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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455215/stroke-and-seizure-continue-to-be-the-major-brunt-of-in-patient-neurology-care-an-observation-from-teaching-hospital
#1
Azra Zafar, Majed Alabdali, Rizwana Shahid, Danah Aljaafari, Fahd A Al-Khamis, Aishah I Albakr, Saima Nazish, Abdulla A Al-Sulaiman, Alon Abraham
OBJECTIVE: To assess the burden and describe the pattern of neurological disorders requiring admissions in a teaching hospital of Al Khobar. METHODS: This is a retrospective, cross sectional study, carried out in the Neurology Department of King Fahd Hospital of the University from January 2009 to December 2016. Neurological disorders were grouped as ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, transient ischemic attack, cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, seizure disorders, central nervous system infection, multiple sclerosis, neuropathies, myopathies, headache, dementia and miscellaneous group...
January 2018: Neurosciences: the Official Journal of the Pan Arab Union of Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455184/csf-free-light-chain-identification-of-demyelinating-disease-comparison-with-oligoclonal-banding-and-other-csf-indexes
#2
Kari M Gurtner, Eslam Shosha, Sandra C Bryant, Bruna D Andreguetto, David L Murray, Sean J Pittock, Maria Alice V Willrich
BACKGROUND: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) used in immunoglobulin gamma (IgG) index testing and oligoclonal bands (OCBs) are common laboratory tests used in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. The measurement of CSF free light chains (FLC) could pose as an alternative to the labor-intensive isoelectric-focusing (IEF) gels used for OCBs. METHODS: A total of 325 residual paired CSF and serum specimens were obtained after physician-ordered OCB IEF testing. CSF kappa (cKFLC) and lambda FLC (cLFLC), albumin and total IgG were measured...
February 19, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440397/sex-bias-in-mhc-i-associated-shaping-of-the-adaptive-immune-system
#3
Tilman Schneider-Hohendorf, Dennis Görlich, Paula Savola, Tiina Kelkka, Satu Mustjoki, Catharina C Gross, Geoffrey C Owens, Luisa Klotz, Klaus Dornmair, Heinz Wiendl, Nicholas Schwab
HLA associations, T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire bias, and sex bias have independently been shown for many diseases. While some immunological differences between the sexes have been described, they do not fully explain bias in men toward many infections/cancers, and toward women in autoimmunity. Next-generation TCR variable beta chain (TCRBV) immunosequencing of 824 individuals was evaluated in a multiparametric analysis including HLA-A -B/MHC class I background, TCRBV usage, sex, age, ethnicity, and TCRBV selection/expansion dynamics...
February 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435686/dynamic-changes-and-molecular-analysis-of-cell-death-in-the-spinal-cord-of-sjl-mice-infected-with-the-bean-strain-of-theiler-s-murine-encephalomyelitis-virus
#4
Ingo Gerhauser, Lin Li, Dandan Li, Stephanie Klein, Suliman Ahmed Elmarabet, Ulrich Deschl, Arno Kalkuhl, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Reiner Ulrich, Andreas Beineke
Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis (TME) is caused by the TME virus (TMEV) and represents an important animal model for multiple sclerosis (MS). Oligodendroglial apoptosis and reduced apoptotic elimination of encephalitogenic leukocytes seem to participate in autoimmune demyelination in MS. The present study quantified apoptotic cells in BeAn-TMEV-induced spinal cord white matter lesions at 14, 42, 98, and 196 days post infection (dpi) using immunostaining. Apoptotic cells were identified by transmission electron microscopy and double-immunofluorescence...
February 12, 2018: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434586/bioactive-lipids-and-chronic-inflammation-managing-the-fire-within
#5
REVIEW
Valerio Chiurchiù, Alessandro Leuti, Mauro Maccarrone
Inflammation is an immune response that works as a contained fire that is pre-emptively sparked as a defensive process during infections or upon any kind of tissue insult, and that is spontaneously extinguished after elimination or termination of the damage. However, persistent and uncontrolled immune reactions act as a wildfire that promote chronic inflammation, unresolved tissue damage and, eventually, chronic diseases. A wide network of soluble mediators, among which endogenous bioactive lipids, governs all immune processes...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431301/seroepidemiological-study-of-epstein-barr-virus-in-different-population-groups-in-croatia
#6
Nataša Beader, Branko Kolarić, Domagoj Slačanac, Irena Tabain, Tatjana Vilibić-Čavlek
BACKGROUND: The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is one of the most common viruses found in humans, causing lifelong infection in up to 95% of the world population. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the seroprevalence of EBV infection in different population groups in Croatia. METHODS: During a 2 year period (2015-2016), a total of 2022 consecutive serum samples collected from Croatian residents were tested for the presence of EBV-specific viral capsid antigen (VCA) immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunoassay...
February 2018: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423619/smoking-is-not-associated-with-higher-prevalence-of-jc-virus-in-ms-patients
#7
Michael Auer, Gabriel Bsteh, Harald Hegen, Franziska Di Pauli, Sebastian Wurth, Thomas Berger, Florian Deisenhammer
John Cunningham virus (JCV) causes rare, but potentially life-threatening progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in natalizumab-treated multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Beside JCV index, there is currently no other factor for further risk stratification. Because smoking was reported as potential risk factor for several viral and bacterial infections, we aimed to investigate whether smoking could increase the risk for JCV infection in MS patients. We screened our database of the MS Clinic of the Department of Neurology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Austria, for patients with known smoking status and test result for anti-JCV antibody index as determined by two-step ELISA at Unilabs, Copenhagen, Denmark...
February 8, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423611/up-to-date-knowledge-about-the-association-between-multiple-sclerosis-and-the-reactivation-of-human-endogenous-retrovirus-infections
#8
REVIEW
Borros Arneth
BACKGROUND: Although existing studies show that reactivation of the human endogenous retrovirus (HERVs) plays a leading role in multiple sclerosis (MS) progression, the practitioners are yet to establish effective approaches for managing MS without jeopardizing the patients' immune systems. AIM: To provide up-to-date knowledge on the specific roles played by the reactivation of the HERVs in the pathogenesis of MS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review of 70 peer-reviewed journals accessed via PubMed was conducted...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407621/endothelial-cell-functions-impaired-by-interferon-in-vitro-insights-into-the-molecular-mechanism-of-thrombotic-microangiopathy-associated-with-interferon-therapy
#9
Haiyan Jia, Craig Thelwell, Paula Dilger, Chris Bird, Sarah Daniels, Meenu Wadhwa
INTRODUCTION: Interferon (IFN)-α and IFN-β approved for treatment of chronic hepatitis C viral infection and multiple sclerosis respectively have been linked to thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) affecting renal function. Since the molecular mechanisms underlying this severe complication remain largely unclear, we aimed to investigate whether IFN affects directly in vitro endothelial cell functions associated with angiogenesis and blood haemostasis, as well as endothelial cell-derived vasodilators of nitric oxide (NO) and prostacyclin...
January 30, 2018: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395661/efficacy-and-safety-of-everolimus-in-patients-younger-than-12%C3%A2-months-with-congenital-subependymal-giant-cell-astrocytoma
#10
Ichiro Kuki, Hisashi Kawawaki, Shin Okazaki, Eiji Ehara, Yoko Yoshida, Noritsugu Kunihiro, Yasuhiro Matsusaka
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a multisystem genetic disorder that activates mammalian target of rapamycin and produces tumor growth in several organs. We present five patients younger than 12 months who were diagnosed with TSC and treated with everolimus (EVL), after which congenital subependymal giant astrocytoma (cSEGA) promptly regressed in all patients. All patients achieved at least 50% reduction in the volume of cSEGA within 6 months. The most rapid reduction of cSEGA volume (79.1%) was found during the initial 3 months of EVL treatment...
January 30, 2018: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394264/epstein-barr-virus-is-present-in-the-brain-of-most-cases-of-multiple-sclerosis-and-may-engage-more-than-just-b-cells
#11
Asma Hassani, John R Corboy, Suhail Al-Salam, Gulfaraz Khan
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neuroinflammatory condition of the central nervous system (CNS). It is a major cause of neurological disability in young adults, particularly women. What triggers the destruction of myelin sheaths covering nerve fibres is unknown. Both genetic and infectious agents have been implicated. Of the infectious agents, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a common herpesvirus, has the strongest epidemiological and serological evidence. However, the presence of EBV in the CNS and demonstration of the underlying mechanism(s) linking EBV to the pathogenesis of MS remain to be elucidated...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382457/gentamicin-bladder-instillations-decrease-symptomatic-urinary-tract-infections-in-neurogenic-bladder-patients-on-intermittent-catheterization
#12
Lindsey Cox, Chang He, Jack Bevins, J Quentin Clemens, John T Stoffel, Anne P Cameron
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to determine if gentamicin bladder instillations reduce the rate of symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI) in neurogenic bladder (NGB) patients on intermittent self-catheterization (ISC) who have recurrent UTIs. Secondary aims were to examine the effects of intravesical gentamicin on the organism resistance patterns. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed our prospective NGB database. Inclusion criteria were NGB patients performing ISC exclusively for bladder drainage with clinical data available for six months before and six months after initiating prophylactic intravesical gentamicin instillations...
September 2017: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380545/diffusion-kurtosis-imaging-shows-similar-cerebral-axonal-damage-in-patients-with-hiv-infection-and-multiple-sclerosis
#13
Korhan Buyukturkoglu, Lazar Fleyser, Desiree Byrd, Susan Morgello, Matilde Inglese
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In this pilot study, we sought to investigate the pathological changes in the white matter (WM) of medically complex, combination antiretroviral therapy (cART)-treated patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), comparing them to patients with long-standing, secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS). METHODS: Using diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI)-derived WM tract integrity (WMTI) metrics, 15 HIV and 15 age- and sex-matched SPMS patients with similar disease duration underwent magnetic resonance imaging analysis...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372069/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-latent-tuberculosis-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-expert-consensus-on-behalf-of-the-colombian-association-of-neurology-committee-of-multiple-sclerosis
#14
Carlos Navas, Carlos A Torres-Duque, Joe Munoz-Ceron, Carlos Álvarez, Juan R García, Luis Zarco, Lázaro A Vélez, Carlos Awad, Carlos Alberto Castro
Background: Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory and neurodegenerative demyelinating disease. Current treatment of multiple sclerosis focuses on the use of immunomodulatory, immunosuppressant, and selective immunosuppressant agents. Some of these medications may result in high risk of opportunistic infections including tuberculosis. Objective: The purpose of this study was to obtain consensus from a panel of neurologists, pulmonologists, infectious disease specialists, and epidemiology experts regarding the diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of latent tuberculosis in patients with multiple sclerosis...
January 2018: Multiple Sclerosis Journal—Experimental, Translational and Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370683/systematic-review-of-published-data-on-the-worldwide-prevalence-of-john-cunningham-virus-jcv-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#15
Sonia Castedo Paz, Luciana Prats Branco, Marina Alves Camargo Pereira, Caroline Vieira Spessotto, Yara Dadalti Fragoso
Purpose: The John Cunningham virus (JCV) is a polyoma virus that infects humans mainly in childhood or adolescence, and presents no symptomatic manifestations. JCV can cause progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in immunosuppressed individuals, including those undergoing treatment for multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO). PML is a severe and potentially fatal disease of the brain. The prevalence of JCV antibodies has been described to be between 50% and 90% in human serum...
January 5, 2018: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367345/dimethyl-fumarate-potentiates-oncolytic-virotherapy-through-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-inhibition
#16
Mohammed Selman, Paula Ou, Christopher Rousso, Anabel Bergeron, Ramya Krishnan, Larissa Pikor, Andrew Chen, Brian A Keller, Carolina Ilkow, John C Bell, Jean-Simon Diallo
Resistance to oncolytic virotherapy is frequently associated with failure of tumor cells to get infected by the virus. Dimethyl fumarate (DMF), a common treatment for psoriasis and multiple sclerosis, also has anticancer properties. We show that DMF and various fumaric and maleic acid esters (FMAEs) enhance viral infection of cancer cell lines as well as human tumor biopsies with several oncolytic viruses (OVs), improving therapeutic outcomes in resistant syngeneic and xenograft tumor models. This results in durable responses, even in models otherwise refractory to OV and drug monotherapies...
January 24, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362931/immunoregulation-of-theiler-s-virus-induced-demyelinating-disease-by-glatiramer-acetate-without-suppression-of-antiviral-immune-responses
#17
Seiichi Omura, Fumitaka Sato, Nicholas E Martinez, Tierra Range, Lesya Ekshyyan, Alireza Minagar, J Steven Alexander, Ikuo Tsunoda
While most disease-modifying drugs (DMDs) regulate multiple sclerosis (MS) by suppressing inflammation, they can potentially suppress antiviral immunity, causing progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). The DMD glatiramer acetate (GA) has been used for MS patients who are at high risk of PML. We investigated whether GA is safe for use in viral infections by using a model of MS induced by infection with Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV). Treatment of TMEV-infected mice with GA neither enhanced viral loads nor suppressed antiviral immune responses, while it resulted in an increase in the Foxp3/Il17a ratio and IL-4/IL-10 production...
January 23, 2018: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353737/biomarkers-identification-for-pml-monitoring-during-natalizumab-tysabri%C3%A2-treatment-in-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis
#18
REVIEW
Veronica Lanza Cariccio, Placido Bramanti, Emanuela Mazzon
Natalizumab (NTZ, Tysabri®; Biogen-Idec, Cambridge, MA, USA) is a humanized anti-α4 integrin monoclonal antibody, largely used in the treatment of Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS). Although the drug has shown great efficacy in clinical trials (AFFIRM and SENTINEL) and in post-marketing observational studies (TYGRIS), by reducing clinical signs as disability status progression, brain lesions and annual relapse rate, there are numerous papers concerning the associated risk of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML)...
January 17, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351742/herv-w-group-evolutionary-history-in-non-human-primates-characterization-of-erv-w-orthologs-in-catarrhini-and-related-erv-groups-in-platyrrhini
#19
Nicole Grandi, Marta Cadeddu, Jonas Blomberg, Jens Mayer, Enzo Tramontano
BACKGROUND: The genomes of all vertebrates harbor remnants of ancient retroviral infections, having affected the germ line cells during the last 100 million years. These sequences, named Endogenous Retroviruses (ERVs), have been transmitted to the offspring in a Mendelian way, being relatively stable components of the host genome even long after their exogenous counterparts went extinct. Among human ERVs (HERVs), the HERV-W group is of particular interest for our physiology and pathology...
January 19, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341125/gut-microbiota-and-probiotics-novel-immune-system-modulators-in-myasthenia-gravis
#20
REVIEW
Elena Rinaldi, Alessandra Consonni, Elena Guidesi, Marina Elli, Renato Mantegazza, Fulvio Baggi
Gut microorganisms (microbiota) live in symbiosis with the host and influence human nutrition, metabolism, physiology, and immune development and function. The microbiota prevents pathogen infection to the host, and in turn the host provides a niche for survival. The alteration of gut bacteria composition (dysbiosis) could contribute to the development of immune-mediated diseases by influencing the immune system activation and driving the pro- and anti-inflammatory responses in order to promote or counteract immune reactions...
January 17, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
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