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Infection in multiple sclerosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911021/-mycobacterium-avium-subspecies-paratuberculosis-a-possible-causative-agent-in-human-morbidity-and-risk-to-public-health-safety
#1
REVIEW
Mary Garvey
Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis is a bacterial parasite and the causative agent of paratuberculosis, a disease predominately found in cattle and sheep. Infection with this microorganism results in substantial farming economic losses and animal morbidity. The link between infection with this pathogen and human disease has been theorised for many years with Crohn's disease being one of many suspected resultant conditions. Mycobacterium avium may be spread from animal to human hosts by water and foodborne transmission routes, where the foodborne route of exposure represents a significant risk for susceptible populations, namely children and the immune-compromised...
2018: Open Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899295/impact-of-dietary-cholesterol-on-the-pathophysiology-of-infectious-and-autoimmune-disease
#2
REVIEW
Catherine J Andersen
Cellular cholesterol metabolism, lipid raft formation, and lipoprotein interactions contribute to the regulation of immune-mediated inflammation and response to pathogens. Lipid pathways have been implicated in the pathogenesis of bacterial and viral infections, whereas altered lipid metabolism may contribute to immune dysfunction in autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Interestingly, dietary cholesterol may exert protective or detrimental effects on risk, progression, and treatment of different infectious and autoimmune diseases, although current findings suggest that these effects are variable across populations and different diseases...
June 13, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896681/vaccine-development-for-epstein-barr-virus
#3
Jeffrey I Cohen
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the primary cause of infectious mononucleosis and is associated with several malignancies, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma, gastric carcinoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, Burkitt lymphoma, and lymphomas in immunocompromised persons, as well as multiple sclerosis. A vaccine is currently unavailable. While monomeric EBV gp350 was shown in a phase 2 trial to reduce the incidence of infectious mononucleosis, but not the rate of EBV infection, newer formulations of gp350 including multimeric forms, viruslike particles, and nanoparticles may be more effective...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883627/comparative-pathogenesis-of-enteric-clostridial-infections-in-humans-and-animals
#4
Francisco A Uzal, Mauricio A Navarro, J Jihong Li, John C Freedman, Archana Shrestha, Bruce A McClane
Several enteric clostridial diseases can affect humans and animals. Of these, the enteric infections caused by Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium difficile are amongst the most prevalent and they are reviewed here. C. perfringens type A strains encoding alpha toxin (CPA) are frequently associated with enteric disease of many animal mammalian species, but their role in these diseased mammals remains to be clarified. C. perfringens type B encoding CPA, beta (CPB) and epsilon (ETX) toxins causes necro-hemorrhagic enteritis, mostly in sheep, and these strains have been recently suggested to be involved in multiple sclerosis in humans, although evidence of this involvement is lacking...
June 5, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29882152/potential-effect-of-cyclophosphamide-on-bleb-survival-in-five-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-who-underwent-glaucoma-surgery
#5
Andrea Giudiceandrea, Maria Emanuela Toro, Andrea Scupola, Aldo Caporossi, Viviana Nociti, Massimiliano Mirabella, Tommaso Salgarello
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this case series was to report the potential role of cyclophosphamide (CY) on bleb survival and to evaluate the safety of the trabeculectomy procedure under immunosuppressant systemic therapy. CASE SERIES: Five eyes of five patients with unresponsive to intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering medication, progressive glaucoma, underwent mytomicin C (MMC) augmented phaco-trabeculectomy, performed by the same surgeon, A.G., during the period from May 2015 to January 2016...
June 7, 2018: Ophthalmology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29881343/a-specific-reduction-in-a%C3%AE-1-42-vs-a-universal-loss-of-a%C3%AE-peptides-in-csf-differentiates-alzheimer-s-disease-from-meningitis-and-multiple-sclerosis
#6
Philipp Spitzer, Roland Lang, Timo J Oberstein, Piotr Lewczuk, Natalia Ermann, Hagen B Huttner, Ilias Masouris, Johannes Kornhuber, Uwe Ködel, Juan M Maler
A reduced concentration of Aβ1-42 in CSF is one of the established biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease. Reduced CSF concentrations of Aβ1-42 have also been shown in multiple sclerosis, viral encephalitis and bacterial meningitis. As neuroinflammation is one of the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease, an infectious origin of the disease has been proposed. According to this hypothesis, amyloid pathology is a consequence of a microbial infection and the resulting immune defense. Accordingly, changes in CSF levels of amyloid-β peptides should be similar in AD and inflammatory brain diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29877092/an-altered-gut-microbiota-in-hiv-infection-future-prospective-of-fmt-therapy
#7
Yongbo Kang, Yue Cai
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection progressively destroys CD4+ mononuclear cells leading to profound cellular immune deficiency that manifests as life threatening opportunistic infections and malignancies, i.e., the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Gut microbiota play key roles in the modulation of host metabolism and gene expression, maintenance of epithelial integrity, and mediation of inflammatory and immunity. Hence, the normal intestinal microbiota plays a major role in the maintenance of health and disease prevention...
June 7, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29869572/repository-corticotropin-injection-in-multiple-sclerosis-an-update
#8
Christen F Kutz, Amy L Dix
Relapse management is a crucial component of multiple sclerosis care. Acute relapses are defined as new neurological symptoms or worsening of existing symptoms persisting for >24 h that are not attributable to heat, overexertion, or infection. The most commonly used treatment for multiple sclerosis relapse is a 3-5-day course of corticosteroids, primarily intravenous methylprednisolone with or without oral steroid taper. Repository corticotropin injection is also the US FDA-approved option for managing acute relapse, particularly in the patients with inadequate response, intolerability or allergy to corticosteroid treatment; poor venous access; or limited ability to receive home or clinic infusions...
June 5, 2018: Neurodegenerative Disease Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29859870/multiple-sclerosis-and-mixed-microbial-infections-direct-identification-of-fungi-and-bacteria-in-nervous-tissue
#9
Ruth Alonso, Ana M Fernández-Fernández, Diana Pisa, Luis Carrasco
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the prototypical inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS), leading to multifocal demyelination and neurodegeneration. The etiology of this incurable disease is unknown and remains a matter of intensive research. The possibility that microbial infections, such as viruses or bacteria, can trigger an autoimmune reaction in CNS tissue has been suggested. However, the recent demonstration that bacteria are present in CNS tissue points to a direct involvement of microbial infections in the etiology of MS...
May 31, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29848085/risk-of-opportunistic-infections-in-patients-treated-with-alemtuzumab-for-multiple-sclerosis
#10
Antonio Riccardo Buonomo, Emanuela Zappulo, Giulio Viceconte, Riccardo Scotto, Guglielmo Borgia, Ivan Gentile
Alemtuzumab is a monoclonal anti CD-52 antibody recently approved for use in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis(MS). Given that the targeted antigen is primarily expressed on B and T lymphocytes, the administration of this biological drug is associated with rapid but protracted peripheral lymphopenia. Areas covered: The impact on infective risk of this immune impairment is still to be fully understood. In this review, we attempt to summarize all the available literature concerning opportunistic infections occurring in patients with MS receiving alemtuzumab...
June 11, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774781/aging-and-lymphocyte-changes-by-immunomodulatory-therapies-impact-pml-risk-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#11
Elizabeth A Mills, Yang Mao-Draayer
New potent immunomodulatory therapies for multiple sclerosis (MS) are associated with increased risk for progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). It is unclear why a subset of treated patients develops PML, but patient age has emerged as an important risk factor. PML is caused by the JC virus and aging is associated with immune senescence, which increases susceptibility to infection. With the goal of improving PML risk stratification, we here describe the lymphocyte changes that occur with disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) associated with high or moderate risk toward PML in MS patients, how these changes compare to immune aging, and which measures best correlate with risk...
May 1, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772404/viremia-preceding-multiple-sclerosis-two-nested-case-control-studies
#12
Emilie Hultin, Laila Sara Arroyo Mühr, Zurab Bzhalava, Maria Hortlund, Camilla Lagheden, Peter Sundström, Joakim Dillner
Infections have been suggested to be involved in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). We used metagenomic sequencing to detect both known and yet unknown microorganisms in 2 nested case control studies of MS. Two different cohorts were followed for MS using registry linkages. Serum samples taken before diagnosis as well as samples from matched control subjects were selected. In cohort1 with 75 cases and 75 controls, most viral reads were Anelloviridae-related and >95% detected among the cases. Among samples taken up to 2 years before MS diagnosis, Anellovirus species TTMV1, TTMV6 and TTV27 were significantly more common among cases...
May 14, 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770725/infections-seem-to-be-more-frequent-before-onset-of-pediatric-multiple-sclerosis-a-danish-nationwide-nested-case-control-study
#13
Magnus Spangsberg Boesen, Nils Koch-Henriksen, Lau Caspar Thygesen, Frank Eriksson, Gorm Greisen, Alfred Peter Born, Morten Blinkenberg, Peter Vilhelm Uldall, Melinda Magyari
BACKGROUND: Infections are suspected environmental triggers for multiple sclerosis (MS). The relationship between the timing and cumulative number of childhood infections regarding pediatric MS risk is uninvestigated. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether childhood infections contribute to pediatric MS. METHODS: A nationwide nested case-control study with detailed MS case ascertainment including chart review was undertaken. For each MS case, we selected five control children using density sampling from the entire Danish population, matching controls to children with MS by sex and birthdate...
May 1, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768414/adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-admsc-for-the-treatment-of-secondary-progressive-multiple-sclerosis-a-triple-blinded-placebo-controlled-randomized-phase-i-ii-safety-and-feasibility-study
#14
Oscar Fernández, Guillermo Izquierdo, Victoria Fernández, Laura Leyva, Virginia Reyes, Miguel Guerrero, Antonio León, Carlos Arnaiz, Guillermo Navarro, Maria Dolores Páramo, Antonio De la Cuesta, Bernat Soria, Abdelkrim Hmadcha, David Pozo, Rafael Fernandez-Montesinos, Maria Leal, Itziar Ochotorena, Patricia Gálvez, Maria Angeles Geniz, Francisco Javier Barón, Rosario Mata, Cristina Medina, Carlos Caparrós-Escudero, Ana Cardesa, Natividad Cuende
BACKGROUND: Currently available treatments for secondary progressive multiple sclerosis(SPMS) have limited efficacy and/or safety concerns. Adipose-mesenchymal derived stem cells(AdMSCs) represent a promising option and can be readily obtained using minimally invasive procedures. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this triple-blind, placebo-controlled study, cell samples were obtained from consenting patients by lipectomy and subsequently expanded. Patients were randomized to a single infusion of placebo, low-dose(1x106cells/kg) or high-dose(4x106cells/kg) autologous AdMSC product and followed for 12 months...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760920/serum-lipidomics-of-bovine-paratuberculosis-disruption-of-choline-containing-glycerophospholipids-and-sphingolipids
#15
Paul L Wood, Erdal Erol, Glen F Hoffsis, Margaret Steinman, Jeroen DeBuck
Objectives: Bovine paratuberculosis is a devastating infection with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis that ultimately results in death from malnutrition. While the infection is characterized by a long (2-4 years) subclinical phase with immune activation, ultimately host defense mechanisms fail and the bacteria spread from the small intestine to other organs. Since both the gastrointestinal tract and liver are essential for the biosynthesis of structural glycerophospholipids, we investigated the circulating levels of these lipids in field infections and experimentally infected cattle...
2018: SAGE Open Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759135/the-levels-of-soluble-forms-of-cd21-and-cd83-in-multiple-sclerosis
#16
Sajad Karampoor, Hamid Zahednasab, Masoud Etemadifar, Hossein Keyvani
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a neuroinflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) in which immune system plays a crucial role in progression of the disease. An enormous amount of research has been shown that immune mediators such as cytokines and chemokines are the culprits of MS propagation suggesting that modulation of such molecules may pave the path to hinder the disease development. It has been shown that both CD21 and CD83 contribute to the resolution of inflammation occurred in MS. CD21 and CD83 have also been ascribed to Epstein Barr virus (EBV) infection (the prime suspect of MS causality) and the levels of vitamin D, respectively...
July 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758075/effectiveness-and-safety-of-rituximab-in-multiple-sclerosis-an-observational-study-from-southern-switzerland
#17
Barbara Scotti, Giulio Disanto, Rosaria Sacco, Marilu' Guigli, Chiara Zecca, Claudio Gobbi
BACKGROUND: Despite positive results from phase II and observational studies, Rituximab (RTX) is not currently approved for multiple sclerosis (MS) treatment and can only be used off-label. OBJECTIVE: To characterize MS patients treated with RTX and investigate its effectiveness and safety in a clinical practice setting. METHODS: Observational analysis of data collected from MS patients at the Neurocenter of Southern Switzerland. Relapses, EDSS worsening, MRI lesion accrual and "evidence of disease activity" (EDA) status were described by Cox regression...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757405/platelets-drive-inflammation-and-target-gray-matter-and-the-retina-in-autoimmune-mediated-encephalomyelitis
#18
Claretta Sonia D'Souza, Zenjiang Li, Dain Luke Maxwell, Oliver Trusler, Melanie Murphy, Sheila Crewther, Karlheinz Peter, Jacqueline Monique Orian
Despite growing evidence for platelets as active players in infection and immunity, it remains unresolved whether platelets contribute to, or are key elements in the development of neuroinflammation. Using the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of multiple sclerosis, we identified platelet accumulation in the circulation by 7-day postinduction (dpi), ahead of clinical onset which occurs at 13-14 dpi. By inducing platelet depletion between 7 and 16 dpi, we demonstrate an association between platelet accumulation in the spinal cord and disease development...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756180/anodal-tdcs-of-the-swallowing-motor-cortex-for-treatment-of-dysphagia-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-pilot-open-label-study
#19
G Cosentino, R Gargano, G Bonura, S Realmuto, E Tocco, P Ragonese, M Gangitano, E Alfonsi, B Fierro, F Brighina, G Salemi
Swallowing difficulties are a common symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS). The early detection and treatment of dysphagia is critical to prevent complications, including poor nutrition, dehydration, and lung infections. Recently, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been proven to be effective in ameliorating swallowing problems in stroke patients. In this pilot study, we aimed to assess safety and efficacy of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in the treatment of dysphagia in MS patients...
May 13, 2018: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740825/infectious-exposure-antibiotic-use-and-multiple-sclerosis-a-population-based-incident-case-control-study
#20
I Abdollahpour, S Nedjat, M A Mansournia, S Eckert, B Weinstock-Guttman
BACKGROUND: The existing reports regarding the potential role of infections as well as antibiotic use in multiple sclerosis (MS) etiology are inconclusive. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the association of viral infections as well as antibiotic use and the risk of developing MS. MATERIALS & METHODS: This was a population-based incident case-control study of 547 incident cases and 1057 general population controls obtained from 22 municipality areas of Tehran (7/8/2013-17/2/2015)...
May 9, 2018: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
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