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traumatic hemorrhage

Lucy P Evans, Elizabeth A Newell, MaryAnn Mahajan, Stephen H Tsang, Polly J Ferguson, Jolonda Mahoney, Christopher D Hue, Edward W Vogel, Barclay Morrison, Ottavio Arancio, Russell Nichols, Alexander G Bassuk, Vinit B Mahajan
Objective: Limited attention has been given to ocular injuries associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI). The retina is an extension of the central nervous system and evaluation of ocular damage may offer a less-invasive approach to gauge TBI severity and response to treatment. We aim to characterize acute changes in the mouse eye after exposure to two different models of TBI to assess the utility of eye damage as a surrogate to brain injury. Methods: A model of blast TBI (bTBI) using a shock tube was compared to a lateral fluid percussion injury model (LFPI) using fluid pressure applied directly to the brain...
March 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Urmil Pandya, Jill Pattison, Chris Karas, Michael O'Mara
Patients with traumatic intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) with a clinical indication for antithrombotic medication present a clinical dilemma, burdened by the task of weighing the risks of hemorrhage expansion against the risk of thrombosis. We sought to determine the effect of subdural hemorrhage on the risk of hemorrhage expansion after administration of antithrombotic medication. Medical records of 1626 trauma patients admitted with traumatic ICH between March 1, 2008, and March 31, 2013, to a Level I trauma center were retrospectively reviewed...
March 1, 2018: American Surgeon
Caitlin R Woolcott, Stephanie Torrey, Patricia V Turner, Lilia Serpa, Karen Schwean-Lardner, Tina M Widowski
On-farm euthanasia is a critical welfare issue in the poultry industry and can be particularly difficult to perform on mature turkeys due to their size. We evaluated the efficacy of two commercially available non-penetrating captive bolt devices, the Zephyr-EXL and the Turkey Euthanasia Device (TED), on 253 turkeys at three stages of production: 4-5, 10, and 15-20 weeks of age. Effectiveness of each device was measured using both ante- and post-mortem measures. Application of the Zephyr-EXL resulted in a greater success rate (immediate abolishment of brainstem reflexes) compared to the TED (97...
March 20, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Yue Lu, Xiang-Sheng Zhang, Zi-Huan Zhang, Xiao-Ming Zhou, Yong-Yue Gao, Guang-Jie Liu, Han Wang, Ling-Yun Wu, Wei Li, Chun-Hua Hang
BACKGROUND: Peroxiredoxin (Prx) protein family have been reported as important damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) in ischemic stroke. Since peroxiredoxin 2 (Prx2) is the third most abundant protein in erythrocytes and the second most protein in the cerebrospinal fluid in traumatic brain injury and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients, we assessed the role of extracellular Prx2 in the context of SAH. METHODS: We introduced a co-culture system of primary neurons and microglia...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Juliana Tolles, Roger J Lewis
The traditional approach to clinical trial design requires assuming precise values for multiple unknown parameters, resulting is a trial design that is unlikely to perform well if one or more of those assumptions turn out to be incorrect. During conduct of the trial, trial characteristics are often held fixed, even if incoming data suggest that one or more design assumptions were incorrect. This leads to an increased risk of a failed trial. In contrast, an adaptive clinical trial is designed to take advantage of partial, incoming data during the conduct of the trial, modifying key clinical trial characteristics according to prespecified rules, in order to avoid a failed or inconclusive trial, improve statistical efficacy, better treat patients within the trial, or achieve other scientific or ethical goals...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Tomas Vedin, Sebastian Svensson, Marcus Edelhamre, Mathias Karlsson, Mikael Bergenheim, Per-Anders Larsson
PURPOSE: Head trauma is common in the emergency department. Identifying the few patients with serious injuries is time consuming and leads to many computerized tomographies (CTs). Reducing the number of CTs would reduce cost and radiation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of adults with head trauma over a 1-year period to identify clinical features predicting intracranial hemorrhage. METHODS: Medical record data have been collected retrospectively in adult patients with traumatic brain injury...
March 17, 2018: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
J Michael Dickson, Xu Wang, Alexander E St John, Esther B Lim, Susan A Stern, Nathan J White
Introduction: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hemorrhagic shock (HS) are the leading causes of traumatic death worldwide and particularly on the battlefield. They are especially challenging when present simultaneously (polytrauma), and clear blood pressure end points during fluid resuscitation are not well described for this situation. The goal of this study is to evaluate for any benefit of increasing blood pressure using a vasopressor on brain blood flow during initial fluid resuscitation in a swine polytrauma model...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Yoshitaka Shimizu, Takahito Okazaki, Tomoaki Hamana, Masahiro Irifune
Treatment of pseudoaneurysms in the internal carotid artery (ICA) is associated with a high risk of cerebral infarction; therefore, vessel ligation for hemostasis must be avoided. A 66-year-old man had intraoral hemorrhaging. At the time of the initial examination, computed tomography angiography showed jaw plate displacement near the ICA. A more detailed image was obtained using digital-subtraction angiography. After evaluation of the image, a pseudoaneurysm was diagnosed. Six days later, there were concerns about aspiration and airway obstruction; therefore, tracheostomy was performed...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Jing Li Huang, Theo A Woehrle, Pat Conway, Catherine A McCarty, Madeline M Eyer, Steven D Eyer
PURPOSE: In 2007, Essentia Health St. Mary's Medical Center (SMMC), a Level II trauma center in northeastern Minnesota, implemented a protocol for patients who presented with blunt head trauma and were receiving warfarin for anticoagulation. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and risk factors of early delayed, warfarin-associated intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). METHODS: Adult patients with signs and symptoms of head injury on warfarin who were admitted by protocol to SMMC between March 2007 and June 2015 were included...
March 14, 2018: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
Rik Houben, Floris H B M Schreuder, Kim J Bekelaar, Danny Claessens, Robert J van Oostenbrugge, Julie Staals
Background: The intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) score is a commonly used prognostic model for 30-day mortality in ICH, based on five independent predictors (ICH volume, location, Glasgow Coma Scale, age, and intraventricular extension). Use of oral anticoagulants (OAC) is also associated with mortality but was not considered in the ICH score. We investigated (a) whether the predictive performance of ICH score is similar in OAC-ICH and non-OAC-ICH and (b) whether addition of OAC use to the ICH score increases the prognostic performance of the score...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Mitchell R Dyer, DaShawn Hickman, Norman Luc, Shannon Haldeman, Patricia Loughran, Christa Pawlwoski, Anirban Sen Gupta, Matthew D Neal
BACKGROUND: Clinical resuscitative treatment of traumatic hemorrhage involves transfusion of RBC, platelets and plasma in controlled ratios. However, use of such blood components, especially platelets, present many challenges including availability, portability, contamination risks, and short shelf-life, which limit the use of platelet transfusions outside of large trauma centers such as remote civilian hospitals and austere pre-hospital settings. This has prompted significant research in platelet substitutes that may resolve the above issues while providing platelet-mimetic hemostatic action...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Penny S Reynolds, Bernard J Fisher, Jacquelyn McCarter, Christopher Sweeney, Erika J Martin, Paul Middleton, Matthew Ellenberg, Evan Fowler, Donald F Brophy, Alpha A Fowler, Bruce D Spiess, Ramesh Natarajan
BACKGROUND: Coagulopathy and inflammation induced by hemorrhagic shock and traumatic injury are associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Vitamin C (VitC) is an antioxidant with potential protective effects on the pro-inflammatory and pro-coagulant pathways. We hypothesized that high-dose VitC administered as a supplement to fluid resuscitation would attenuate inflammation, coagulation dysfunction, and end-organ tissue damage in a swine model of polytrauma and hemorrhage. METHODS: Male Sinclair swine (n = 24; mean body weight 27 kg) were anesthetized, intubated, mechanically ventilated, and instrumented for physiological monitoring...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
James R van Dellen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 10, 2018: World Neurosurgery
S Gooran, A Javid, G Pourmand
One of the most catastrophic complications of kidney transplantation is non-traumatic delayed bleeding caused by arterial dissection and pseudoaneurysm, endangering the survival of the graft and the patient. Herein, we discuss the management of this condition in 3 cases. The patients included 2 men, 30 and 47 years old, and a 33-year-old woman, who developed a massive hemorrhage in the second week after kidney transplant. All our patients were diabetic for more than 5 years. Massive hemorrhage occurred in the second week without any trauma or precipitating factor...
2018: International Journal of Organ Transplantation Medicine
Keita Shibahashi, Kazuhiro Sugiyama, Yoshihiro Okura, Hidenori Hoda, Yuichi Hamabe
BACKGROUND: Data on traumatic intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) are currently limited, and therefore, the condition is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiology of traumatic IVH and its effects on outcome in patients with blunt head trauma. METHODS: Using a nationwide trauma registry-the Japan Trauma Data Bank, we identified patients who underwent head computed tomography (CT) after blunt head trauma and had intracranial injuries between 2004 and 2015...
March 9, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Shu-Ruei Wu, Hsiao-Ching Kuo, Wei-Chun Huang, Yung-Feng Huang, Yee-Hsuan Chiou, Yu-Hsiang Chang, Bao-Ren Nong
INTRODUCTION: Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an immune-mediated disease; it has been reported to be associated with several diseases. The data on ITP in patients with hepatitis B, tuberculosis, or thyroid diseases are relatively scarce. In addition, these diseases are not rare in Taiwan, together with hepatitis C and Helicobacter pylori which are also related to ITP. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We identified 1223 ITP patients and characterized these patients between 2000 and 2013 from the National Health Insurance Research Database...
March 2, 2018: Thrombosis Research
Sharon Wacht, Kristin Salottolo, Amy Atnip, Michelle Hooks, Mary Bailie, Matthew Carrick
Head strikes can be fatal for patients taking blood thinners (anticoagulants or antiplatelets). Our trauma center instituted the "head strike protocol" to provide uniform and expedited care for adult trauma patients taking preinjury anticoagulants and antiplatelet medications with suspected head injury. The purpose of this article is to describe the development and implementation of the head strike protocol and compare time metrics and outcomes before and after implementing the protocol. Per the head strike protocol, patients with suspected traumatic intracranial hemorrhage (tICH) were screened for anticoagulants or antiplatelet medications by emergency medical service personnel/at first contact, activated as a Level II trauma and received a computed tomographic scan of the head within 30 min of arrival, and started reversal of blood products within 30 min of tICH confirmation...
March 2018: Journal of Trauma Nursing: the Official Journal of the Society of Trauma Nurses
Alessandro Cipriano, Alessio Pecori, Alessandra Eugenia Bionda, Michele Bardini, Francesca Frassi, Francesco Leoli, Valentina Lami, Lorenzo Ghiadoni, Massimo Santini
Prognosis after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) on oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT) is uncertain. We evaluated the rate of immediate and delayed traumatic intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) comparing vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) to direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) and the safety of a clinical management protocol. In this single-center prospective observational study, we enrolled 220 patients on OAT with MTBI. After a first negative CT scan, asymptomatic patients underwent a close neurological observation; if neurologically stable, they were discharged without a second CT scan and followed up for 1 month...
March 8, 2018: Internal and Emergency Medicine
Sushma Yerram, Nakul Katyal, Keerthivaas Premkumar, Premkumar Nattanmai, Christopher R Newey
Background: Seizures are a considerable complication in critically ill patients. Their incidence is significantly high in neurosciences intensive care unit patients. Seizure prophylaxis with anti-epileptic drugs is a common practice in neurosciences intensive care unit. However, its utility in patients without clinical seizure, with an underlying neurological injury, is somewhat controversial. Body: In this article, we have reviewed the evidence for seizure prophylaxis in commonly encountered neurological conditions in neurosciences intensive care unit and discussed the possible prognostic role of continuous electroencephalography monitoring in detecting early seizures in critically ill patients...
2018: Journal of Intensive Care
Jianning Zhang, Fangyi Zhang, Jing-Fei Dong
Traumatic brain injury (TBI)-induced coagulopathy is a common and well-recognized risk for poor clinical outcomes, but its pathogenesis remains poorly understood and treatment options are limited and ineffective. We discuss the recent progress and knowledge gaps in understanding this lethal complication of TBI. We focus on (1) the disruption of the brain-blood barrier to disseminate brain injury systemically by releasing brain-derived molecules into the circulation and (2) TBI-induced hypercoagulable and hyperfibrinolytic states that result in persistent and delayed intracranial hemorrhage and systemic bleeding...
March 5, 2018: Blood
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