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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716132/a-patient-safety-and-professional-perspective-on-non-conveyance-in-ambulance-care-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Remco H A Ebben, Lilian C M Vloet, Renate F Speijers, Nico W Tönjes, Jorik Loef, Thomas Pelgrim, Margreet Hoogeveen, Sivera A A Berben
BACKGROUND: This systematic review aimed to describe non-conveyance in ambulance care from patient-safety and ambulance professional perspectives. The review specifically focussed at describing (1) ambulance non-conveyance rates, (2) characteristics of non-conveyed patients, (3) follow-up care after non-conveyance, (4) existing guidelines or protocols, and (5) influencing factors during the non-conveyance decision making process. METHODS: We systematically searched MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, and reference lists of included articles, in June 2016...
July 17, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710145/a-systematic-review-of-the-effects-of-polyols-on-gastrointestinal-health-and-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#2
REVIEW
Adrienne Lenhart, William D Chey
Polyols are sugar alcohols found in certain fruits, vegetables, and sugar-free sweeteners. They make up a component of the diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols, which is gaining popularity in the treatment of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the effects of polyols on the gastrointestinal tract in healthy men and women and in patients with IBS. Utilizing PubMed, Ovid, and Embase databases, we conducted a search on individual polyols and each of these terms: fermentation, absorption, motility, permeability, and gastrointestinal symptoms...
July 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708332/oxidative-stress-and-cellular-and-tissue-damage-in-organogenic-outbred-mouse-embryos-after-moderate-perigestational-alcohol-intake
#3
Tamara A Coll, Gabriela Chaufan, Leticia Pérez-Tito, Martín R Ventureira, Cristian M A Sobarzo, María Del Carmen Ríos de Molina, Elisa Cebral
Perigestational alcohol consumption by CF-1 mouse, from before mating up to the period of embryo organogenesis, leads to retarded early embryo development and neural tube defects. Here, we addressed if perigestational alcohol ingestion up to Day 10 of pregnancy induces oxidative stress and changes in macromolecules and organ tissues of early organogenic embryos. Adult CF-1 female mice were administered 10% ethanol in their drinking water for 17 days prior to mating and until Day 10 of gestation, whereas control females were administered ethanol-free water...
July 14, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704765/high-intensity-drinking-and-nonmedical-use-of-prescription-drugs-results-from-a-national-survey-of-12th-grade-students
#4
Sean Esteban McCabe, Philip Veliz, Megan E Patrick
BACKGROUND: Nearly 10% of U.S. 12th graders report high-intensity drinking (10+ or 15+ drinks in a row), but the extent to which these drinkers also engage in nonmedical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) is largely unknown. This study examined the associations between different thresholds of past two-week high-intensity drinking and past-month NMUPD among U.S. 12th graders. METHODS: The sample consisted of eleven nationally representative cross-sections of 12th graders in the Monitoring the Future study (2005-2015) who answered questions on past two-week drinking behaviors and past-month nonmedical use of prescription opioids, sedative, stimulants, and tranquilizers (N=26,502 respondents)...
June 29, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668395/gc-ms-based-metabolomics-of-csf-and-blood-serum-metabolic-phenotype-for-a-rat-model-of-cefoperazone-induced-disulfiram-like-reaction
#5
Linsheng Liu, Chengrong Huang, Yicong Bian, Liyan Miao
Cefoperazone are most popularly used in the treatment of complicated infections clinically. Concomitant ingestion of ethnaol and cefoperazone may cause a disulfiram-like reaction. However, very little is known about the possible interactions between cefoperazone treatment and an alcohol with regard to the induction of disulfiram-like reaction. Study of the metabolic impact of cotreatment with cefoperazone and alcohol on animals can facilitate the identification of markers relevant to disulfiram-like reaction...
June 28, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665287/-a-prospective-study-on-acute-poisonings-presenting-to-the-emergency-department-at-landspitali-university-hospital-in-iceland-2012
#6
Gudborg Audur Gudjonsdottir, Anna Maria Thordardottir, Jakob Kristinsson
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of the study was to assess the incidence and type of toxic exposures presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) at Landspitali University Hospital in Iceland over one year and compare the results to another study performed eleven years before. METHODS: The study was prospective and included all visits due to acute poisoning to the ED between January 1, and December 31, 2012. RESULTS: A total of 977 toxic exposures were documented...
June 2017: Læknablađiđ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659754/nadph-oxidase-isoform-2-nox2-is-involved-in-drug-addiction-vulnerability-in-progeny-developmentally-exposed-to-ethanol
#7
Marcela L Contreras, Erwin de la Fuente-Ortega, Sofía Vargas-Roberts, Daniela C Muñoz, Carolina A Goic, Paola A Haeger
Ethanol exposure increases oxidative stress in developing organs, including the brain. Antioxidant treatment during maternal ethanol ingestion improves behavioral deficits in rodent models of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). However, the impact of general antioxidant treatment in their adult offspring and the Specific Reactive Species (ROS)-dependent mechanism, are not fully understood. We hypothesized that pre and early postnatal ethanol exposure (PEE) modifies redox homeostasis, in particular NOX2 function during reward signaling in the mesocorticolimbic pathway, which reinforces the effects of alcohol...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655383/mixed-isopropanol-methanol-intoxication-following-ingestion-of-alcohol-based-hand-rub%C3%A2-solution%C3%A2
#8
Gordon Chan, Jones Chan, Cheuk-Chun Szeto, Kai-Ming Chow
Traditionally, ingestion of alcohol-based hand rub solution results in isopropanol poisoning, which has a low toxicity. We describe a case of combined methanol and isopropanol intoxication by ingestion of alcohol-based hand rub solution. Metabolic acidosis was absent in our patient, presumably because formic acid production is blocked by isopropanol, which inhibits alcohol dehydrogenase. Our case highlights the importance of considering methanol intoxication in patients who ingested alcohol-based hand rub solution, even when there is no metabolic acidosis, and timely removal of the toxic alcohols by dialysis in these patients would prevent permanent retinal damage...
June 28, 2017: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653772/serum-carcinoembryonic-antigen-is-positively-associated-with-leukocyte-count-in-korean-adults
#9
Yu-Jin Kwon, Hye-Sun Lee, Jae-Yong Shim, Yong-Jae Lee
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence shows that serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels may modestly be increased in non-neoplastic conditions such as cardiometabolic diseases, which are increasingly being seen as inflammatory diseases. Leukocyte count is widely evaluated marker of inflammation in clinical practice and a useful predictor of cardiometabolic disease. In this study, we aimed to determine the relationship between serum CEA levels and leukocyte counts in Korean adults. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included a total of 19 834 individuals enrolled from a health promotion center between November 2006 and July 2010...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650591/the-silver-lining-towards-the-responsible-and-limited-usage-of-silver
#10
REVIEW
Kshipra Naik, Meenal Kowshik
Silver has attracted a lot of attention as a powerful, broad spectrum and natural antimicrobial agent since the ancient times because of its non-toxic nature to the human body at low concentrations. It has been used in treatment of various infections and ulcers, storage of water, and prevention of bacterial growth on the surfaces and within materials. However there are numerous medical and health benefits of colloidal or nano silver apart from its microbicidal ability which as yet have not been fully embraced by the medical community...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645616/epidemiological-and-sociodemographic-factors-associated-with-complicated-alcohol-withdrawal-syndrome
#11
R Monte-Secades, M Blanco-Soto, J A Díaz-Peromingo, A Sanvisens-Bergé, M C Martín-González, A Barbosa, B Rosón-Hernández, M A Tejero-Delgado, R Puerta-Louro, R Rabuñal-Rey
OBJECTIVES: To analyse the influence of epidemiological and sociodemographic factors in complicated alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A multicentre, observational prospective study was conducted on consecutively added patients with AWS hospitalised in internal medicine departments. We recorded sociodemographic, epidemiological, clinical and progression data. Complicated AWS was defined as that which progressed with seizures or delirium tremens...
June 20, 2017: Revista Clínica Española
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639827/the-effects-of-alcohol-expectancy-and-intake-on-slot-machine-gambling-behavior
#12
Dominic Sagoe, Rune Aune Mentzoni, Tony Leino, Helge Molde, Sondre Haga, Mikjel Fredericson Gjernes, Daniel Hanss, Ståle Pallesen
Background and aims Although alcohol intake and gambling often co-occur in related venues, there is conflicting evidence regarding the effects of alcohol expectancy and intake on gambling behavior. We therefore conducted an experimental investigation of the effects of alcohol expectancy and intake on slot machine gambling behavior. Methods Participants were 184 (females = 94) individuals [age range: 18-40 (mean = 21.9) years] randomized to four independent conditions differing in information/expectancy about beverage (told they received either alcohol or placebo) and beverage intake [actually ingesting low (target blood alcohol concentration [BAC] < 0...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638217/diet-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-what-to-recommend-not-what-to-forbid-to-patients
#13
REVIEW
Anamaria Cozma-Petruţ, Felicia Loghin, Doina Miere, Dan Lucian Dumitraşcu
A substantial proportion of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) associate their symptoms with the ingestion of specific foods. Therefore, in recent years, scientific research has increasingly focused on the role of diet in IBS and dietary management is now considered an important tool in IBS treatment. This article reviews the main dietary approaches in IBS emphasizing evidence from experimental and observational studies and summarizing the main diet and lifestyle recommendations provided by dietary guidelines and scientific literature...
June 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632197/toxic-age-tage-theory-for-the-pathophysiology-of-the-onset-progression-of-nafld-and-ald
#14
REVIEW
Masayoshi Takeuchi, Jun-Ichi Takino, Akiko Sakasai-Sakai, Takanobu Takata, Mikihiro Tsutsumi
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and alcoholic liver disease (ALD) are among the most common causes of chronic liver diseases in the westernized world. NAFLD and ALD are frequently accompanied by extrahepatic complications, including hepatocellular carcinoma and cardiovascular diseases, which have a negative impact on patient survival. The chronic ingestion of an excessive daily diet containing sugar/high-fructose corn syrup increases the level of the fructose/glucose metabolite, glyceraldehyde (GA), while the chronic consumption of an excessive number of alcoholic beverages increases the level of the alcohol metabolite, acetaldehyde (AA) in the liver...
June 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632074/isopropyl-alcohol-swabs-as-a-preferred-substance-of-abuse
#15
Aditi Sharma, Jonathan D Morrow
The authors describe the treatment of a 36-year-old woman who presented with excessive consumption of antiseptic alcohol swabs. Her behavior was diagnosed as a severe substance use disorder with isopropyl alcohol as the primary drug of choice. Diagnostic and treatment challenges involved in the case are discussed in detail, with particular focus on the differential diagnosis for this unusual presentation, including obsessive compulsive disorder, pica, and intentional self-injurious behavior. A brief review of the literature on non-ethanol ingestion for the purposes of intoxication is included, as well as clinical information about the potential dangers posed by isopropyl alcohol consumption...
February 26, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617958/alcohol-consumption-decreases-oxytocin-neurons-in-the-anterior-paraventricular-nucleus-of-the-hypothalamus-in-prairie-voles
#16
J R Stevenson, K A Young, A E Bohidar, L M Francomacaro, T R Fasold, J M Buirkle, J R Ndem, S C Christian
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorders are associated with dysfunctional social relationships and stress responses. The neuropeptides oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) are known to orchestrate or mediate many aspects of social behavior, stress responses, and ingestive behaviors. Because of the overlap between the effects of alcohol and the roles of oxytocin and vasopressin, we sought to determine if alcohol consumption altered expression of OT and AVP in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), one of the key sites for OT and AVP synthesis...
June 15, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598064/emphysematous-gastritis-with-air-in-portal-venous-system
#17
Omesh Goyal, Ajesh Bansal, Prerna Goyal
Emphysematous gastritis is a rare but severe form of phlegmonous gastritis caused by gastric mucosal disruption and infection of stomach wall by gas-forming bacteria. Ingestion of corrosive substances is the most common predisposing factor, followed by alcohol abuse, abdominal surgery, diabetes and immunosuppression. Patients usually present with abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation and/or gastro-intestinal hemorrhage. Characteristic radiological findings include presence of gas in the gastric wall...
May 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594397/establishment-of-a-quick-and-highly-accurate-breath-test-for-aldh2-genotyping
#18
Ikuo Aoyama, Shinya Ohashi, Yusuke Amanuma, Kenshiro Hirohashi, Ayaka Mizumoto, Makiko Funakoshi, Mihoko Tsurumaki, Yukie Nakai, Katsuyuki Tanaka, Mariko Hanada, Aki Uesaka, Tsutomu Chiba, Manabu Muto
OBJECTIVES: Acetaldehyde, the first metabolite of ethanol, is a definite carcinogen for the esophagus, head, and neck; and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is a mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes the metabolism of acetaldehyde. The ALDH2 genotype exists as ALDH2*1/*1 (active ALDH2), ALDH2*1/*2 (heterozygous inactive ALDH2), and ALDH2*2/*2 (homozygous inactive ALDH2). Many epidemiological studies have reported that ALDH2*2 carriers are at high risk for esophageal or head and neck squamous cell carcinomas by habitual drinking...
June 8, 2017: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591763/non-linear-formation-of-etg-and-faees-after-controlled-administration-of-low-to-moderate-doses-of-ethanol
#19
Clara Pérez-Mañá, Magí Farré, Antoni Pastor, Francina Fonseca, Marta Torrens, Esther Menoyo, Mitona Pujadas, Silvia Frias, Klaus Langohr, Rafael de la Torre
Aims: Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) are non-oxidative metabolites of alcohol that can be detected in conventional and non-conventional biological matrices for longer periods than alcohol. The aim was to describe the time courses of both biomarkers after ingestion of acute low-moderate doses of ethanol. Methods: The study design was double-blind, randomized, crossover and controlled with placebo. Participants were distributed in three different cohorts: (a) Cohort-1: two doses of 18 and 30 g of ethanol and placebo were administered to 12 subjects; (b) Cohort-2: two doses of 6 and 12 g of ethanol and placebo were administered to six subjects and (c) Cohort-3: two doses of 24 and 42 g of ethanol and placebo were administered to six subjects...
June 7, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585211/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#20
Atilla Engin
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is in parallel with the obesity epidemic and it is the most common cause of liver diseases. The development of hepatic steatosis in majority of patients is linked to dietary fat ingestion. NAFLD is characterized by excess accumulation of triglyceride in the hepatocyte due to both increased inflow of free fatty acids and de novo hepatic lipogenesis. Insulin resistance with the deficiency of insulin receptor substrate-2 (IRS-2)-associated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activity causes an increase in intracellular fatty acid-derived metabolites such as diacylglycerol, fatty acyl CoA or ceramides...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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