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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789121/aire-is-not-essential-for-regulating-neuroinflammatory-disease-in-mice-transgenic-for-human-autoimmune-diseases-associated-mhc-class-ii-genes-hla-dr2b-and-hla-dr4
#1
Saisha A Nalawade, Niannian Ji, Itay Raphael, Andrew Pratt, Ellen Kraig, Thomas G Forsthuber
The human autoimmune disease-associated HLA alleles HLA-DR2b (DRB1*1501) and HLA-DR4 (DRB1*0401) are strongly linked to increased susceptibility for multiple sclerosis (MS) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), respectively. The underlying mechanisms are not fully understood, but these MHC alleles may shape the repertoire of pathogenic T cells via central tolerance. The transcription factor autoimmune regulator (AIRE) promotes central T cell tolerance via ectopic expression of tissue-specific antigens (TSAs). Aire deficiency in humans causes autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome type 1 (APS1), and Aire knockout mice (Aire-/- ) develop spontaneous autoimmune pathology characterized by multi-organ lymphocytic infiltrates...
May 14, 2018: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788534/prospective-evaluation-of-68-ga-dotatate-pet-ct-in-limited-disease-neuroendocrine-tumors-and-or-elevated-serum-neuroendocrine-biomarkers
#2
Sophie Gabriel, Philippe Garrigue, Laetitia Dahan, Frédéric Castinetti, Frédéric Sebag, Karine Baumstark, Cendrine Archange, Jha Abhishek, Karel Pacak, Benjamin Guillet, David Taïeb
CONTEXT: The 68 Ga-labelled somatostatin analogues (68 Ga-DOTA-SSAs) is becoming popular as an important diagnostic tool in neuroendocrine tumors as evidenced by a growing number of reports detailing institutional experience with various DOTA peptides. However, only few prospective studies have compared 68 Ga-DOTA-SSAs and somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) and pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our prospective study was to perform head-to-head comparison between 68 Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT and standard imaging work-up (SI) that included multiphasic CT, liver MRI, and SRS using single photon emission computed tomography...
May 22, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785678/heterotopic-pancreas-without-meckel-s-diverticulum-in-children-as-unique-cause-of-gastrointestinal-bleeding-think-about-it
#3
Mélodie Juricic, Damipi Yempab Djagbare, Marion Carmassi, Nicoleta Panait, Alice Faure, Oumar NDour, Gabriel NGom, Thierry Merrot
Ectopic pancreas also known as heterotopic pancreas (HP) is a rare congenital anomaly, mainly found as incidental finding during autopsy or abdominal exploration for an other condition. Incidence rate is probably underestimated as patients are mostly asymptomatic; otherwise, it is capable of producing symptoms depending on its location, size, often appearing in the 4th-to-6th decades. Complications such as inflammation, obstruction, bleeding, and malignancy degeneration must be considered. Pediatrics cases are very rare, generally concerning HP within Meckel's diverticulum, manifesting by gastrointestinal bleeding and intussusception...
May 21, 2018: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774224/ectopic-pancreas-in-the-gastric-antrum-wall-complicated-by-ectopic-pancreatitis-and-persistent-gastric-abscess
#4
Yaseen Alastal, Basmah Khalil, Surendra Singh, Sameh B Almadani
Ectopic pancreas is an uncommon finding in the stomach. Complications are rare but can lead to significant morbidity and even mortality. We report a 49-year-old man who presented with upper abdominal pain, vomiting, and weight loss and was found to have a gastric wall abscess that developed a few weeks after endoscopic biopsy of a gastric ulcer. After medical treatment failed to resolve his symptoms, he underwent distal gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y gastrojejunostomy. Postoperatively, the gastric wall abscess was determined to have derived from a focus of ectopic pancreatic tissue with evidence of ectopic chronic pancreatitis...
2018: ACG Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742764/ectopic-pancreas-mimicking-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumor-in-the-stomach-fundus
#5
Cătălina Diaconu, Mihai Ciocîrlan, Mariana Jinga, Raluca Simona Costache, Gabriel Constantinescu, Mădălina Ilie, Mircea Diculescu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 9, 2018: Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717337/exercise-training-decreases-pancreatic-fat-content-and-improves-beta-cell-function-regardless-of-baseline-glucose-tolerance-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#6
Marja A Heiskanen, Kumail K Motiani, Andrea Mari, Virva Saunavaara, Jari-Joonas Eskelinen, Kirsi A Virtanen, Mikko Koivumäki, Eliisa Löyttyniemi, Pirjo Nuutila, Kari K Kalliokoski, Jarna C Hannukainen
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Pancreatic fat accumulation may contribute to the development of beta cell dysfunction. Exercise training improves whole-body insulin sensitivity, but its effects on pancreatic fat content and beta cell dysfunction are unclear. The aim of this parallel-group randomised controlled trial was to evaluate the effects of exercise training on pancreatic fat and beta cell function in healthy and prediabetic or type 2 diabetic participants and to test whether the responses were similar regardless of baseline glucose tolerance...
May 2, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697071/eus-of-an-atypical-ectopic-pancreas
#7
Alexander Flores, Charilaos Papafragkakis, Angad S Uberoi, Sayam Thaiudom, Manoop S Bhutani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 24, 2018: Endoscopic Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662318/rare-malignant-insulinoma-with-multiple-liver-metastases-derived-from-ectopic-pancreas-3-year-follow-up-and-literature-review
#8
Qing Liu, Jianghui Duan, Yumin Zheng, Jie Luo, Xiaopin Cai, Huangying Tan
Here, we report the diagnosis and treatment of a very rare case of malignant insulinoma derived from ectopic pancreas. A middle-aged woman presented with a 6-year history of recurrent hypoglycemia with multiple lesions in liver. Admission workup revealed elevated serum insulin and C-peptide, as well as multiple lesions in the liver (largest being 4.3 cm), enlarged lymph nodes around the pancreas, and a lesion (of 3.5 cm) at the proximal jejunum, as shown by contrast computed tomography (CT). Liver biopsy showed the lesions to be well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors, grade G1...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643737/ectopic-pancreas-causing-partial-gastric-outlet-obstruction-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#9
Abdurrahaman Abba Sheshe, Ibrahim Yusuf
Ectopic pancreas is a rare cause of gastric outlet obstruction, perhaps rarer still among Africans. Although the entity is known, the diagnostic challenges are enormous, especially in the poor-resource environment. Gastric outlet obstruction resulting from ectopic pancreas in an adult is the first of its kind in our center; we, therefore, present this case to describe the challenges faced with diagnosis, treatment, and the lesson learned. Ectopic pancreas should be considered in the differential diagnosis of gastric outlet obstruction...
January 2018: Nigerian Journal of Surgery: Official Publication of the Nigerian Surgical Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629316/management-of-functional-neuroendocrine-tumors-of-the-pancreas
#10
REVIEW
Kjell Öberg
Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) constitute a heterogenous group of malignancies with varying clinical presentation, tumor biology and prognosis. The incidence of pNETs has steadily increased during the last decades with an estimated incidence 2012 of 4.8/100,000. Recent whole genome sequencing of pNETs has demonstrated mutations in the DNA repair genes MUTYH and point mutations and gene fusions in four main pathways from chromatin remodeling, DNA damage repair, activation of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling and the telomere maintenance...
February 2018: Gland Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607880/a-novel-nuclear-localization-signal-spans-the-linker-of-the-two-dna-binding-subdomains-in-the-conserved-paired-domain-of-pax6
#11
Hiromasa Tabata, Akihiro Koinui, Atsushi Ogura, Daisuke Nishihara, Hiroaki Yamamoto
Paired box (Pax) 6, a member of the Pax family of transcription factors, contains two DNA-binding domains, called the paired domain (PD) and the homeodomain (HD), and plays pivotal roles in development of structures such as the eye, central nervous system and pancreas. Pax6 is a major developmental switching molecule because, for example, ectopic expression of the Pax6 gene can induce ectopic whole eye development. Intensive research has been devoted to elucidating the molecular mechanism(s) involved in the function(s) of Pax6, but many issues remain unexplained...
April 2, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574401/a-case-report-of-incidental-ectopic-pancreatic-tissue-during-laparoscopic-appendicectomy
#12
Hang-Fai So, Trent J Cross, Mark Zonta
INTRODUCTION: Ectopic or heterotopic pancreas is a congenital disorder defined as abnormally located pancreatic tissue found outside the pancreatic frame. It is a rare entity that occasionally causes symptoms depending on its location. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We present the case of an incidental finding of proximal jejunal ectopic pancreas in a middle-aged woman presenting with appendicitis. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Although rare it is necessary to be aware that jejunal ectopic pancreas can lead to jejunojejunal intussusception...
March 19, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534532/characterization-of-ageing-and-diet-related-swine-models-of-sarcopenia-and-sarcopenic-obesity
#13
Consolacion Garcia-Contreras, Marta Vazquez-Gomez, Laura Torres-Rovira, Jorge Gonzalez, Esteban Porrini, Magali Gonzalez-Colaço, Beatriz Isabel, Susana Astiz, Antonio Gonzalez-Bulnes
Sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity are currently considered major global threats for health and well-being. However, there is a lack of adequate preclinical models for their study. The present trial evaluated the suitability of aged swine by determining changes in adiposity, fatty acids composition, antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation, development of metabolic disturbances and structural changes in tissues and organs. Iberian sows with clinical evidence of aging-related sarcopenia were fed a standard diet fulfilling their maintenance requirements or an obesogenic diet for 100 days...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516647/pancreatic-beta-cells-are-a-sensitive-target-of-embryonic-exposure-to-butylparaben-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#14
Sarah E Brown, Karilyn E Sant, Shana M Fleischman, Olivia Venezia, Monika A Roy, Ling Zhao, Alicia R Timme-Laragy
BACKGROUND: Butylparaben (butyl p-hydroxybenzoic acid) is a common cosmetic and pharmaceutical preservative reported to induce oxidative stress and endocrine disruption. Embryonic development is sensitive to oxidative stress, with redox potentials playing critical roles in progenitor cell fate decisions. Because pancreatic beta cells have been reported to have low antioxidant gene expression, they may be sensitive targets of oxidative stress. We tested the hypotheses that butylparaben causes oxidative stress in the developing embryo, and that pancreatic beta cells are a sensitive target of butylparaben embryotoxicity...
March 8, 2018: Birth Defects Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472102/modeling-human-pancreatic-beta-cell-dedifferentiation
#15
Marc Diedisheim, Masaya Oshima, Olivier Albagli, Charlotte Wennberg Huldt, Ingela Ahlstedt, Maryam Clausen, Suraj Menon, Alexander Aivazidis, Anne-Christine Andreasson, William G Haynes, Piero Marchetti, Lorella Marselli, Mathieu Armanet, Fabrice Chimienti, Raphael Scharfmann
OBJECTIVE: Dedifferentiation could explain reduced functional pancreatic β-cell mass in type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: Here we model human β-cell dedifferentiation using growth factor stimulation in the human β-cell line, EndoC-βH1, and human pancreatic islets. RESULTS: Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) treatment reduced expression of β-cell markers, (INS, MAFB, SLC2A2, SLC30A8, and GCK) and activated ectopic expression of MYC, HES1, SOX9, and NEUROG3...
April 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394790/-a-case-of-jejunal-ectopic-pancreatic-cancer-with-small-bowel-obstruction
#16
Norikazu Yogi, Takashi Kaiho, Shinji Yanagisawa, Masaaki Kataoka, Masaki Nishimura, Soichi Kobayashi, Akira Okaniwa, Ryuichiro Suda, Takuya Yoichi, Nobumitsu Shiina, Mitsuhiko Yoshida, Naoko Mise, Shunichi Tsuchiya
Were port a caseof an 82-year-old man who presented with vomiting. Computed tomography(CT)revealed a jejunum tumor and small bowel obstruction. Enteroscopy revealed a protruded lesion and biopsy indicated adenocarcinoma. PET-CT revealed nothing without jejunal tumor. Therefore, with a preoperative diagnosis of primary small bowel cancer, we performed operation. Surgery indicated peritoneal disseminations and a jejunal tumor 40 cm distal from the ligament of Treitz, and we performed small bowel partial resection...
November 2017: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394503/the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-determines-the-predisposition-and-the-efficiency-of-liver-to-pancreas-reprogramming
#17
Helit Cohen, Hila Barash, Irit Meivar-Levy, Kfir Molakandov, Marina Ben-Shimon, Michael Gurevich, Fatima Zoabi, Adi Har-Zahav, Rolf Gebhardt, Frank Gaunitz, Michael Gurevich, Eytan Mor, Philippe Ravassard, Shoshana Greenberger, Sarah Ferber
Transdifferentiation (TD) is the direct reprogramming of adult cells into cells of alternate fate and function. We were the first to show that liver cells can be transdifferentiated into beta-like, insulin producing cells, by ectopic expression of pancreatic transcription factors (pTFs). However, the efficiency of the process was consistently limited to <15% of the human liver cells treated in culture. The data in the current study suggest that liver to pancreas TD is restricted to a specific population of liver cells that is predisposed to undergo reprogramming...
February 2, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387897/-endocrine-paraneoplastic-syndromes
#18
REVIEW
N Reisch, M Reincke
Endocrine paraneoplastic syndromes result from the production of bioactive substances from neoplastic cells, of endocrine or neuroendocrine origin. Typically these are located in the lungs, the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, thyroid gland, adrenal medulla, skin, prostate or breast. In endocrine paraneoplastic syndromes the secretion of peptides, amines or other bioactive substances is always ectopic and not related to the anatomical source. The clinical presentation, however, is indistinguishable from a suspected eutopic endocrine tumor posing a diagnostic challenge...
February 2018: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384897/significance-of-imaging-findings-in-the-diagnosis-of-heterotopic-spleen-an-intrapancreatic-accessory-spleen-ipas-case-report
#19
Bin Yang, Bimbadhar Valluru, Ya-Ru Guo, Chunmao Cui, Ping Zhang, Wenshuai Duan
RATIONALE: Accessory spleen (Heterotopic/Ectopic) or splenunculus has been attributed to the failure of the fusion of splenic primordial buds-derived from dorsal mesentery (mesodermal mesenchymal in origin) during the 5th week of embryonic organogenesis or to an extreme degree of splenic lobulation with pinching off of the spleen tissue. The most common locations for accessory spleens are the hilum of the spleen followed by adjacent to the tail of the pancreas. The patients usually present with no clinical symptoms...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381957/ectopic-thyroid-of-the-pancreas-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#20
Aiwen Ma, Hongfeng Liu
RATIONALE: Ectopic thyroid is commonly found in the neck region. Intra-abdominal ectopic thyroid is extremely rare, with only 2 cases reported in the pancreatic region. Very few reports have described detailed imaging findings of intra-abdominal ectopic thyroid. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 73-year-old woman with aggravated recurrent right upper quadrant pain was found to have a retroperitoneal mass at the head of pancreas. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) showed a well-defined, high attenuated (56HU) mass measured of 60 × 50 mm in diameter, that exhibited heterogeneous contrast enhancement throughout the 3 phases...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
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