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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675414/spondyloarthritis-acute-anterior-uveitis-and-fungi-updating-the-catterall-king-hypothesis
#1
Martin Laurence, Mark Asquith, James T Rosenbaum
Spondyloarthritis is a common type of arthritis which affects mostly adults. It consists of idiopathic chronic inflammation of the spine, joints, eyes, skin, gut, and prostate. Inflammation is often asymptomatic, especially in the gut and prostate. The HLA-B*27 allele group, which presents intracellular peptides to CD8+ T cells, is by far the strongest risk factor for spondyloarthritis. The precise mechanisms and antigens remain unknown. In 1959, Catterall and King advanced a novel hypothesis explaining the etiology of spondyloarthritis: an as-yet-unrecognized sexually acquired microbe would be causing all spondyloarthritis types, including acute anterior uveitis...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666281/pathogenic-effects-of-ifit2-and-interferon-%C3%AE-during-fatal-systemic-candida-albicans-infection
#2
Marcin Stawowczyk, Shamoon Naseem, Valeria Montoya, Darren P Baker, James Konopka, Nancy C Reich
A balanced immune response to infection is essential to prevent the pathology and tissue damage that can occur from an unregulated or hyperactive host defense. Interferons (IFNs) are critical mediators of the innate defense to infection, and in this study we evaluated the contribution of a specific gene coding for IFIT2 induced by type I IFNs in a murine model of disseminated Candida albicans Invasive candidiasis is a frequent challenge during immunosuppression or surgical medical interventions, and C. albicans is a common culprit that leads to high rates of mortality...
April 17, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656742/pathogenesis-of-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-and-risks-associated-with-treatments-for-multiple-sclerosis-a-decade-of-lessons-learned
#3
REVIEW
Eugene O Major, Tarek A Yousry, David B Clifford
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare, devastating demyelinating disease of the CNS caused by the JC virus (JCV) that occurs in patients with compromised immune systems. Detection of PML in systemically immunocompetent patients with multiple sclerosis treated with natalizumab points to a role for this drug in the pathophysiology of PML. Emerging knowledge of the cellular and molecular biology of JCV infection and the pathogenesis of PML-including interplay of this common virus with the human immune system and features of natalizumab that might contribute to PML pathogenesis-provides new opportunities to monitor viral status and predict risk of JCV-associated disease...
May 2018: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649790/evolution-of-multiple-sclerosis-prevalence-and-phenotype-in-latin-america
#4
REVIEW
L Negrotto, J Correale
BACKGROUND: Literature regarding MS epidemiology and phenotype is scarce but has increased markedly over the past years. The objective of the present work is to assess the evolution of the prevalence and phenotype of MS in Latin America during recent years. METHODS: Review of literature. RESULTS: MS prevalence levels are low to medium in Latin America, although these have increased in recent years. A small latitudinal gradient has also been observed, but exceptions to this rule exist, suggesting other genetic and environmental factors ultimately influence regional prevalence rates...
March 21, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629575/adult-hospital-admissions-associated-with-multiple-sclerosis-in-finland-in-2004-2014
#5
Anna-Leena Pirttisalo, Jussi O T Sipilä, Merja Soilu-Hänninen, Päivi Rautava, Ville Kytö
INTRODUCTION: Treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) has developed significantly and several new immunotherapeutic drugs have become available in Finland since 2004. We studied whether this is associated with changes in hospital admission frequencies and healthcare costs and whether admission rates due to infection have increased. METHODS: The national Care Register for Health Care was searched for all discharges from neurological, medical, surgical, neurosurgical and intensive care units with MS as a primary diagnosis or an auxiliary diagnosis for primary infection diagnosis in 2004-2014...
April 9, 2018: Annals of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624084/recent-developments-in-interferon-based-therapies-for-multiple-sclerosis
#6
Laura Dumitrescu, Cris S Constantinescu, Radu Tanasescu
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic and disabling immune-mediated disease of the central nervous system. Beta-interferons are the first approved and still the most widely used first-line disease-modifying treatment in MS. Areas covered: Here we focus on recent developments in pharmacology and delivery systems of beta-interferons, and discuss their place within current state of the art therapeutic approaches. We briefly review the clinical trials for classical and PEGylated formulations, emphasizing effectiveness, safety concerns, and tolerability...
April 6, 2018: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618972/an-inflammation-centric-view-of-neurological-disease-beyond-the-neuron
#7
REVIEW
Stephen D Skaper, Laura Facci, Morena Zusso, Pietro Giusti
Inflammation is a complex biological response fundamental to how the body deals with injury and infection to eliminate the initial cause of cell injury and effect repair. Unlike a normally beneficial acute inflammatory response, chronic inflammation can lead to tissue damage and ultimately its destruction, and often results from an inappropriate immune response. Inflammation in the nervous system ("neuroinflammation"), especially when prolonged, can be particularly injurious. While inflammation per se may not cause disease, it contributes importantly to disease pathogenesis across both the peripheral (neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia) and central [e...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618802/integrative-analysis-of-multiple-sclerosis-using-a-systems-biology-approach
#8
Karla Cervantes-Gracia, Holger Husi
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disorder characterized by inflammatory-demyelinating events in the central nervous system. Despite more than 40 years of MS research its aetiology remains unknown. This study aims to identify the most frequently reported and consistently regulated molecules in MS in order to generate molecular interaction networks and thereby leading to the identification of deregulated processes and pathways which could give an insight of the underlying molecular mechanisms of MS...
April 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602795/disease-modifying-drugs-for-multiple-sclerosis-and-infection-risk-a-cohort-study
#9
José Maria Andreas Wijnands, Feng Zhu, Elaine Kingwell, John David Fisk, Charity Evans, Ruth Ann Marrie, Yinshan Zhao, Helen Tremlett
OBJECTIVE: Little is known about disease-modifying treatments (DMTs) for multiple sclerosis (MS) and infection risk in clinical practice. We examined the association between DMTs and infection-related medical encounters. METHODS: Using population-based administrative data from British Columbia, Canada, we identified MS cases and followed them from their first demyelinating event (1996-2013) until emigration, death or study end (December 2013). Associations between DMT exposure (by DMT generation or class) and infection-related physician or hospital claims were assessed using recurrent time-to-events models, adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status, index year and comorbidity count...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600441/efficacy-and-safety-of-the-newer-multiple-sclerosis-drugs-approved-since-2010
#10
REVIEW
Simon Faissner, Ralf Gold
Multiple sclerosis treatment faces tremendous changes as a result of the approval of new medications. The new medications have differing safety considerations and risks after long-term treatment, which are important for treating physicians to optimize and individualize multiple sclerosis care. Since the approval of the first multiple sclerosis capsule, fingolimod, the armamentarium of multiple sclerosis therapy has grown with the orally available medications dimethyl fumarate and teriflunomide. Fingolimod is mainly associated with cardiac side effects, dimethyl fumarate with bowel symptoms...
March 29, 2018: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593720/the-soluble-form-of-toll-like-receptor-2-is-elevated-in-serum-of-multiple-sclerosis-patients-a-novel-potential-disease-biomarker
#11
Md Jakir Hossain, Elena Morandi, Radu Tanasescu, Nanci Frakich, Marzia Caldano, David Onion, Tola A Faraj, Clett Erridge, Bruno Gran
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. It was previously shown that toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 signaling plays a key role in the murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of MS, and that TLR2-stimulation of regulatory T cells (Tregs) promotes their conversion to T helper 17 (Th17) cells. Here, we sought potential sources of TLR2 stimulation and evidence of TLR2 activity in MS patient clinical samples. Soluble TLR2 (sTLR2) was found to be significantly elevated in sera of MS patients ( n  = 21), in both relapse and remission, compared to healthy controls (HC) ( n  = 24)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593697/herv-envelope-proteins-physiological-role-and-pathogenic-potential-in-cancer-and-autoimmunity
#12
REVIEW
Nicole Grandi, Enzo Tramontano
Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are relics of ancient infections accounting for about the 8% of our genome. Despite their persistence in human DNA led to the accumulation of mutations, HERVs are still contributing to the human transcriptome, and a growing number of findings suggests that their expression products may have a role in various diseases. Among HERV products, the envelope proteins (Env) are currently highly investigated for their pathogenic properties, which could likely be participating to several disorders with complex etiology, particularly in the contexts of autoimmunity and cancer...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593492/enteroviral-infection-the-forgotten-link-to-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#13
REVIEW
Yuan Chao Xue, Ralph Feuer, Neil Cashman, Honglin Luo
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease that primarily attacks motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord, leading to progressive paralysis and ultimately death. Currently there is no effective therapy. The majority of ALS cases are sporadic, with no known family history; unfortunately the etiology remains largely unknown. Contribution of Enteroviruses (EVs), a family of positive-stranded RNA viruses including poliovirus, coxsackievirus, echovirus, enterovirus-A71 and enterovirus-D68, to the development of ALS has been suspected as they can target motor neurons, and patients with prior poliomyelitis show a higher risk of motor neuron disease...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587809/assessing-the-outcomes-of-everolimus-on-renal-angiomyolipoma-associated-with-tuberous-sclerosis-complex-in-china-a-two-years-trial
#14
Yi Cai, Hao Guo, Wenda Wang, Hanzhong Li, Hao Sun, Bing Shi, Yushi Zhang
BACKGROUND: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a rare autosomal dominant genetic disorder characterized by the development of numerous benign tumors. Renal angiomyolipoma (RAML) occur in up to 80% of TSC patients, which is a leading cause of TSC-related death in adult patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety profiles of everolimus in Chinese patients of TSC associated with RAML(TSC-RAML). METHODS: In this 2-years, nonrandomized, open-label trial, 18 patients of TSC-RAML, with at least one RAML 3 cm or larger in its longest diameter, were enrolled to assess the efficacy and safety of everolimus therapy in Chinese patients...
March 27, 2018: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587799/hla-alleles-modulate-ebv-viral-load-in-multiple-sclerosis
#15
Simone Agostini, Roberta Mancuso, Franca R Guerini, Sandra D'Alfonso, Cristina Agliardi, Ambra Hernis, Milena Zanzottera, Nadia Barizzone, Maurizio A Leone, Domenico Caputo, Marco Rovaris, Mario Clerici
BACKGROUND: The etiopathology of multiple sclerosis (MS) is believed to include genetic and environmental factors. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles, in particular,  are associated with disease susceptibility, whereas Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) infection has long been suspected to play a role in disease pathogenesis. The aim of the present study is to evaluate correlations between HLA alleles and EBV infection in MS. METHODS: HLA alleles, EBV viral load (VL) and serum anti-EBV antibody titers were evaluated in EBV-seropositive MS patients (N = 117) and age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC; N = 89)...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576505/siponimod-versus-placebo-in-secondary-progressive-multiple-sclerosis-expand-a-double-blind-randomised-phase-3-study
#16
Ludwig Kappos, Amit Bar-Or, Bruce A C Cree, Robert J Fox, Gavin Giovannoni, Ralf Gold, Patrick Vermersch, Douglas L Arnold, Sophie Arnould, Tatiana Scherz, Christian Wolf, Erik Wallström, Frank Dahlke
BACKGROUND: No treatment has consistently shown efficacy in slowing disability progression in patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS). We assessed the effect of siponimod, a selective sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor1,5 modulator, on disability progression in patients with SPMS. METHODS: This event-driven and exposure-driven, double-blind, phase 3 trial was done at 292 hospital clinics and specialised multiple sclerosis centres in 31 countries...
March 22, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575574/no-effects-without-causes-the-iron-dysregulation-and-dormant-microbes-hypothesis-for-chronic-inflammatory-diseases
#17
Douglas B Kell, Etheresia Pretorius
Since the successful conquest of many acute, communicable (infectious) diseases through the use of vaccines and antibiotics, the currently most prevalent diseases are chronic and progressive in nature, and are all accompanied by inflammation. These diseases include neurodegenerative (e.g. Alzheimer's, Parkinson's), vascular (e.g. atherosclerosis, pre-eclampsia, type 2 diabetes) and autoimmune (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis) diseases that may appear to have little in common. In fact they all share significant features, in particular chronic inflammation and its attendant inflammatory cytokines...
March 25, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570004/demographics-and-clinical-characteristics-of-episodic-hypothermia-in-multiple-sclerosis
#18
Michel Toledano, Brian G Weinshenker, Timothy J Kaufmann, Joseph E Parisi, M Mateo Paz Soldán
BACKGROUND: Episodic hypothermia (EH) can occur in multiple sclerosis (MS). The putative mechanism is impairment of thermoregulation due to a presumed demyelinating hypothalamic lesion. OBJECTIVE: To describe a cohort of patients with MS, who developed EH. METHODS: Patients were identified through review of the Mayo Clinic electronic medical record (1996 to July 2015). Search terms were [multiple sclerosis] or [MS] within the diagnoses field and [hypothermia] within any field...
March 1, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560597/central-demyelinating-diseases-after-vaccination-against-hepatitis-b-virus-a-disproportionality-analysis-within-the-vaers-database
#19
Julie Mouchet, Bernard Bégaud
INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis B (HB) vaccination programs were set up worldwide in the early 1990s. Despite their major focus on reducing the burden of HB infection, they have seldom achieved the targeted population coverage in most countries, including the USA, with around 24.5% of adults being vaccinated against HB. Among proposed reasons for this is the persisting doubt about a possible link between HB vaccination and the occurrence of cases of multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to evaluate a potential safety signal between MS and HB vaccination...
March 20, 2018: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557362/contributions-of-neurotropic-human-herpesviruses-herpes-simplex-virus-1-and-human-herpesvirus-6-to-neurodegenerative-disease-pathology
#20
REVIEW
Jessica M Hogestyn, David J Mock, Margot Mayer-Proschel
Human herpesviruses (HVs) have developed ingenious mechanisms that enable them to traverse the defenses of the central nervous system (CNS). The ability of HVs to enter a state of latency, a defining characteristic of this viral family, allows them to persist in the human host indefinitely. As such, HVs represent the most frequently detected pathogens in the brain. Under constant immune pressure, these infections are largely asymptomatic in healthy hosts. However, many neurotropic HVs have been directly connected with CNS pathology in the context of other stressors and genetic risk factors...
February 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
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