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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522597/alcohol-aging-and-innate-immunity
#1
REVIEW
Lisbeth A Boule, Elizabeth J Kovacs
The global population is aging: in 2010, 8% of the population was older than 65 y, and that is expected to double to 16% by 2050. With advanced age comes a heightened prevalence of chronic diseases. Moreover, elderly humans fair worse after acute diseases, namely infection, leading to higher rates of infection-mediated mortality. Advanced age alters many aspects of both the innate and adaptive immune systems, leading to impaired responses to primary infection and poor development of immunologic memory. An often overlooked, yet increasingly common, behavior in older individuals is alcohol consumption...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492119/paraquat-poisoning-acute-lung-injury-a-missed-diagnosis
#2
Sipho D Ntshalintshali, Thandekile C Manzini
Paraquat is a herbicide of great toxicological importance because it is associated with high mortality rates, mainly due to respiratory failure. We report the case of a 28-year-old man admitted to the casualty department at Ngwelezana Hospital, Empangeni, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, with a history of vomiting and abdominal pain after ingestion of ~100 mL of an unknown substance, later identified as paraquat, together with an unknown amount of alcohol, in a suicide attempt. He developed respiratory distress associated with lung parenchymal infiltrates that required ventilatory support and later a spontaneous pneumothorax, and died in the intensive care unit...
April 25, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489307/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-nafl-and-advanced-fibrosis-in-the-elderly-results-from-a-community-based-polish-survey
#3
Marek Hartleb, Kamil Barański, Jan Zejda, Jerzy Chudek, Andrzej Więcek
INTRODUCTION & AIM: Development of non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) is dependent on metabolic factors occurring at an increased frequency with advancing age. Until now, few studies have explored the prevalence of NAFL in aged populations. Our study aimed to determine the prevalence of NAFL and advanced fibrosis in the elderly population participating in a national survey of a community-based elderly cohort. METHODS: A total of 3003 participants (mean age 79.6 years, 46...
May 10, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482932/do-pre-hospital-poisoning-deaths-differ-from-in-hospital-deaths-a-retrospective-analysis
#4
Lauri Koskela, Lasse Raatiniemi, Håkon Kvåle Bakke, Tero Ala-Kokko, Janne Liisanantti
BACKGROUND: Most fatal poisonings occur outside the hospital and the victims found dead. The purpose of this study was to determine the general pattern and patient demographics of fatal poisonings in Northern Finland. In particular, we wanted to analyze differences between pre-hospital and in-hospital deaths. METHODS: All fatal poisonings that occurred in Northern Finland in 2007-2011 were retrieved from the Cause of Death Registry provided by Statistics Finland...
May 8, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467924/fgf21-is-a-sugar-induced-hormone-associated-with-sweet-intake-and-preference-in-humans
#5
Susanna Søberg, Camilla H Sandholt, Naja Z Jespersen, Ulla Toft, Anja L Madsen, Stephanie von Holstein-Rathlou, Trisha J Grevengoed, Karl B Christensen, Wender L P Bredie, Matthew J Potthoff, Thomas P J Solomon, Camilla Scheele, Allan Linneberg, Torben Jørgensen, Oluf Pedersen, Torben Hansen, Matthew P Gillum, Niels Grarup
The liking and selective ingestion of palatable foods-including sweets-is biologically controlled, and dysfunction of this regulation may promote unhealthy eating, obesity, and disease. The hepatokine fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) reduces sweet consumption in rodents and primates, whereas knockout of Fgf21 increases sugar consumption in mice. To investigate the relevance of these findings in humans, we genotyped variants in the FGF21 locus in participants from the Danish Inter99 cohort (n = 6,514) and examined their relationship with a detailed range of food and ingestive behaviors...
May 2, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462386/association-of-variants-of-arginine-vasopressin-and-arginine%C3%A2-vasopressin-receptor-1a-with-severe-acetaminophen%C3%A2-liver-injury
#6
Matthew Randesi, Orna Levran, Joel Correa da Rosa, Julia Hankins, Jody Rule, Mary Jeanne Kreek, William M Lee
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Acetaminophen-related acute liver injury and liver failure (ALF) result from ingestion of supratherapeutic quantities of this analgesic, frequently in association with other forms of substance abuse including alcohol, opioids, and cocaine. Thus, overdosing represents a unique high-risk behavior associated with other forms of drug use disorder. METHODS: We examined a series of 21 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 9 genes related to impulsivity and/or stress responsivity that may modify response to stress...
May 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462133/effects-of-the-herb-mixture-dts20-on-oxidative-stress-and-plasma-alcoholic-metabolites-after-alcohol-consumption-in-healthy-young-men
#7
Yang Hee Hong
BACKGROUND: This study was designed to investigate the effect of a herbal mixture extract (DTS20) on the attenuation of oxidative stress and hangover after alcohol consumption in healthy volunteers. METHODS: DTS20 consists of Viscum album L. (40%), Lycium chinense L. (30%), Inonotus obliquus (20%), and Acanthopanax senticosus H. (10%). We recruited healthy, nonsmoking, adult men volunteers aged between 21 years and 30 years to participate in a crossover trial. Twenty participants received either one package of placebo with 200 mL water or DTS20 with 200 mL water...
December 2016: Integr Med Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459061/patients-admitted-to-three-spanish-intensive-care-units-for-poisoning-type-of-poisoning-mortality-and-functioning-of-prognostic-scores-commonly-used
#8
María Esther Banderas-Bravo, Maria Dolores Arias-Verdú, Ines Macías-Guarasa, Eduardo Aguilar-Alonso, Encarnación Castillo-Lorente, Lucia Pérez-Costillas, Raquel Gutierrez-Rodriguez, Guillermo Quesada-García, Ricardo Rivera-Fernández
Objectives. To evaluate the gravity and mortality of those patients admitted to the intensive care unit for poisoning. Also, the applicability and predicted capacity of prognostic scales most frequently used in ICU must be evaluated. Methods. Multicentre study between 2008 and 2013 on all patients admitted for poisoning. Results. The results are from 119 patients. The causes of poisoning were medication, 92 patients (77.3%), caustics, 11 (9.2%), and alcohol, 20 (16,8%). 78.3% attempted suicides. Mean age was 44...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444711/are-we-justified-in-suggesting-change-to-caffeine-alcohol-and-carbonated-drink-intake-in-lower-urinary-tract-disease-report-from-the-ici-rs-2015
#9
REVIEW
Dudley Robinson, Ann Hanna-Mitchell, Angie Rantell, Gans Thiagamoorthy, Linda Cardozo
AIMS: There is increasing evidence that diet may have a significant role in the development of lower urinary tract symptoms. While fluid intake is known to affect lower urinary tract function the effects of alcohol, caffeine, carbonated drinks, and artificial sweeteners are less well understood and evidence from epidemiological studies is mixed and sometimes contradictory. The aim of this paper is to appraise the available evidence on the effect of caffeine, alcohol, and carbonated drinks on lower urinary tract function and dysfunction in addition to suggesting proposals for further research...
April 2017: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425102/fatal-overdose-of-gamma-hydroxybutyrate-acid-after-ingestion-of-1-4-butanediol
#10
Erwan Le Garff, Vadim Mesli, Raphael Cornez, Christophe Demarly, Gilles Tournel, Valery Hédouin
We report a case of fatal intoxication from 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD), which was ingested by a young and "naïve" gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) consumer during a party with the co-ingestion of alcohol, cannabis, and methylene-dioxy-methamphetamine. The following drug concentrations were found using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry on autopsy samples and on a cup and a glass found at the scene: 20,350 mg/L (bottle) for 1,4-BD; 1020 mg/L (femoral blood), 3380 mg/L (cardiac blood), 47,280 mg/L (gastric content), and 570 mg/L (vitreous humor) for GHB...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419649/a-paradigm-for-examining-stress-effects-on-alcohol-motivated-behaviors-in-participants-with-alcohol-use-disorder
#11
Mary E McCaul, Gary S Wand, Elise M Weerts, Xiaoqiang Xu
Although epidemiological research has shown an increase in drinking following stressors and trauma, limited paradigms have been validated to study the relationship between stress and drinking in the human laboratory. The current study developed a progressive ratio (PR) operant procedure to examine the effects of psychosocial stress on alcohol craving and several alcohol-motivated behaviors in persons with alcohol use disorder. Current heavy, nontreatment-seeking drinkers (N = 30) were media-recruited and completed a comprehensive assessment of recent drinking, mood and health...
April 17, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399012/sweeteners-and-sweetness-enhancers
#12
Christine Belloir, Fabrice Neiers, Loïc Briand
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review summarizes and discusses current knowledge on sweeteners and sweetness enhancers. RECENT FINDINGS: The perception of sweet taste is mediated by the type 1 taste receptor 2 (T1R2)/type 1 taste receptor 3 (T1R3) receptor, which is expressed in the oral cavity, where it provides input on the caloric and macronutrient contents of ingested food. This receptor recognizes all the compounds (natural or artificial) perceived as sweet by people...
April 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393244/constitutive-androstane-receptor-activation-promotes-bilirubin-clearance-in-a-murine-model-of-alcoholic-liver-disease
#13
Xiuyan Wang, Liyu Zheng, Jinming Wu, Binbin Tang, Mengqin Zhang, Debin Zhu, Xianfan Lin
Increased plasma levels of bilirubin have been reported in rat models and patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD). The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is a known xenobiotic receptor, which induces the detoxification and transport of bilirubin. In the present study, the bilirubin transport regulatory mechanisms, and the role of CAR activation in hepatic and extrahepatic bilirubin clearance were investigated in a murine model of ALD. The mice were fed a Lieber-DeCarli ethanol diet or an isocaloric control diet for 4 weeks, followed by the administration of CAR agonists, 1,4-bis-[2‑(3,5-dichlorpyridyloxy)]benzene (TCPOBOP) and phenobarbital (PB), and their vehicles to examine the effect of the pharmacological activation of CAR on serum levels of bilirubin and on the bilirubin clearance pathway in ALD by serological survey, western blotting and reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction...
June 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390875/effect-of-non-nutritive-sugars-to-decrease-the-survivorship-of-spotted-wing-drosophila-drosophila-suzukii
#14
Man-Yeon Choi, Siew Bee Tang, Seung-Joon Ahn, Kaushalya G Amarasekare, Peter Shearer, Jana C Lee
In this study, we investigated the effects of non-nutritive sugars and sugar alcohols on the survivorship of spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii, and found erythritol and erythrose as potentially insecticidal to the fly. In a dose-dependent study, erythritol and erythrose significantly reduced fly longevity, with 100% mortality with 1, 0.5, 0.1 & 0.05M doses after feeding for 7days. When sucrose and erythritol solutions were provided separately to flies for 7days, there was no effect on survivorship regardless of erythritol concentrations...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386694/effect-of-alcohol-after-muscle-damaging-resistance-exercise-on-muscular-performance-recovery-and-inflammatory-capacity-in-women
#15
Danielle E Levitt, Hui-Ying Luk, Anthony A Duplanty, Brian K McFarlin, David W Hill, Jakob L Vingren
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of acute alcohol consumption on muscular performance recovery, assessed by maximal torque production, and on inflammatory capacity, assessed by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated cytokine production, following muscle-damaging resistance exercise in women. METHODS: Thirteen recreationally resistance-trained women completed two identical exercise bouts (300 maximal single-leg eccentric leg extensions) followed by alcohol (1.09 g ethanol kg(-1) fat-free body mass) or placebo ingestion...
April 6, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376114/high-risk-of-misinterpreting-liver-and-spleen-stiffness-using-2d-shear-wave-and-transient-elastography-after-a-moderate-or-high-calorie-meal
#16
Maria Kjærgaard, Maja Thiele, Christian Jansen, Bjørn Stæhr Madsen, Jan Görtzen, Christian Strassburg, Jonel Trebicka, Aleksander Krag
Food intake increases liver stiffness, but it is believed that liver stiffness returns to baseline two hours after a meal. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of different sized meals on liver stiffness. Liver and spleen stiffness was measured with transient elastography (TE) and real-time 2-dimensional shear wave elastography (2D-SWE). Patients ingested a 625 kcal and a 1250 kcal liquid meal on two consecutive days. We measured liver and spleen elasticity, Controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) and portal flow at baseline and after 20, 40, 60, 120 and 180 minutes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358755/patients-knowledge-and-attitudes-towards-regular-alcohol-urine-screening-a-survey-study
#17
Pablo Barrio, Lídia Teixidor, Lluisa Ortega, Mercè Balcells, Eduard Vieta, Antoni Gual
BACKGROUND: Despite its wide implementation, there is a paucity of data supporting the effectiveness of regular alcohol urine screening (RAUS) in maintaining abstinence. This study aims at investigating if RAUS serves other purposes, what attitudes patients display towards it, and patients' technical knowledge about basic screening notions. METHOD: We conducted a cross-sectional survey among adults with alcohol dependence, attending outpatient alcohol-dependence treatment...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344087/subacute-alcohol-and-or-disulfiram-intake-affects-bioelements-and-redox-status-in-rat-testes
#18
Ana Djuric, Aida Begic, Borko Gobeljic, Ana Pantelic, Goran Zebic, Ivana Stevanovic, Dragan Djurdjevic, Milica Ninkovic, Vera Prokic, Ivan Stanojevic, Danilo Vojvodic, Mirjana Djukic
The aim of the study was to investigate if alcohol and disulfiram (DSF) individually and in combination affect bioelements' and red-ox homeostasis in testes of the exposed rats. The animals were divided into groups according to the duration of treatments (21 and/or 42 days): C21/C42 groups (controls); OL21 and OL22-42 groups (0.5 mL olive oil intake); A1-21 groups (3 mL 20% ethanol intake); DSF1-21 groups (178.5 mg DSF/kg/day intake); and A21+DSF22-42 groups (the DSF ingestion followed previous 21 days' treatment with alcohol)...
March 24, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343124/effects-of-acute-alcohol-consumption-on-measures-of-simulated-driving-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Christopher Irwin, Elizaveta Iudakhina, Ben Desbrow, Danielle McCartney
Driving simulators are used in a wide range of research settings to help develop an understanding of driver behavior in complex environments. Acute alcohol impairment is an important research topic for traffic safety and a large number of studies have indicated levels of simulated driving impairment imposed by alcohol across a range of performance outcome variables. The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of acute alcohol consumption on simulated driving performance by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available evidence...
March 23, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317073/effect-of-8-weeks-prebiotics-probiotics-supplementation-on-alcohol-metabolism-and-blood-biomarkers-of-healthy-adults-a-pilot-study
#20
Christopher Irwin, Saman Khalesi, Amanda J Cox, Gary Grant, Andrew K Davey, Andrew C Bulmer, Ben Desbrow
PURPOSE: Modulating gut bacteria via regular prebiotics/probiotics consumption may improve the metabolism of acute alcohol ingestion. This study investigated the impact of 8-weeks prebiotics/probiotics supplementation on microbiome changes and responses to acute alcohol consumption. METHODS: 38 participants (21 females, 23.6 ± 3.4 kg m(-2), mean ± SD) attended the laboratory on two occasions separated by an 8-week intervention period. On each of these visits, a dose of alcohol (0...
March 19, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
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