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Infection in multiple sclerosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027962/novel-therapeutics-for-multiple-sclerosis-designed-by-parasitic-worms
#1
REVIEW
Aakanksha Dixit, Akane Tanaka, Judith M Greer, Sheila Donnelly
The evolutionary response to endemic infections with parasitic worms (helminth) was the development of a distinct regulatory immune profile arising from the need to encapsulate the helminths while simultaneously repairing tissue damage. According to the old friend's hypothesis, the diminished exposure to these parasites in the developed world has resulted in a dysregulated immune response that contributes to the increased incidence of immune mediated diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Indeed, the global distribution of MS shows an inverse correlation to the prevalence of helminth infection...
October 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985098/retinal-nerve-fiber-layer-thickness-in-human-t-cell-lymphotropic-virus-type-1-patients
#2
Harold Merle, Rabih Hage, Séverine Jeannin, Philippe Cabre, Stéphane Olindo
PURPOSE: To determine whether there is an optic neuropathy (ON) in patients with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection. METHODS: We included HTLV-1 asymptomatic carriers (a.c.HTLV-1) and tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1 associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM) patients between January 1st, 2014 and March 31st, 2015. All patients had complete eye examination. The visual acuity (VA) and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness were measured and compared to age- and sex-matched control groups including patients seen in our refraction clinic with no previous medical or surgical history...
October 6, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980606/-modern-conception-of-the-pathogenesis-of-neurodegenerative-diseases-and-therapeutic-strategy
#3
I V Litvinenko, I V Krasakov, G N Bisaga, D I Skulyabin, I D Poltavsky
Here we discuss the pathogenesis of the inflammatory and degenerative nervous system disorders on the example of Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis. Common mechanisms of neurodegeneration in these diseases are reviewed. The role of neurodegeneration as the main process leading to the resistant disability of patients with multiple sclerosis is discussed. The authors consider a contribution of inflammatory process and chronic infection to the manifestation and progressing of a neurodegenerative disease and discuss the use of treatment not usually indicated including interferon, anti-inflammatory drugs, statin, vitamin D, monoclonal antibodies, correction of the intestinal microbiota in Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979790/differential-diagnosis-of-multiple-sclerosis-in-latin-america
#4
REVIEW
Y D Fragoso, F G Elso, A Carrá
Improvement of multiple sclerosis (MS) diagnoses leads to earlier and correct disease management. The differential diagnostic workup for MS comprises a large variety of medical conditions. There are general guidelines and criteria for diagnosing MS worldwide, but awareness of regional differences needs to be kept in mind. Latin American patients who are screened for MS diagnoses may require an approach that is not exactly the same as that used for patients in North America, western Europe or Asia. In the present review, the conditions that are important for the differential diagnoses of MS in Latin America are reviewed...
July 2017: Multiple Sclerosis Journal—Experimental, Translational and Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975357/the-effects-of-intestinal-nematode-l4-stage-on-mouse-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#5
Katarzyna Donskow-Łysoniewska, Katarzyna Krawczak, Katarzyna Bocian, Maria Doligalska
Helminths use various immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory strategies to evade immune attack by the host. During pathological conditions, these strategies alter the course of disease by reducing immune-mediated pathology. The study examines the therapeutic effect of the nematode L4 stage based on an in vivo model of multiple sclerosis, monophasic encephalomyelitis (EAE), induced by sensitization with MOG35-55 peptide in C57BL/6 female mice infected with the intestinal nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus. The EAE remission was correlated with altered leukocyte number identified in the central nervous system (CNS), and temporary permeability of the blood-brain barrier at the histotrophic phase of infection...
October 3, 2017: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967695/intravenous-immunoglobulin-for-the-treatment-of-childhood-encephalitis
#6
REVIEW
Mildred A Iro, Natalie G Martin, Michael Absoud, Andrew J Pollard
BACKGROUND: Encephalitis is a syndrome of neurological dysfunction due to inflammation of the brain parenchyma, caused by an infection or an exaggerated host immune response, or both. Attenuation of brain inflammation through modulation of the immune response could improve patient outcomes. Biological agents such as immunoglobulin that have both anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties may therefore be useful as adjunctive therapies for people with encephalitis. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) as add-on treatment for children with encephalitis...
October 2, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966663/alemtuzumab-in-the-long-term-treatment-of-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-an-update-on-the-clinical-trial-evidence-and-data-from-the-real-world
#7
Tjalf Ziemssen, Katja Thomas
Alemtuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody approved for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), given as two annual courses on five consecutive days at baseline and on three consecutive days 12 months later. Here we provide an update on the long-term efficacy and safety of alemtuzumab in RRMS, including real-world experience, and advances in our understanding of its mechanism of action. Recent data from the phase II/III extension study have demonstrated that alemtuzumab reduces relapse rates, disability worsening, and the rate of brain volume loss over the long term, with many patients achieving no evidence of disease activity...
October 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964257/the-contribution-of-the-acute-phase-response-to-the-pathogenesis-of-relapse-in-chronic-relapsing-experimental-autoimmune-encephalitis-models-of-multiple-sclerosis
#8
Silvy Mardiguian, Emma Ladds, Roberta Turner, Hazel Shepherd, Sandra J Campbell, Daniel C Anthony
BACKGROUND: Increased relapse rates in multiple sclerosis (MS) as a consequence of peripheral immune system activation, owing to infection for example, have been widely reported, but the mechanism remains unclear. Acute brain injury models can be exacerbated by augmenting the hepatic acute phase response (APR). Here, we explored the contribution of the hepatic APR to relapse in two rodent models of MS. METHODS: Mice with MOG-CFA-induced chronic relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalitis (CR-EAE) were killed before, during and after the first phase of disease, and the brain and liver chemokine, cytokine and acute phase protein (APP) mRNA expression profile was determined...
September 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961770/effect-of-pf-00547659-on-central-nervous-system-immune-surveillance-and-circulating-%C3%AE-7-t-cells-in-crohn-s-disease-report-of-the-tosca-study-madcam-1antibody-and-cns-immune-surveillance
#9
Geert D'Haens, Severine Vermeire, Harald Vogelsang, Matthieu Allez, Pierre Desreumaux, Andre Van Gossum, William J Sandborn, Daniel C Baumgart, Richard M Ransohoff, Gail M Comer, Alaa Ahmad, Fabio Cataldi, John Cheng, Robert Clare, Kenneth J Gorelick, Annamarie Kaminski, Vivek Pradhan, Sunday Rivers, Matthew O Sikpi, Yanhua Zhang, Mina Hassan-Zahraee, Walter Reinisch, Olaf Stuve
Background & Aims: Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, a brain infection associated with anti-integrin drugs that inhibit lymphocyte translocation from bloodstream to tissue, can be fatal. Decreased central-nervous-system immune surveillance leading to this infection has been reported in patients with multiple sclerosis or Crohn's disease treated with anti-integrin antibody natalizumab. PF-00547659 is an investigational human monoclonal antibody for inflammatory bowel disease targeted against α4β7-mucosal addressin cell-adhesion molecule-1 (the integrin ligand selectively expressed in the gut)...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959348/in-silico-perspectives-on-the-prediction-of-the-plp-s-epitopes-involved-in-multiple-sclerosis
#10
Zahra Zamanzadeh, Mitra Ataei, Seyed Massood Nabavi, Ghasem Ahangari, Mehdi Sadeghi, Mohammad Hosein Sanati
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS). The main cause of the MS is yet to be revealed, but the most probable theory is based on the molecular mimicry that concludes some infections in the activation of T cells against brain auto-antigens that initiate the disease cascade. OBJECTIVES: The Purpose of this research is the prediction of the auto-antigen potency of the myelin proteolipid protein (PLP) in multiple sclerosis...
March 2017: Iranian journal of biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948806/toxocara-spp-seronegativity-in-czech-patients-with-early-form-of-multiple-sclerosis-clinically-isolated-syndrome
#11
H Posová, Z Hrušková, E Havrdová, L Kolářová
BACKGROUND: Helminth infections were reported to slightly modulate the host immune system response and decrease the risk of an autoimmune disorder, but on the other hand any infection may activate the immune system and trigger autoimmune reaction. In this study, we aimed to measure eosinophil levels and antibodies against Toxocara spp. in patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) and multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: In total, 220 CIS patients and 62 MS patients were examined...
2017: Epidemiologie, Mikrobiologie, Imunologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947596/gut-inflammation-and-dysbiosis-in-human-motor-neuron-disease
#12
Julie Rowin, Yinglin Xia, Barbara Jung, Jun Sun
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a systemic disorder that involves dysfunction of multiple organs. Growing evidence has shown that neurodegenerative disorders with gut dysbiosis affect the central nervous system via pro-inflammatory mediators thus impacting gut-brain communications. We have demonstrated dysbiosis and increased intestinal permeability in the SOD1(G93A) ALS mouse model. In this study, we comprehensively examined the human gut microbiome in stool samples and evaluated infection and markers of intestinal inflammation in five patients with ALS and motor neuron disorders...
September 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941835/pharmacoresistance-with-newer-anti-epileptic-drugs-in-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-with-hippocampal-sclerosis
#13
Michael S Pohlen, Jingxiao Jin, Ronnie S Tobias, Atul Maheshwari
This study aims to evaluate the overall prognosis, prognostic factors, and efficacy of treatment in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS) who have access to third generation anti-epileptic drugs but not to epilepsy surgery. Eighty-five MTLE-HS patients were retrospectively placed into a seizure-free (seizure-free for >1year) or drug-resistant group, and the two groups were compared on the basis of age, sex, age at onset of seizures, duration of epilepsy, side of lesion, handedness, EEG findings, history of CNS infection, history of febrile convulsions, history of head trauma, history of cognitive impairment, family history of seizures, number of current anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs), total number of AED trials, and presence of individual AEDs...
September 19, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941527/pediatric-optic-neuritis
#14
Melinda Y Chang, Stacy L Pineles
Optic neuritis is rare in children in comparison to adults, but accounts for approximately 25% of pediatric acute demyelinating syndromes. Features of pediatric optic neuritis that differ from adults include a higher rate of bilaterality, poor visual acuity on presentation, and papillitis. Diagnostic work-up includes brain magnetic resonance imaging, lumbar puncture, and blood tests to exclude infectious and inflammatory disorders. Pediatric optic neuritis may occur following infection or vaccination, or in association with a systemic demyelinating process such as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, neuromyelitis optica, or multiple sclerosis...
May 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940162/infections-in-patients-receiving-multiple-sclerosis-disease-modifying-therapies
#15
REVIEW
Elena Grebenciucova, Amy Pruitt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This paper will systemically review the risk of infections associated with current disease-modifying treatments and will discuss pre-treatment testing recommendations, infection monitoring strategies, and patient education. RECENT FINDINGS: Aside from glatiramer acetate and interferon-beta therapies, all other multiple sclerosis treatments to various degrees impair immune surveillance and may predispose patients to the development of both community-acquired and opportunistic infections...
September 22, 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931676/protective-humoral-immunity-in-the-cns-requires-peripheral-cd19-dependent-germinal-center-formation-following-coronavirus-encephalomyelitis
#16
Jeffrey R Atkinson, Cornelia C Bergmann
B cell subsets with phenotypes characteristic of naïve, non-isotype-switched, memory (Bmem), and antibody-secreting cells (ASC) accumulate in various models of central nervous system (CNS) inflammation, including viral encephalomyelitis. During neurotropic coronavirus JHMV infection infiltration of protective ASC occurs after T cell mediated viral control, and is preceded by accumulation of non-isotype switched IgD(+) and IgM(+) B cells. However, the contribution of peripheral activation events in cervical lymph nodes (CLN) in driving humoral immune responses in the infected CNS is poorly defined...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926402/reversing-hiv-latency-via-sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor-1-signaling
#17
Charline Duquenne, Sandrine Gimenez, Adeline Guigues, Benjamin Viala, Caroline Boulouis, Clément Mettling, Damien Maurel, Noëlie Campos, Etienne Doumazane, Laetitia Comps-Agrar, Jamal Tazi, Laurent Prézeau, Pierre Corbeau, Vincent François
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we looked for a new family of latency reversing agents. DESIGN: We searched for G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) coexpressed with CCR5 in primary CD4+ T cells that activate infected cells and boost HIV production. METHODS: GPCR coexpression was unveiled by RT-PCR. We used FRET to analyze the dimerization with CCR5 of the expressed GPCR. Viral entry was measured by flow cytometry, reverse transcription by quantitative PCR, NFkB translocation by immunofluorescence, LTR activation using a gene reporter assay, and viral production by p24 quantification...
September 18, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921467/mir-155-dysregulation-and-therapeutic-intervention-in-multiple-sclerosis
#18
Claire E McCoy
microRNAs play a fundamental role in the immune system. One particular microRNA, miR-155 plays a critical role in hematopoietic cell development and tightly regulates innate and adaptive immune responses in response to infection. However, its dysregulation, more specifically its overexpression, is closely associated with various inflammatory disorders. The purpose of this review is to consolidate how miR-155 underpins a variety of processes that contribute to the pathology of multiple sclerosis (MS). In particular, the impact of miR-155 is discussed with respect to human pathology and animal models...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914581/circulating-lymphocyte-levels-and-relationship-with-infection-status-in-patients-with-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-treated-with-daclizumab-beta
#19
Gavin Giovannoni, Heinz Wiendl, Benjamin Turner, Kimberly Umans, Oksana Mokliatchouk, Wanda Castro-Borrero, Steven J Greenberg, Peter McCroskery, Giorgio Giannattasio
BACKGROUND: Reversible lymphocyte count reductions have occurred following daclizumab beta treatment for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. OBJECTIVE: To analyse total and differential lymphocyte levels and relationship with infection status. METHODS: In DECIDE, blood samples were collected at 12-week intervals from daclizumab beta- ( n = 919) or intramuscular interferon beta-1a-treated ( n = 922) patients. Infections/serious infections were assessed proximate to grade 2/3 lymphopenia or low CD4(+)/CD8(+) T-cell counts...
September 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913765/treatment-of-theiler-s-virus-induced-demyelinating-disease-with-teriflunomide
#20
Francesca Gilli, Libin Li, Darlene B Royce, Krista D DiSano, Andrew R Pachner
Teriflunomide is an oral therapy approved for the treatment of relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (MS), showing both anti-inflammatory and antiviral properties. Currently, it is uncertain whether one or both of these properties may explain teriflunomide's beneficial effect in MS. Thus, to learn more about its mechanisms of action, we evaluated the effect of teriflunomide in the Theiler's encephalomyelitis virus-induced demyelinating disease (TMEV-IDD) model, which is both a viral infection and an excellent model of the progressive disability of MS...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
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