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Аnatoly A Abalymov, Roman A Verhovskiy, Marina V Novoselova, Bogdan V Parakhonskiy, Dmitry A Gorin, Alexey M Yashchenok, Gleb B Sukhorukov
Porous calcium carbonate (CaCO3 ) vaterite particles are very attractive templates for the encapsulation of pharmaceuticals and for the construction of hollow polyelectrolyte capsules, sensors, and enzyme-catalyzed reactors. Although CaCO3 is biocompatible and biodegradable, little is known about the intercellular behavior and properties of vaterite particles in the cytoplasm of cells. In this work, we combined confocal Raman and fluorescent microscopy for the imaging of porous CaCO3 vaterite particles in HeLa cells to study the uptake and status of the particles inside the cells in real time...
June 19, 2018: Biotechnology Journal
Muhammed Anwary, Pradeep Kumar, Lisa C du Toit, Yahya E Choonara, Viness Pillay
Posterior segment diseases are commonly implicated in the occurrence of curable as well as incurable diseases which could lead to blindness. An example of one such disease is age-related macular degeneration, which would require chronic treatment over an extended period and as such the development of an intravitreal drug delivery system that would optimize patient outcomes is essential. The major contributor of the difficulty in treating diseases in the posterior segment is the structure of the eye, particularly the blood-ocular barriers...
June 19, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Mohammad Mahmoudian, Sara Salatin, Ahmad Yari Khosroushahi
Lipoproteins (LPs) are a set of naturally occurring bio-nanoparticles consisting of Apo-LPs, phospholipids, a highly hydrophobic core of cholesteryl esters and triglycerides that participate mainly in the targeted transport of cholesteryl esters and other hydrophobic molecules through the bloodstream. They also are able to recognize specific receptors on normal and abnormal cells. Therefore, LPs represent a relevant tool for targeted delivery of cancer diagnostics and therapeutics due to their native biocompatibility, biodegradability, nano-scale size and receptor-mediated uptake...
June 18, 2018: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
Hao Dong, Guoyu Wu, Hong Xu, Chenghong Zhang, Jiao Wang, Meng Gao, Yue Pang, Houli Zhang, Baojing Zhang, Yan Tian, Qingwei Li
Primary liver cancer (PLC) is one of the most common malignant tumours and has the third highest mortality rate worldwide. An active liver-targeting drug delivery system via the asialoglycoprotein receptors expressed in the hepatic parenchyma cells of mammals has become a research focus for the treatment of PLC. N-acetylaminogalactosyl-poly(lactide-co-glycolide)-succinyl-D-α-tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (GalNAc-PLGA-sTPGS) was synthesized to achieve active liver-targeting properties. Emodin (EMO)-loaded GalNAc-PLGA-sTPGS nanoparticles (EGPTN) were prepared with EMO which was selected for its potential antitumour efficacy...
June 19, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Sreekar B Marpu, Erin N Benton
Chitosan (CS) is a natural polymer derived from chitin that has found its usage both in research and commercial applications due to its unique solubility and chemical and biological attributes. The biocompatibility and biodegradability of CS have helped researchers identify its utility in the delivery of therapeutic agents, tissue engineering, wound healing, and more. Industrial applications include cosmetic and personal care products, wastewater treatment, and corrosion protection, to name a few. Many researchers have published numerous reviews outlining the physical and chemical properties of CS, as well as its use for many of the above-mentioned applications...
June 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Dockyu Kim, Ki Young Choi, Miyoun Yoo, Gerben J Zylstra, Eungbin Kim
The genus Rhodococcus is a phylogenetically and catabolically diverse group that has been isolated from diverse environments, including polar and alpine regions, for its versatile ability to degrade a wide variety of natural and synthetic organic compounds. Their metabolic capacity and diversity result from their diverse catabolic genes, which are believed to be obtained through frequent recombination events mediated by large catabolic plasmids. Many rhodococci have been used commercially for the biodegradation of environmental pollutants and for the biocatalytic production of high value chemicals from low value materials...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Cui Ma, Zhengguang He, Shengyong Jia, Xingjun Zhang, Sen Hou
Fe3 O4 particles decorated Zr pillared bentonite (Fe3 O4 /Zr-B) were successfully synthesized, which were used to treat stabilized landfill leachate by Fenton-like process. The organics removal and biodegradability were both significantly improved owing to good catalytic stability of the magnetically recoverable catalyst. With the catalyst dosage of 1.0 mg L-1 , initial pH of 2 and peroxide concentration of 0.1 mmol L-1 , the COD removal efficiency increased to 68% and BOD5 /COD of 0.27 was achieved...
June 15, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Katherine Lees, Mark Fitzsimons, Jason Snape, Alan Tappin, Sean Comber
Under many circumstances chemical risk assessments for pharmaceuticals and other substances are required to differentiate between 'loss' of a chemical from the aqueous phase as a result of abiotic (sorption or precipitation reactions) or biotic (biodegradation) processes. To distinguish only abiotic processes, it is necessary to work under sterile conditions. Reported methods include poisoning the soil with sodium azide, irradiation and autoclaving. However, a key aspect of any testing is the representativeness of the matrix and so any sterilisation procedure needs to ensure that the integrity of the sample is maintained, in particular particle size distribution, pH and organic carbon partitioning potential...
June 11, 2018: Chemosphere
Sicheng Shao, Yongyou Hu, Ce Cheng, Jianhua Cheng, Yuancai Chen
Polluted waters with a high residue of tetracycline also have a high concentration of nitrate. Thus, screening for both, highly efficient tetracycline biodegradation and nitrate transformation, is a key technical strategy. In this study, a novel tetracycline degrading strain, SQY5, which was identified as Klebsiella sp., was isolated from municipal sludge. Biodegradation characteristics of tetracycline were studied under various environmental conditions; including inoculation dose (v/v), initial tetracycline concentration, temperature, and pH...
June 14, 2018: Chemosphere
Jun Cao, Luyao Chen, Mohan Li, Fuliang Cao, Linguo Zhao, Erzheng Su
Proanthocyanidin (PAC) holds strong free radicals scavenging ability and is widely used as oxygen free radical scavenger. Huge demand, safety and economic aspect are forcing the PAC extraction to explore new resource and greener solvent. An efficient extraction method of PAC from Ginkgo biloba leaves was established by employing deep eutectic solvent (DES)-water mixture. After a rational design, a DES-water mixture (named as Ch-M55 ) was chosen as the extraction solvent, which was prepared from choline chloride and malonic acid at a molar ratio of 1:2 with water addition of 55% (w/w)...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Henrik Löw, Elena Mena-Osteritz, Max von Delius
Dynamic adaptability and biodegradability are key features of functional, 21st century host-guest systems. We have recently discovered a class of tripodal supramolecular hosts, in which two orthoesters act as constitutionally dynamic bridgeheads. Having previously demonstrated the adaptive nature of these hosts, we now report the synthesis and characterization - including eight solid state structures - of a diverse set of orthoester cages, which provides evidence for the broad scope of this new host class. With the same set of compounds, we demonstrated that the rates of orthoester exchange and hydrolysis can be tuned over a remarkably wide range, from rapid hydrolysis at pH 8 to nearly inert at pH 1, and that the Taft parameter of the orthoester substituent allows an adequate prediction of the reaction kinetics...
June 7, 2018: Chemical Science
Song Yi Lee, Jin Woo Choi, Jae-Young Lee, Dae-Duk Kim, Hyo-Cheol Kim, Hyun-Jong Cho
Doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded, hyaluronic acid-ceramide (HACE) nanoassembly-releasing poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres (MSs) were developed for transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) therapy of liver cancer. DOX/HACE MSs with a mean diameter of 27 μm and a spherical shape were prepared based on the modified emulsification method. Their in vitro biodegradability in artificial biological fluids was observed. A more sustained drug release pattern was observed from DOX/HACE MS than from DOX MS at pH 7...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
Xin Wu, Huijun He, William L Yang, Jiaping Yu, Chunping Yang
A novel bionanomaterial comprising Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) and Fe3 O4 nanoparticles encapsulated in a sodium alginate-polyvinyl alcohol (SA-PVA) matrix was synthesized for the efficient removal of atrazine from aqueous solutions. The effects of the operating parameters, nitrogen source, and glucose and Fe3+ contents on atrazine removal were investigated, and the intermediates were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In addition, the synthesized Fe3 O4 particles were characterized by XRD, EDX, HR-TEM, FTIR, and hysteresis loops, and the bionanomaterial was characterized by SEM...
June 17, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Sameena N Malik, Prakash C Ghosh, Atul N Vaidya, Sandeep N Mudliar
The study investigates the effect of catalytic ozone pretreatment via Fe2+ and nZVI on biodegradability enhancement of complex textile effluent. The nZVI particles were synthesized and characterized by XRD, TEM and SEM analyses. Results showed that nano catalytic ozone pretreatment led to higher biodegradability index (BOD5 /COD = BI) enhancement up to 0.61 (134.6%) along with COD, color and toxicity removal up to 73.5%, 87%, and 92% respectively. The disappearance of the corresponding GCMS & FTIR spectral peaks during catalyzed ozonation process indicated the cleavage of chromophore group and degradation of organic compounds present in the textile effluent...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Nur Afiqah Azmi, Azila Idris, Nor Saadah Mohd Yusof
Feather keratin is a biomass generated in excess from various livestock industries. With appropriate processing, it holds potential as a green source for degradable biopolymer that could potentially replace current fossil fuel based materials. Several processing methods have been developed, but the use of ultrasonication has not been explored. In this study, we focus on (i) comparing and optimizing the dissolution process of turkey feather keratin through sonication and conventional processes, and (ii) generating a biodegradable polymer material, as a value added product, from the dissolved keratin that could be used in packaging and other applications...
October 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Usman Riaz, Leela Rakesh, Ishraq Shabib, Waseem Haider
The issue of long-term incompatible interactions associated with the permanent implants can be eliminated by using various biodegradable metal implants. The recent research is focusing on the use of degradable stents to restore most of the hindrances of capillaries, and coronary arteries by supplying instant blood flow with constant mechanical and structural support. However, internal endothelialization and infection due to the corrosion of implanted stents are not easy to diagnose in the long run. In the recent past, magnesium (Mg) has been widely investigated for the cardiovascular stent applications...
June 5, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Chen Gu, Jing Wang, Mengfan Guo, Meng Sui, Hong Lu, Guangfei Liu
Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) has attracted considerable attention due to its ubiquitous presence in different environmental compartments worldwide. However, information on its aerobic biodegradability in coastal environments remains unknown. Here, the aerobic biodegradation of TBBPA using a Pseudoalteromonas species commonly found in the marine environment was investigated. We found that extracellular biogenic siderophore, superoxide anion radical (O2 •- ), hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), and hydroxyl radical (• OH) were involved in TBBPA degradation...
June 7, 2018: Water Research
Amanda P Napp, José Evandro S Pereira, Jorge S Oliveira, Rita C B Silva-Portela, Lucymara F Agnez-Lima, Maria C R Peralba, Fátima M Bento, Luciane M P Passaglia, Claudia E Thompson, Marilene H Vainstein
The oil drilling process generates large volumes of waste with inadequate treatments. Here, oil drilling waste (ODW) microbial communities demonstrate different hydrocarbon degradative abilities when exposed to distinct nutrient enrichments as revealed by comparative metagenomics. The ODW was enriched in Luria Broth (LBE) and Potato Dextrose (PDE) media to examine the structure and functional variations of microbial consortia. Two metagenomes were sequenced on Ion Torrent platform and analyzed using MG-RAST...
June 11, 2018: Chemosphere
Paulina Stolarek, Sylwia Różalska, Przemysław Bernat
Metarhizium robertsii, a butyltin-resistant filamentous fungus, can rapid and complete biodegradation of di- (DBT) and tributyltin (TBT) under conditions of intensive aeration and ascorbic acid supplementation. In this paper, lipidomic investigations were performed to find the membrane adaptations necessary for effective butyltins degradation. HPLC-MS/MS analysis showed that the phospholipid profile was greatly modified during M. robertsii batch cultivation (pO2  ≥ 20%), contributing to increased membrane fluidity and facilitated mass transfer, which could enhance butyltins biodegradation...
June 13, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Nilesh Umakant Deshpande, Manickam Jayakannan
Biotin-conjugated multi-stimuli-responsive polysaccharide vesicular nanocarriers are designed and developed, for the first time, to accomplish receptor-mediated endocytosis in cancer cells and to deliver anticancer drugs at the intracellular compartments. For this purpose, a new renewable hydrophobic unit was custom designed with redox-degradable disulphide and enzyme-biodegradable aliphatic ester chemical linkages and it was conjugated along with biotin on the dextran backbone. The dextran derivative self-assembled into nanovesicles of < 200 nm in size which were characterized by dynamic and static light scattering, electron and atomic force microscopes...
June 15, 2018: Biomacromolecules
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