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ectopic pancreas

Consolacion Garcia-Contreras, Marta Vazquez-Gomez, Laura Torres-Rovira, Jorge Gonzalez, Esteban Porrini, Magali Gonzalez-Colaço, Beatriz Isabel, Susana Astiz, Antonio Gonzalez-Bulnes
Sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity are currently considered major global threats for health and well-being. However, there is a lack of adequate preclinical models for their study. The present trial evaluated the suitability of aged swine by determining changes in adiposity, fatty acids composition, antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation, development of metabolic disturbances and structural changes in tissues and organs. Iberian sows with clinical evidence of aging-related sarcopenia were fed a standard diet fulfilling their maintenance requirements or an obesogenic diet for 100 days...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Sarah E Brown, Karilyn E Sant, Shana M Fleischman, Olivia Venezia, Monika A Roy, Ling Zhao, Alicia R Timme-Laragy
BACKGROUND: Butylparaben (butyl p-hydroxybenzoic acid) is a common cosmetic and pharmaceutical preservative reported to induce oxidative stress and endocrine disruption. Embryonic development is sensitive to oxidative stress, with redox potentials playing critical roles in progenitor cell fate decisions. Because pancreatic beta cells have been reported to have low antioxidant gene expression, they may be sensitive targets of oxidative stress. We tested the hypotheses that butylparaben causes oxidative stress in the developing embryo, and that pancreatic beta cells are a sensitive target of butylparaben embryotoxicity...
March 8, 2018: Birth Defects Research
Marc Diedisheim, Masaya Oshima, Olivier Albagli, Charlotte Wennberg Huldt, Ingela Ahlstedt, Maryam Clausen, Suraj Menon, Alexander Aivazidis, Anne-Christine Andreasson, William G Haynes, Piero Marchetti, Lorella Marselli, Mathieu Armanet, Fabrice Chimienti, Raphael Scharfmann
OBJECTIVE: Dedifferentiation could explain reduced functional pancreatic β-cell mass in type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: Here we model human β-cell dedifferentiation using growth factor stimulation in the human β-cell line, EndoC-βH1, and human pancreatic islets. RESULTS: Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) treatment reduced expression of β-cell markers, (INS, MAFB, SLC2A2, SLC30A8, and GCK) and activated ectopic expression of MYC, HES1, SOX9, and NEUROG3...
February 8, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Norikazu Yogi, Takashi Kaiho, Shinji Yanagisawa, Masaaki Kataoka, Masaki Nishimura, Soichi Kobayashi, Akira Okaniwa, Ryuichiro Suda, Takuya Yoichi, Nobumitsu Shiina, Mitsuhiko Yoshida, Naoko Mise, Shunichi Tsuchiya
Were port a caseof an 82-year-old man who presented with vomiting. Computed tomography(CT)revealed a jejunum tumor and small bowel obstruction. Enteroscopy revealed a protruded lesion and biopsy indicated adenocarcinoma. PET-CT revealed nothing without jejunal tumor. Therefore, with a preoperative diagnosis of primary small bowel cancer, we performed operation. Surgery indicated peritoneal disseminations and a jejunal tumor 40 cm distal from the ligament of Treitz, and we performed small bowel partial resection...
November 2017: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
Helit Cohen, Hila Barash, Irit Meivar-Levy, Kfir Molakandov, Marina Ben-Shimon, Michael Gurevich, Fatima Zoabi, Adi Har-Zahav, Rolf Gebhardt, Frank Gaunitz, Michael Gurevich, Eytan Mor, Philippe Ravassard, Shoshana Greenberger, Sarah Ferber
Transdifferentiation (TD) is the direct reprogramming of adult cells into cells of alternate fate and function. We were the first to show that liver cells can be transdifferentiated into beta-like, insulin producing cells, by ectopic expression of pancreatic transcription factors (pTFs). However, the efficiency of the process was consistently limited to <15% of the human liver cells treated in culture. The data in the current study suggest that liver to pancreas TD is restricted to a specific population of liver cells that is predisposed to undergo reprogramming...
February 2, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
N Reisch, M Reincke
Endocrine paraneoplastic syndromes result from the production of bioactive substances from neoplastic cells, of endocrine or neuroendocrine origin. Typically these are located in the lungs, the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, thyroid gland, adrenal medulla, skin, prostate or breast. In endocrine paraneoplastic syndromes the secretion of peptides, amines or other bioactive substances is always ectopic and not related to the anatomical source. The clinical presentation, however, is indistinguishable from a suspected eutopic endocrine tumor posing a diagnostic challenge...
February 2018: Der Internist
Bin Yang, Bimbadhar Valluru, Ya-Ru Guo, Chunmao Cui, Ping Zhang, Wenshuai Duan
RATIONALE: Accessory spleen (Heterotopic/Ectopic) or splenunculus has been attributed to the failure of the fusion of splenic primordial buds-derived from dorsal mesentery (mesodermal mesenchymal in origin) during the 5th week of embryonic organogenesis or to an extreme degree of splenic lobulation with pinching off of the spleen tissue. The most common locations for accessory spleens are the hilum of the spleen followed by adjacent to the tail of the pancreas. The patients usually present with no clinical symptoms...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Aiwen Ma, Hongfeng Liu
RATIONALE: Ectopic thyroid is commonly found in the neck region. Intra-abdominal ectopic thyroid is extremely rare, with only 2 cases reported in the pancreatic region. Very few reports have described detailed imaging findings of intra-abdominal ectopic thyroid. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 73-year-old woman with aggravated recurrent right upper quadrant pain was found to have a retroperitoneal mass at the head of pancreas. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) showed a well-defined, high attenuated (56HU) mass measured of 60 × 50 mm in diameter, that exhibited heterogeneous contrast enhancement throughout the 3 phases...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Hao Yuan, Pengfei Wu, Jianmin Chen, Zipeng Lu, Lei Chen, Jishu Wei, Feng Guo, Baobao Cai, Jie Yin, Dong Xu, Kuirong Jiang, Yi Miao
RATIONALE: Portal annular pancreas is a rare anatomic variation, where the uncinated process of the pancreas connects with the dorsal pancreas and the pancreas tissue encases the portal vein (PV), superior mesenteric vein (SMV) or splenic vein (SV). Malignancies are quite uncommon in the patients, who have an annular pancreas especially portal annular pancreas. Ectopic common hepatic artery and absence of the celiac trunk (CT) are the other infrequent abnormalities. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 74-year-old man suffered from upper abdominal and back pain...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Subhankar Dolai, Tao Liang, Abrahim I Orabi, Li Xie, Douglas Holmyard, Tanveer A Javed, Nestor A Fernandez, Huanli Xie, Mark S Cattral, Debbie C Thurmond, Peter Thorn, Herbert Y Gaisano
Epithelial pancreatic acinar cells perform crucial functions in food digestion, and acinar cell homoeostasis required for secretion of digestive enzymes relies on SNARE-mediated exocytosis. The ubiquitously expressed Sec1/Munc18 protein mammalian uncoordinated-18c (Munc18c) regulates membrane fusion by activating syntaxin-4 (STX-4) to bind cognate SNARE proteins to form a SNARE complex that mediates exocytosis in many cell types. However, in the acinar cell, Munc18c's functions in exocytosis and homeostasis remain inconclusive...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Bettina Nowotny, Sabine Kahl, Birgit Klüppelholz, Barbara Hoffmann, Guido Giani, Roshan Livingstone, Peter J Nowotny, Valerie Stamm, Christian Herder, Andrea Tura, Giovanni Pacini, Jong-Hee Hwang, Michael Roden
BACKGROUND: Loss of adequate insulin secretion for the prevailing insulin resistance is critical for the development of type 2 diabetes and has been suggested to result from circulating lipids (triacylglycerols [TG] or free fatty acids) and/or adipocytokines or from ectopic lipid storage in the pancreas. This study aimed to address whether circulating lipids, adipocytokines or pancreatic fat primarily associate with lower insulin secretion. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Nondiabetic persons (n=73), recruited from the general population, underwent clinical examinations, fasting blood drawing to measure TG and adipocytokines and oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) to assess basal and dynamic insulin secretion and sensitivity indices...
December 19, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Bahareh Rajaei, Mehdi Shamsara, Mohammad Hossein Sanati
Pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX1), a member of the homeodomain-containing transcription factor family, is a key transcription factor for pancreas development and mature β-cell function. In this study, induced overexpression of PDX1 resulted in producing susceptible cells for pancreatic differentiation and was well beneficial to enhance β-cell production, maturation, function, and survival. Induced PDX1 overexpression in harmony with a set of signaling molecules involves in guiding the signaling pathways toward pancreas development, leaded to high-efficient in vitro generation of ectopic insulin-producing cells (IPCs) with the effectively reduced number of polyhormonal cells and increased number of INS single-positive cells...
November 27, 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
Marc Plier, Patrick Durez, Mina Komuta, Alexandros Raptis
The pancreatitis, panniculitis and polyarthritis (PPP) syndrome is a rare condition caused by pancreatic diseases, such as acute or chronic pancreatitis or pancreatic carcinoma. We report the first case of PPP syndrome caused by metastatic acinar cell carcinoma from an ectopic pancreas. The symptoms were successfully managed by the treatment of the metastatic carcinoma. Pancreatic cytosteatonecrosis should be always considered in a patient who is showing symptoms of panniculitis and polyarthritis.
November 21, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
Yftach Gepner, Ilan Shelef, Dan Schwarzfuchs, Hila Zelicha, Lilac Tene, Anat Yaskolka Meir, Gal Tsaban, Noa Cohen, Nitzan Bril, Michal Rein, Dana Serfaty, Shira Kenigsbuch, Oded Komy, Arik Wolak, Yoash Chassidim, Rachel Golan, Hilla Avni-Hassid, Avital Bilitzky, Benjamin Sarusi, Eyal Goshen, Elad Shemesh, Yaakov Henkin, Michael Stumvoll, Matthias Blüher, Joachim Thiery, Uta Ceglarek, Assaf Rudich, Meir J Stampfer, Iris Shai
Background -We aimed to assess whether distinct lifestyle strategies can differentially affect specific body adipose depots. Methods -We performed an eighteen-month randomized controlled trial among 278 sedentary adults with abdominal obesity (75%) or dyslipidemia in an isolated workplace with a monitored provided lunch. Participants were randomized to iso-caloric low-fat (LF) or Mediterranean/low-carbohydrate (MED/LC) diet+28g walnuts/day with/without added moderate physical activity (PA;80% aerobic; supervised/free gym membership)...
November 15, 2017: Circulation
Nikhil Tyagi, Sachin K Deshmukh, Sanjeev K Srivastava, Shafquat Azim, Aamir Ahmad, Ahmed Al-Ghadhban, Ajay P Singh, James E Carter, Bin Wang, Seema Singh
The ETS family transcription factor ETV4 is aberrantly expressed in a variety of human tumors and plays an important role in carcinogenesis through upregulation of relevant target gene expression. Here, it is demonstrated that ETV4 is overexpressed in pancreatic cancer tissues as compared with the normal pancreas, and is associated with enhanced growth and rapid cell-cycle progression of pancreatic cancer cells. ETV4 expression was silenced through stable expression of a specific short hairpin RNA (shRNA) in two pancreatic cancer cell lines (ASPC1 and Colo357), while it was ectopically expressed in BXPC3 cells...
February 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
Paulo Henrique do Amor Divino, Katia Regina Marchetti, Madson Q Almeida, Rachel P Riechelmann
Background: Neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) are a heterogeneous group of diseases that can originate from any part of the gastrointestinal tract, bronchi, thyroid and pancreas. These tumours may be functioning or not depending on their ability to produce active substances, such as adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH). ACTH-producing pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours are rare, with limited data about effective antitumor therapies. Case Report: A 58-year-old man with a history of type-2 diabetes mellitus and arterial hypertension was diagnosed with Cushing's syndrome (CS) secondary to an ACTH ectopic production from a well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumour of the pancreas metastatic to the liver...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
Yaxi Zhu, Qian Liu, Zhiguang Zhou, Yasuhiro Ikeda
Transcription factors regulate gene expression through binding to specific enhancer sequences. Pancreas/duodenum homeobox protein 1 (PDX1), Neurogenin-3 (NEUROG3), and V-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog A (MAFA) are transcription factors critical for beta cell development and maturation. NEUROG3 is expressed in endocrine progenitor cells and controls islet differentiation and regeneration. PDX1 is essential for the development of pancreatic exocrine and endocrine cells including beta cells...
November 2, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Silvia Uccella, Annika Blank, Roberta Maragliano, Fausto Sessa, Aurel Perren, Stefano La Rosa
Increased levels of circulating calcitonin are a clue in the diagnosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma. However, hypercalcitoninemia can also be related to other pathological conditions, including pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (PanNENs). Ectopic hormonal production is not unusual in both functioning and non-functioning PanNENs; however, little is known about the frequency of calcitonin expression in these neoplasms. The aims of this study were to assess the frequency of calcitonin immunoreactivity in PanNENs, independently from serum calcitonin levels, and to evaluate the clinicopathological and prognostic features of calcitonin-immunoreactive (Cal-IR) PanNENs, including a comparison with cases already reported in the literature...
December 2017: Endocrine Pathology
Valeria Guglielmi, Paolo Sbraccia
With the increasing prevalence of obesity, the interest of research in nonalcoholic fatty pancreas disease (NAFPD) has grown. Even though the pancreas appears more susceptible to lipid accumulation compared with the liver, NAFPD has been less investigated due to the limits in detecting techniques. Several definitions and synonyms for NAFPD are used by authors and can be misleading. This, together with differences in methodology and ethnicity, make the integration and comparison of studies on this topic challenging...
October 5, 2017: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Joseph Allencherril, Sebastian Bruera, Ronan Allencherril, Richard J Hamill
Herein we describe the case of an elderly diabetic gentleman presenting with a two-week history of dyspnea and nonproductive cough, found to have a large left anterolateral chest wall mass. Further characterization through computed tomography (CT) of the chest revealed a soft tissue mass in the left anterior lower hemithorax found to be hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The liver, spleen, and pancreas were unremarkable. Diagnostic labs were unremarkable. The patient had no history of hepatitis, alcohol abuse, or illicit substance use...
2017: Case Reports in Medicine
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