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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439653/unexplained-chronic-liver-disease-in-ethiopia-a-cross-sectional-study
#1
Stian Magnus Staurung Orlien, Nejib Yusuf Ismael, Tekabe Abdosh Ahmed, Nega Berhe, Trine Lauritzen, Borghild Roald, Robert David Goldin, Kathrine Stene-Johansen, Anne Margarita Dyrhol-Riise, Svein Gunnar Gundersen, Marsha Yvonne Morgan, Asgeir Johannessen
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is assumed to be the major cause of chronic liver disease (CLD) in sub-Saharan Africa. The contribution of other aetiological causes of CLD is less well documented and hence opportunities to modulate other potential risk factors are being lost. The aims of this study were to explore the aetiological spectrum of CLD in eastern Ethiopia and to identify plausible underlying risk factors for its development. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken between April 2015 and April 2016 in two public hospitals in Harar, eastern Ethiopia...
February 13, 2018: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427181/toxic-alcohol-diagnosis-and-management-an-emergency-medicine-review
#2
REVIEW
Patrick Chow Yuen Ng, Brit J Long, William Tyler Davis, Daniel J Sessions, Alex Koyfman
Toxic alcohols are a group of substances containing a hydroxyl group not meant to be ingested. They are the cause of a significant number of accidental and non-accidental exposures. Toxic alcohol poisoning can be associated with a significant degree of morbidity and mortality if not promptly recognized and treated. This review describes the clinical presentation and an approach to the recognition and management for toxic alcohol poisoning. Toxic alcohols classically refer to a group of alcohols not meant for ingestion...
February 9, 2018: Internal and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419332/alcohol-as-a-factor-in-911-calls-in-denver
#3
Daniel Joseph, Jody A Vogel, C Sam Smith, Whitney Barrett, Gary Bryskiewicz, Aaron Eberhardt, David Edwards, Lara Rappaport, Christopher B Colwell, Kevin E McVaney
BACKGROUND: Excessive alcohol consumption is associated with a substantial number of emergency department visits annually and is responsible for a significant number of lives lost each year in the United States. However, a minimal amount is known about the impact of alcohol on the EMS system. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to determine the proportion of 9-1-1 calls in Denver, Colorado in which (1) alcohol was a contributing factor or (2) the individual receiving EMS services had recently ingested alcohol...
February 8, 2018: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415540/per-and-polyfluoroalkyl-substances-pfass-in-indoor-air-and-dust-from-homes-and-various-microenvironments-in-china-implications-for-human-exposure
#4
Yiming Yao, Yangyang Zhao, Hongwen Sun, Shuai Chang, Lingyan Zhu, Alfredo Carlos Alder, Kurunthachalam Kannan
A newly developed solid-phase extraction cartridge composed of mixed sorbents was optimized for collection of both neutral and ionizable per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in indoor air. Eighty-one indoor air samples and 29 indoor dust samples were collected from rooms of homes and hotels, textile shops, and cinemas in Tianjin, China. Fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) were the predominant PFASs found in air (250-82,300 pg/m3) and hotel dust (24.8-678 ng/g). Polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters were found at lower levels of n...
February 8, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399024/a-case-of-ethylene-glycol-intoxication-with-acute-renal-injury-successful-recovery-by-fomepizole-and-renal-replacement-therapy
#5
Chang Hun Song, Hong Jin Bae, Young Rok Ham, Ki Ryang Na, Kang Wook Lee, Dae Eun Choi
Ethylene glycol is a widely used and readily available substance. Ethylene glycol ingestion does not cause direct toxicity; however, its metabolites are highly toxic and can be fatal even in trace amounts. Poisoning is best diagnosed through inquiry, but as an impaired state of consciousness is observed in most cases, poisoning must be suspected when a significantly elevated osmolar gap or high anion gap metabolic acidosis is found in blood tests. Hemodialysis and alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitors such as ethanol and fomepizole are a part of the basic treatment, and timely diagnosis and treatment are crucial because any delays can lead to death...
December 2017: Electrolyte & Blood Pressure: E & BP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385007/alcohol-after-resistance-exercise-does-not-affect-muscle-power-recovery
#6
Danielle E Levitt, Nosakhare O Idemudia, Carianne M Cregar, Anthony A Duplanty, David W Hill, Jakob L Vingren
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of alcohol consumed after heavy eccentric resistance exercise on measures of muscle power. After familiarization and an initial eccentric exercise bout to control for the "repeated-bout effect," ten recreationally resistance-trained men completed two identical heavy eccentric squat bouts (4 sets of 10 repetitions at 110% of concentric 1-repetition maximum) one week apart. Each exercise bout was followed by ingestion of a beverage containing either alcohol (1...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381732/polyphenol-estimated-intake-and-dietary-sources-among-older-adults-from-mallorca-island
#7
Joanne Karam, Maria Del Mar Bibiloni, Josep A Tur
The aim was the assessment of the polyphenol estimated intake and dietary sources among older adults from Mallorca Island. The study was carried out (2013-2014) in 211 participants dwelling women (n = 112) and men (n = 99). Polyphenol intake was calculated from two non-consecutive 24-h recall diets using the Polyphenol Explorer. The mean daily intake of polyphenol was 332.7 mg/d (SD: 237.9; median: 299 mg/d). Highest polyphenol intake was observed among females, 64-67 y.o. people, higher income and educational level, alcohol consumers, and physically active people...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381139/dietary-intake-of-advanced-glycation-endproducts-is-associated-with-higher-levels-of-advanced-glycation-endproducts-in-plasma-and-urine-the-codam-study
#8
Jean L J M Scheijen, Nordin M J Hanssen, Marleen M van Greevenbroek, Carla J Van der Kallen, Edith J M Feskens, Coen D A Stehouwer, Casper G Schalkwijk
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) are formed by the reaction between reducing sugars and proteins. AGEs in the body have been associated with several age-related diseases. High-heat treated and most processed foods are rich in AGEs. The aim of our study was to investigate whether dietary AGEs, are associated with plasma and urinary AGE levels. METHODS: In 450 participants of the Cohort on Diabetes and Atherosclerosis Maastricht study (CODAM study) we measured plasma and urine concentrations of the AGEs Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), Nε-(1-carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL) and Nδ-(5-hydro-5-methyl-4-imidazolon-2-yl)-ornithine (MG-H1) using UPLC-MS/MS...
March 23, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380601/fiber-optic-bio-sniffer-biochemical-gas-sensor-using-reverse-reaction-of-alcohol-dehydrogenase-for-exhaled-acetaldehyde
#9
Kenta Iitani, Po-Jen Chien, Takuma Suzuki, Koji Toma, Takahiro Arakawa, Yasuhiko Iwasaki, Kohji Mitsubayashi
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath have a huge potential as indicators of diseases and metabolisms. Application of breath analysis for disease screening and metabolism assessment is expected since breath sample can be noninvasively collected and measured. In this research, a highly sensitive and selective biochemical gas sensor (bio-sniffer) for gaseous acetaldehyde (AcH) was developed. In the AcH bio-sniffer, a reverse reaction of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) was employed for reducing AcH to ethanol and simultaneous consuming a coenzyme, reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)...
January 30, 2018: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350757/hepatoprotective-effects-of-sophoricoside-against-fructose-induced-liver-injury-via-regulating-lipid-metabolism-oxidation-and-inflammation-in-mice
#10
Wenfeng Li, Yalong Lu
The dried fruit of Sophora japonica L. is a traditional Chinese herb tea rich in sophoricoside that is an isoflavone glycoside. The aim of current study was to investigate the hepatic protective effect of sophoricoside in high fructose (HF) diet fed mice. Healthy male mice were fed 30% fructose water and treated 80 and 160 mg/kg·bw sophoricoside continuously for 8 wk. Our data showed that administration of sophoricoside at 80 and 160 mg/kg·bw observably decreased the body weight and liver weight in HF-fed mice...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321805/simultaneous-measurement-of-formic-acid-methanol-and-ethanol-in-vitreous-and-blood-samples-of-postmortem-by-headspace-gc-fid
#11
Hamideh Ghorbani, Alireza Nezami, Behjat Sheikholeslami, Arya Hedjazi, Mahnaz Ahmadimanesh
Background: Formic acid (formate) is the main reason for toxicity and death through methanol poisoning. The simultaneous determination of methanol, ethanol, and formate in the body can help to discover the cause of death and is useful in the diagnosis of acute methanol poisoning. The measurement of formate is not yet available in Iran. With regard to the increasing rate of methanol poisoning and its related mortality in Iran, as well as the main role of formate in methanol poisoning, this study was designed to set up an analytical method for the concurrent determination of ethanol, methanol, and formate...
2018: Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305304/sleeve-gastrectomy-surgery-when-2-alcoholic-drinks-are-converted-to-4
#12
María Belén Acevedo, J Christopher Eagon, Bruce D Bartholow, Samuel Klein, Kathleen K Bucholz, Marta Yanina Pepino
BACKGROUND: While it is well established that Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) causes a rapid and heightened peak blood alcohol concentration (BAC), results from previous studies on the effects of sleeve gastrectomy (SG) on alcohol pharmacokinetics are conflicting. Data from 2 studies found SG did not affect BAC, whereas another study found SG caused a heightened peak BAC after alcohol ingestion. Moreover, these 3 studies estimated BAC from breathalyzers, which might not reliably estimate peak BAC...
November 10, 2017: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300238/erythropoietin-in-treatment-of-methanol-optic-neuropathy
#13
Farzad Pakdel, Mostafa S Sanjari, Asieh Naderi, Niloofar Pirmarzdashti, Anousheh Haghighi, Mohsen B Kashkouli
BACKGROUND: Methanol poisoning can cause an optic neuropathy that is usually severe and irreversible and often occurs after ingestion of illicit or homemade alcoholic beverages. In this study, we evaluated the potential neuroprotective effect of erythropoietin (EPO) on visual acuity (VA) in patients with methanol optic neuropathy. METHODS: In a prospective, noncomparative interventional case series, consecutive patients with methanol optic neuropathy after alcoholic beverage ingestion were included...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289868/avoiding-the-ingestion-of-cytotoxic-concentrations-of-ethanol-may-reduce-the-risk-of-cancer-associated-with-alcohol-consumption
#14
Emilio Guillén-Mancina, José Manuel Calderón-Montaño, Miguel López-Lázaro
Alcohol consumption is a known risk factor for cancer. Almost 6% of all cancers worldwide are attributable to alcohol use. Approximately half of them occur in tissues highly exposed to ethanol, such as the oral cavity, pharynx, upper larynx and esophagus. However, since ethanol is not mutagenic and the mutagenic metabolite of ethanol (acetaldehyde) is mainly produced in the liver, it is unclear why alcohol consumption preferentially exerts a local carcinogenic effect. Recent findings indicate that the risk of cancer in a tissue is strongly correlated with the number of stem cell divisions accumulated by the tissue; the accumulation of stem cell divisions leads to the accumulation of cancer-promoting errors such as mutations occurring during DNA replication...
December 27, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282233/ethanol-forensic-toxicology
#15
Paul J Perry, Shadi Doroudgar, Priscilla Van Dyke
Ethanol abuse can lead to negative consequences that oftentimes result in criminal charges and civil lawsuits. When an individual is suspected of driving under the influence, law enforcement agents can determine the extent of intoxication by measuring the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and performing a standardized field sobriety test. The BAC is dependent on rates of absorption, distribution, and elimination, which are influenced mostly by the dose of ethanol ingested and rate of consumption. Other factors contributing to BAC are gender, body mass and composition, food effects, type of alcohol, and chronic alcohol exposure...
December 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277283/correlation-between-blood-alcohol-concentration-bac-breath-alcohol-concentration-brac-and-psychomotor-evaluation-in-a-clinical-monitored-study-of-alcohol-intake-in-brazil
#16
Ana Paula Drummond-Lage, Rodrigo Gomes de Freitas, Gabriel Cruz, Luigi Perillo, Marco Antonio Paiva, Alberto Julius Alves Wainstein
BACKGROUND: Policies that establish maximum blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) or breath alcohol concentration (BrACs) for drivers while driving can reduce traffic accidents by approximately 20%. In Brazil, the National Transit Council (CONTRAN) considers positive BAC and/or BrAC tests or signs of psychomotor capacity alterations as evaluated by a police authority to be an administrative infraction or even a crime. The observed clinical symptoms of alcohol intoxication based on a subject's appearance may not necessarily reflect the quantified BAC and/or BrAC...
February 2018: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251842/taurine-caffeine-and-energy-drinks-reviewing-the-risks-to-the-adolescent-brain
#17
REVIEW
Christine Perdan Curran, Cecile A Marczinski
Energy drinks are emerging as a major component of the beverage market with sales projected to top $60 billion globally in the next five years. Energy drinks contain a variety of ingredients, but many of the top-selling brands include high doses of caffeine and the amino acid taurine. Energy drink consumption by children has raised concerns, due to potential caffeine toxicity. An additional risk has been noted among college-aged consumers of energy drinks who appear at higher risk of over-consumption of alcohol when the two drinks are consumed together...
December 1, 2017: Birth defects research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250236/post-ictal-transient-atrial-fibrillation-as-a-rare-manifestation-of-grand-mal-seizure
#18
Gulshan Man Singh Dangol, David A Hoffman
Atrial fibrillation (AF) most frequently occurs as a consequence of multiple etiologies including valvular disease, coronary artery disease, hyperthyroidism, alcohol ingestion, and pulmonary embolism. However, on rare occasion transient AF may be a result of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS). A 33-year-old-man presented to the emergency department following GTCS in AF with rapid ventricular response. He had no previous documented history. Diagnostic evaluation including electrolytes, thyroid function, cardiac enzymes, serum and urine drug screen, and two-dimensional echocardiogram were unremarkable...
August 2017: Journal of Atrial Fibrillation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241306/combined-and-isolated-effects-of-alcohol-intake-and-one-night-of-sleep-deprivation-on-mood-states-hormonal-and-inflammatory-responses-in-healthy-male-adults-a-crossover-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Rodrigo Rodrigues, Rodrigo de Azevedo Franke, Bruno Costa Teixeira, Rodrigo Cauduro de Oliveira Macedo, André Luiz Lopes, Álvaro Reischak-Oliveira, Bruno Manfredini Baroni, Marco Aurélio Vaz
Alcohol intake and sleep deprivation are conditions that cause changes in the physiological status. However, the relationship between biological markers and mood states is not entirely clear yet. The purpose of the study was to compare isolated and combined effects of alcohol intake and sleep deprivation on hormonal and inflammatory responses and in changes in the state of mood. Also, we intended to explain possible changes in mood states through biochemical variations using multiple stepwise regression analysis...
December 15, 2017: Chinese Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240979/brief-exposures-to-the-taste-of-ethanol-and-quinine-promote-subsequent-acceptance-of-ethanol-in-a-paradigm-that-minimizes-post-ingestive-consequences
#20
Gregory C Loney, Paul J Meyer
BACKGROUND: Aversion to the orosensory properties of concentrated ethanol solutions is often cited as a primary barrier to initiation of drinking and may contribute to abstention. These aversive properties include gustatory processes which encompass both bitter-like taste qualities and trigeminal-mediated irritation. Chronic-intermittent ethanol access (CIA) results in substantial and persistent increases in ethanol consumption, but the degree to which this facilitation involves sensory responding to ethanol and other bitter stimuli is currently undetermined...
December 14, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
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