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Infection in multiple sclerosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816034/cerebrospinal-fluid-cytology-in-nonmalignant-aseptic-meningeal-disorders
#1
REVIEW
Rafael Martínez-Girón, Liron Pantanowitz
Cerebrospinal fluid cytology examination is a common and reliable primary and/or complementary procedure for the diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) disorders. This review provides an update of aseptic meningeal disorders that may be encountered in cytopathology practice. The article covers the cytological findings and helpful ancillary studies needed of nonmalignant aseptic CNS disorders such as viral, bacterial, fungal and parasitic infections, and other noninfectious diseases, such as Mollaret´s meningitis (recurrent benign lymphocytic meningitis), Guillain-Barré syndrome, multiple Sclerosis, subarachnoid haemorrhage, and drug-induced disorders...
August 16, 2017: Diagnostic Cytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814828/comparison-of-efficacy-and-safety-of-oral-agents-for-the-treatment-of-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis
#2
REVIEW
Cristina Guarnera, Placido Bramanti, Emanuela Mazzon
In the therapeutic scenario of disease-modifying therapies for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, the introduction of oral agents, starting in 2010 with fingolimod, has been a huge step forward in therapeutic options due to the easier administration route. Three oral drugs fingolimod, teriflunomide, and dimethyl fumarate, which are clinically approved for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, are reviewed in this work. Results of Phase III clinical trials and their extension studies showed that the three oral agents significantly reduced the annualized relapse rate - a superior efficacy compared to placebo...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796840/yes-research-matters
#3
Mari L Shinohara
My father was diagnosed with stomach cancer recently. Luckily, it was still at an early stage, and endoscopic surgery successfully took care of it. My father was fortunate; since people with stomach cancer do not show clear symptoms in the early stages, the disease is often not diagnosed until it becomes advanced. In his case, the diagnosis started from a suggestion by his doctor to check whether he had a gastric infection with Helicobacter pylori, a bacterial species found in the digestive tract. In Japan, where he lives, a majority of gastric cancer patients (more than 99%) have been infected with H...
August 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796815/effect-of-teriflunomide-on-cortex-basal-ganglia-thalamus-cxbgth-circuit-glutamatergic-dysregulation-in-the-theiler-s-murine-encephalomyelitis-virus-mouse-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#4
Claire M Modica, Ferdinand Schweser, Michelle L Sudyn, Nicola Bertolino, Marilena Preda, Paul Polak, Danielle M Siebert, Jacqueline C Krawiecki, Michele Sveinsson, Jesper Hagemeier, Michael G Dwyer, Suyog Pol, Robert Zivadinov
BACKGROUND: Pathology of gray matter is associated with development of physical and cognitive disability in patients with multiple sclerosis. In particular, glutamatergic dysregulation in the cortex-basal ganglia-thalamus (CxBGTh) circuit could be associated with decline in these behaviors. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of an immunomodulatory therapy (teriflunomide, Aubagio®) on changes of the CxBGTh loop in the Theiler's Murine Encephalomyelitis Virus, (TMEV) mouse model of MS...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792504/common-gene-network-signature-of-different-neurological-disorders-and-their-potential-implications-to-neuroaids
#5
Vidya Sagar, S Pilakka-Kanthikeel, Paola C Martinez, V S R Atluri, M Nair
The neurological complications of AIDS (neuroAIDS) during the infection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are symptomized by non-specific, multifaceted neurological conditions and therefore, defining a specific diagnosis/treatment mechanism(s) for this neuro-complexity at the molecular level remains elusive. Using an in silico based integrated gene network analysis we discovered that HIV infection shares convergent gene networks with each of twelve neurological disorders selected in this study. Importantly, a common gene network was identified among HIV infection, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and age macular degeneration...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767147/programmed-death-1-is-highly-expressed-on-cd8-cd57-t-cells-in-patients-with-stable-multiple-sclerosis-and-inhibits-their-cytotoxic-response-to-ebv
#6
Maria T Cencioni, Roberta Magliozzi, Richard Nicholas, Rehiana Ali, Omar Malik, Richard Reynolds, Giovanna Borsellino, Luca Battistini, Paolo Muraro
Growing evidence points to a deregulated response to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the CNS of patients with Multiple Sclerosis (pwMS) as a possible cause of disease. In this study, we have investigated the response of a subpopulation of effector CD8+ T cells to EBV in 36 healthy donors and in 35 pwMS in active and inactive disease. We have measured the expression of markers of degranulation, the release of cytokines, cytotoxicity and the regulation of effector functions by inhibitory receptors, such as programmed death-1 (PD-1) and human inhibitor receptor Ig-like transcript 2 (ILT2)...
August 2, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761351/alemtuzumab-a-review-of-efficacy-and-risks-in-the-treatment-of-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis
#7
REVIEW
Cristina Guarnera, Placido Bramanti, Emanuela Mazzon
Alemtuzumab is a selective humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the CD52 antigen, and has been found to be a powerful treatment for relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis. Alemtuzumab demonstrated high efficacy in several clinical studies. The risk of relapse and sustained accumulation of disability showed significant reduction in the Phase II CAMMS223 and the Phase III clinical trials CARE MS I and CARE MS II. The data presented at the 32nd Congress of the European Committee for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis confirmed these results...
2017: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758631/statins-are-ineffective-at-reducing-neuroinflammation-or-prolonging-survival-in-scrapie-infected-mice
#8
James A Carroll, Brent Race, Katie Phillips, James F Striebel, Bruce Chesebro
Neuroinflammation is a prominent component of several neurodegenerative diseases, including multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, tauopathies, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and prion diseases. In such conditions, the ability to decrease neuroinflammation by drug therapy may influence disease progression. Statins have been used to treat hyperlipidemia as well as reduce neuroinflammation and oxidative stress in various tissues. In previous studies, treatment of scrapie-infected mice with the type 1 statins, simvastatin or pravastatin, showed a small beneficial effect on survival time...
July 31, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756984/a-55-year-old-female-with-leukoencephalopathy-with-cerebral-calcifications-and-cysts-case-report-and-radiopathologic-description
#9
Jorge Novo, Diana Lin, Megan Shanks, Mehmet Kocak, Leonidas Arvanitis
Adult-onset leukoencephalopathies with increased cerebral volume can present a potentially challenging diagnosis for the pathologist. We present the case of a patient with a rare adult-onset disease called Leukoencephalopathy with cerebral Calcifications and Cysts (LCC). A 55-year-old woman with a history of morning headaches, mild memory loss, diabetes, and hypertension presented to the emergency department with acute onset altered mental status. CT scan revealed multiple small hypodense lesions in the white matter with calcifications in the bilateral cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, pons, and cerebellar hemispheres...
July 6, 2017: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755681/ebv-and-ms-major-cause-minor-contribution-or-red-herring
#10
REVIEW
Sean Burnard, Jeannette Lechner-Scott, Rodney J Scott
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurological disease with genetic and environmental risk factors. Epstein Barr-Virus (EBV) has been closely associated with MS but with a significant amount of conflicting evidence. Some of the evidence for EBV involvement in MS includes: almost 100% of MS patients showing past EBV infection, an association with Infectious Mononucleosis (acute EBV infection), higher titres of EBV antibodies associated with an increased risk of MS development, and an overall altered immune response to EBV found in peripheral blood and the CNS of MS patients...
August 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751457/2-arachidonoylglycerol-reduces-proteoglycans-and-enhances-remyelination-in-a-progressive-model-of-demyelination
#11
A Feliu, Bonilla I Del Río, F J Carrillo-Salinas, G Hernández-Torres, L Mestre, N Puente, S Ortega-Gutiérrez, M L López-Rodríguez, P Grandes, M Mecha, C Guaza
The failure to undergo remyelination is a critical impediment to recovery in multiple sclerosis (MS). Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) accumulate at demyelinating lesions creating a non-permissive environment that impairs axon regeneration and remyelination. Here, we reveal a new role for 2-arachinonoylglycerol (2-AG), the major CNS endocannabinoid, in the modulation of CSPG deposition in a progressive model of MS, the Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus induced demyelinating disease (TMEV-IDD)...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748090/erratum-defective-t-cell-control-of-epstein-barr-virus-infection-in-multiple-sclerosis
#12
Michael P Pender, Peter A Csurhes, Jacqueline M Burrows, Scott R Burrows
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/cti.2016.87.].
June 2017: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747602/inflammation-amplifier-and-gateway-reflex-the-regulation-of-inflammation-by-neuroimmune-interaction
#13
Ikuma Nakagawa, Masaaki Murakami
  Central nervous system (CNS), which is made up of brain and spinal cord, is protected from the invasion of harmful agents, such as various pathogens, chemical products or immune cells by a special structure "Blood Brain Barrier (BBB)". BBB highly preserves the homeostasis of CNS environment. On the other hand, there are many diseases in CNS regions which is associated with infection or autoimmunity, that means there may exist the "gateway" for pathogens or immune cells to attack CNS. Until recently, the molecular mechanism of the gateway formation has not been elucidated...
2017: Nihon Rinshō Men'eki Gakkai Kaishi, Japanese Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746870/identification-of-a-genetic-variation-in-erap1-aminopeptidase-that-prevents-human-cytomegalovirus-mir-ul112-5p-mediated-immunoevasion
#14
Paolo Romania, Loredana Cifaldi, Benedetta Pignoloni, Nadia Starc, Valerio D'Alicandro, Ombretta Melaiu, Giuseppina Li Pira, Ezio Giorda, Rosalba Carrozzo, Monika Bergvall, Tomas Bergström, Lars Alfredsson, Tomas Olsson, Ingrid Kockum, Ilkka Seppälä, Terho Lehtimäki, Mikko A Hurme, Hartmut Hengel, Angela Santoni, Cristina Cerboni, Franco Locatelli, Mauro D'Amato, Doriana Fruci
Herein, we demonstrate that HCMV miR-UL112-5p targets ERAP1, thereby inhibiting the processing and presentation of the HCMV pp65495-503 peptide to specific CTLs. In addition, we show that the rs17481334 G variant, naturally occurring in the ERAP1 3' UTR, preserves ERAP1 from miR-UL112-5p-mediated degradation. Specifically, HCMV miR-UL112-5p binds the 3' UTR of ERAP1 A variant, but not the 3' UTR of ERAP1 G variant, and, accordingly, ERAP1 expression is reduced both at RNA and protein levels only in human fibroblasts homozygous for the A variant...
July 25, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744286/a-b-cell-driven-autoimmune-pathway-leading-to-pathological-hallmarks-of-progressive-multiple-sclerosis-in-the-marmoset-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-model
#15
REVIEW
Bert A 't Hart, Jordon Dunham, Bart W Faber, Jon D Laman, Jack van Horssen, Jan Bauer, Yolanda S Kap
The absence of pathological hallmarks of progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) in commonly used rodent models of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) hinders the development of adequate treatments for progressive disease. Work reviewed here shows that such hallmarks are present in the EAE model in marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus). The minimal requirement for induction of progressive MS pathology is immunization with a synthetic peptide representing residues 34-56 from human myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) formulated with a mineral oil [incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA)]...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744067/helminth-products-potently-modulate-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-by-downregulating-neuroinflammation-and-promoting-a-suppressive-microenvironment
#16
Alberto N Peón, Yadira Ledesma-Soto, Jonadab E Olguín, Marcel Bautista-Donis, Edda Sciutto, Luis I Terrazas
A negative correlation between the geographical distribution of autoimmune diseases and helminth infections has been largely associated in the last few years with a possible role for such type of parasites in the regulation of inflammatory diseases, suggesting new pathways for drug development. However, few helminth-derived immunomodulators have been tested in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of the human disease multiple sclerosis (MS). The immunomodulatory activities of Taenia crassiceps excreted/secreted products (TcES) that may suppress EAE development were sought for...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737987/factors-associated-with-patient-preferences-for-disease-modifying-therapies-in-multiple-sclerosis
#17
Ana L Hincapie, Jonathan Penm, Craig F Burns
BACKGROUND: Treatment adherence in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) is essential to reduce the rate of acute neurological attacks, severity of relapses, and hospitalizations and to slow its progression. Adherence rates in MS patients have been shown to be affected by multiple factors, including physical or cognitive difficulties, perceived lack of treatment efficacy, treatment-related adverse events, injection anxiety, and frequency of administration. OBJECTIVE: To elicit the preferences of MS patients for noneconomic and economic attributes of current disease-modifying therapies (DMTs)...
August 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731372/exploring-the-effect-of-vitamin-d3-supplementation-on-the-anti-ebv-antibody-response-in-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis
#18
Linda Rolf, Anne-Hilde Muris, Amandine Mathias, Renaud Du Pasquier, Inga Koneczny, Giulio Disanto, Jens Kuhle, Sreeram Ramagopalan, Jan Damoiseaux, Joost Smolders, Raymond Hupperts
BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and vitamin D insufficiency are potentially interacting risk factors for multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of high-dose vitamin D3 supplements on antibody levels against the EBV nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1) in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and to explore any underlying mechanism affecting anti-EBNA-1 antibody levels. METHODS: This study utilized blood samples from a randomized controlled trial in RRMS patients receiving either vitamin D3 (14,000 IU/day; n = 30) or placebo ( n = 23) over 48 weeks...
July 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729867/exposure-to-the-epstein-barr-viral-antigen-latent-membrane-protein-1-induces-myelin-reactive-antibodies-in-vivo
#19
Yakov Lomakin, Georgii Pavlovich Arapidi, Alexander Chernov, Rustam Ziganshin, Evgenii Tcyganov, Irina Lyadova, Ivan Olegovich Butenko, Maria Osetrova, Natalia Ponomarenko, Georgy Telegin, Vadim Markovich Govorun, Alexander Gabibov, Alexey Belogurov
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Cross-reactivity of neuronal proteins with exogenous antigens is considered one of the possible mechanisms of MS triggering. Previously, we showed that monoclonal myelin basic protein (MBP)-specific antibodies from MS patients cross-react with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1). In this study, we report that exposure of mice to LMP1 results in induction of myelin-reactive autoantibodies in vivo...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723711/epidemiology-of-autoimmune-and-inflammatory-diseases-in-a-french-nationwide-hiv-cohort
#20
D Lebrun, M Hentzien, L Cuzin, D Rey, V Joly, L Cotte, C Allavena, P Dellamonica, A Servettaz, F Bani-Sadr
HIV infection and inflammatory and autoimmune diseases (IAD) are both related to immune dysfunction. Epidemiological data on IAD in patients living with HIV (PLHIV) are scarce. The aim of this study was thus to estimate the prevalence of 26 IAD among PLHIV followed in a large French multicenter cohort in the cART era (from January 2000 to July 2013), and to describe their occurrence according to cART onset, the immuno-virological status of patients and HCV and/or HBV co-infection.During the study period, 33 403 PLHIV were included in the Dat'AIDS cohort; 1381 patients with an IAD were identified...
July 18, 2017: AIDS
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