in the environment. Our collective reliance on PET and other plastics means that this buildup will continue unless solutions are found. Recently, a newly discovered bacterium, Ideonella sakaiensis 201-F6, was shown to exhibit the rare ability to grow on PET as a major carbon and energy source...
April 17, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Dan Prat, Shay Tenenbaum, Moshe Pritsch, Ariel Oran, Guy Vogel
INTRODUCTION: Irreparable rotator cuff tear (RCT) presents a difficult treatment challenge for the orthopaedic surgeon. Many treatment strategies with varying degrees of success have been performed over the years. One of the suggested surgical treatment options is the use of a biodegradable sub-acromial balloon spacer. METHODS: A retrospective study of patients treated with sub-acromial balloon spacer between the years 2011 and 2016 was conducted. Mean follow-up time was 14...
May 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery
Danielle Nogueira de Assis, Raquel Silva Araújo, Leonardo Lima Fuscaldi, Simone Odília Antunes Fernandes, Vanessa Carla Furtado Mosqueira, Valbert Nascimento Cardoso
BACKGROUND: Candida spp is an etiologic agent of fungal infections in hospitals and resistance to treatment with antifungals has been extensively reported. Thus, it is very important to develop formulations that increase effectiveness with low toxicity. In this sense, nanocarriers have been investigated, once they modify drug biodistribution profile. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the biodistribution of free and encapsulated 99m Tc-fluconazole into nanocapsules (NCs) in an experimental immunosuppressed murine model of Candida albicans infection...
March 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Minda Yu, Xiaosong He, Jiaomei Liu, Yuefeng Wang, Beidou Xi, Dan Li, Hui Zhang, Chao Yang
Understanding the heterogeneous evolution characteristics of dissolved organic matter fractions derived from compost is crucial to exploring the composting biodegradation process and the possible applications of compost products. Herein, two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy integrated with reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography and size exclusion chromatography were utilized to obtain the molecular weight (MW) and polarity evolution characteristics of humic acid (HA), fulvic acid (FA), and the hydrophilic (HyI) fractions during composting...
April 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Odd Gunnar Brakstad, Trond R Størseth, Anders Brunsvik, Kristin Bonaunet, Liv-Guri Faksness
While biodegradation of chemically dispersed oil has been well documented, only a few studies have focused on the degradation of the dispersant compounds themselves. The objective of this study was to determine the biodegradation of dispersant surfactants in cold seawater, relevant for deep sea or Arctic conditions. Biotransformation of the surfactants dioctyl-sodium sulfosuccinate (DOSS), Tween 80, Tween 85, and α/β-ethylhexylsulfosuccinate (EHSS, expected DOSS hydrolysis product) in the commercial dispersants Corexit 9500, Dasic Slickgone NS and Finasol OSR52 were determined...
April 11, 2018: Chemosphere
Jiguo Qiu, Yanting Zhang, Lingling Zhao, Qin He, Jiandong Jiang, Qing Hong, Jian He
Cotinine, the primary nicotine metabolite, not only more stable and more difficult to degrade in the environment but is a potential health risk to human. To date, little is known about the biodegradation process of cotinine. In this study, a bacterial strain JQ2195 was isolated from municipal wastewater and was identified as Nocardioides sp. based on morphological, physiological characteristics, and 16 S rRNA gene phylogenetic analysis. This strain utilized cotinine as a sole carbon source and degraded 0...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Rajendra Aluri, Sonashree Saxena, Dheeraj Chandra Joshi, Manickam Jayakannan
Multi-stimuli-responsive L-tyrosine based amphiphilic poly(ester-urethane)s nano-carriers were designed and developed, for the first time, to administrate anticancer drugs at cancer tissue environment via thermo-responsiveness and lysosomal enzymatic-biodegradation from single polymer platform. For this purpose, multifunctional L-tyrosine monomer was tailor-made with PEG-lated side chain at the phenolic position along with urethane and carboxylic ester functionalities. Under melt dual ester-urethane polycondensation, the tyrosine-monomer reacted with diols to produce high molecular weight amphiphilic poly(ester-urethane)s...
April 17, 2018: Biomacromolecules
A Jain, S K Jain
Cancer remains a deadly disease for effective treatment. Although anomalous tumor microenvironment is now widely exploited for targeted chemotherapy, safe and efficacious drug delivery to tumor cells is not still warranted. Liposomes are promising biodegradable and biocompatible nanocarriers having potential amenability for surface and internal modifications, and extraordinary capability to carry both hydrophilic as well as hydrophobhic drugs. Meticulous fabrication of liposomes with tumor selective ligand(s) and PEGylation reduces immunogenicity and increase target-specificity...
April 15, 2018: Current Molecular Medicine
János Ecker, László Fülöp
Studies have determined that the white-rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium is capable of biodegrading the atrazine herbicide with its broad-specificity enzymes, but the particular role of biocatalysts is still unclear. In the case of lignin peroxidase, a ligand access channel connected to the active heme cofactor provides access to the active site for potential small-sized substrates. Experimental results show that lignin peroxidase is unable to degrade atrazine, therefore, the primary goal was to determine whether there is any connection between the structural and dynamical properties of the enzyme and its incapability to degrade atrazine...
April 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Peter Frederik Horstmann, Werner Herbert Hettwer, Michael Mørk Petersen
After surgical bone tumor removal, filling of the bone defect is frequently performed using a bone graft or bone graft substitute. During follow-up, precise quantification of changes in bone mineral density, within the treated bone defect, is very difficult using conventional X-ray examinations. The objectives of this study were to characterize the pattern of resorption/biodegradation of a composite calcium sulfate/hydroxyapatite bone graft substitute and to quantify the bone defect healing with repeated dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
Congcong Zhang, Mi Zhou, Shiwen Liu, Bijia Wang, Zhiping Mao, Hong Xu, Yi Zhong, Linping Zhang, Bo Xu, Xiaofeng Sui
It is desirable for catalyst supports to be biodegradable, easily-modifiable, and possessing high surface area. In this work, thiolated nanocellulose sponge was prepared from hydrolytic silane condensation of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) and used as a green support to immobilize copper cations via in situ CuII to CuI reduction and complexation. The sponge featured high porosity (90.5%) and low density (29.4 mg/cm3 ) with regular morphology. The sponge easily recovered 94% of its original shape in water after experiencing 80% deformation under stress of 95 kPa...
July 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Abathodharanan Narayanan, Ravishankar Kartik, Elanchezhian Sangeetha, Raghavachari Dhamodharan
A new superabsorbent with maximum water absorption capacity of ∼1250 g/g is prepared by hydrothermal synthesis from sustainable and biodegradable resources such as chitosan, citric acid and urea (denoted as 'CHCAUR'). CHCAUR is characterized extensively by various analytical techniques such as PXRD, SSNMR, FTIR, and TGA. Pure and saline water absorption study showed that CHCAUR could be a better adsorbent compared to the super absorbent polymer (SAP) used in commercial diaper material. The mechanism of water absorption is shown to arise out of a combination of electrostatic attraction of water to the ionic crosslinks and the presence of macropores as well as undulated surface due to the formation of nanofibrous bundles...
July 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Xiaotian Wu, Xiaofeng Chen, Peibo Hu, Minghong Hou, Yahao Dong, Yuping Wei
Polysaccharides derivatives are typical drug nanocarriers which are nontoxic and biodegradable. However, as is the case for all drug delivery systems, polysaccharides derivatives have to face the issue of protein fouling. In this paper, we present the design and synthesis of carboxybetaine-modified dextran-polycaprolactone (CB-Dex-PCL) copolymers as doxorubicin (DOX) nanocarriers. Results showed that DOX/CB-Dex-PCL micelles exhibited better cumulative release at the pH value of 5.2 than at the physiological pH of 7...
July 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
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