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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897432/low-skeletal-muscle-radiation-attenuation-and-visceral-adiposity-are-associated-with-overall-survival-and-surgical-site-infections-in-patients-with-pancreatic-cancer
#1
David P J van Dijk, Maikel J A M Bakens, Mariëlle M E Coolsen, Sander S Rensen, Ronald M van Dam, Martijn J L Bours, Matty P Weijenberg, Cornelis H C Dejong, Steven W M Olde Damink
BACKGROUND: Cancer cachexia and skeletal muscle wasting are related to poor survival. In this study, quantitative body composition measurements using computed tomography (CT) were investigated in relation to survival, post-operative complications, and surgical site infections in surgical patients with cancer of the head of the pancreas. METHODS: A prospective cohort of 199 patients with cancer of the head of the pancreas was analysed by CT imaging at the L3 level to determine (i) muscle radiation attenuation (average Hounsfield units of total L3 skeletal muscle); (ii) visceral adipose tissue area; (iii) subcutaneous adipose tissue area; (iv) intermuscular adipose tissue area; and (v) skeletal muscle area...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864307/pancreatic-beta-cells-express-the-fetal-islet-hormone-gastrin-in-rodent-and-human-diabetes
#2
Tehila Dahan, Oren Ziv, Elad Horwitz, Hai Zemmour, Judith Lavi, Avital Swisa, Gil Leibowitz, Frances M Ashcroft, Peter In't Veld, Benjamin Glaser, Yuval Dor
Beta-cell failure in type 2 diabetes (T2D) was recently proposed to involve dedifferentiation of beta-cells and ectopic expression of other islet hormones, including somatostatin and glucagon. Here we show that gastrin, a stomach hormone typically expressed in the pancreas only during embryogenesis, is expressed in islets of diabetic rodents and humans with T2D. While in mice gastrin is expressed insulin+ cells, in humans with T2D gastrin expression occurs in both insulin+ and somatostatin+ cells. Genetic lineage tracing in mice indicates that gastrin expression is turned on in a subset of differentiated beta-cells following exposure to severe hyperglycemia...
November 18, 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858880/endoscopic-ultrasound-without-tissue-acquisition-has-poor-accuracy-for-diagnosing-gastric-subepithelial-tumors
#3
Tae Won Lim, Cheol Woong Choi, Dae Hwan Kang, Hyung Wook Kim, Su Bum Park, Su Jin Kim
Incidental gastric subepithelial tumor (SET) is frequently found during endoscopy. Although endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) can provide useful information, its diagnostic accuracy varies. Most of the potentially malignant tumors observed on EUS are hypoechoic lesions. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of EUS for hypoechoic lesions located in the submucosa or proper muscle layer. We also evaluated various characteristics for potential associations with diagnostic accuracy.A retrospective review was conducted of the medical records of 99 patients who were diagnosed with gastric SET and who underwent EUS with pathologic confirmation between March 2008 and April 2015...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847215/grape-seed-and-skin-extract-reduces-pancreas-lipotoxicity-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-in-high-fat-diet-fed-rats
#4
Faten Aloui, Kamel Charradi, Aziz Hichami, Selvakumar Subramaniam, Naim Akhtar Khan, Ferid Limam, Ezzedine Aouani
Obesity is related to an elevated risk of diabetes and the mechanisms whereby fat adversely affects the pancreas are poorly understood. We studied the effect of a high fat diet (HFD) on pancreas steatosis, oxidative stress and inflammation as well as the putative protection afforded by grape seed and skin extract (GSSE). HFD induced body weight gain, without affecting insulinemia, nor glycemia and dropped adiponectemia. HFD also provoked the ectopic deposition of cholesterol and triglyceride, and an oxidative stress characterized by increased lipoperoxidation and carbonylation, inhibition of antioxidant enzyme activities such as CAT, GPx and SOD, depletion of zinc and a concomitant increase in calcium and H2O2...
November 12, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803770/update-on-endoscopic-management-of-gastric-outlet-obstruction-in-children
#5
REVIEW
Hsun-Chin Chao
Endoscopic balloon dilatation (EBD) and surgical intervention are two most common and effective treatments for gastric outlet obstruction. Correction of gastric outlet obstruction without the need for surgery is an issue that has been tried to be resolved in these decades; this management has developed with EBD, advanced treatments like local steroid injection, electrocauterization, and stent have been added recently. The most common causes of pediatric gastric outlet obstruction are idiopathic hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, peptic ulcer disease followed by the ingestion of caustic substances, stenosis secondary to surgical anastomosis; antral web, duplication cyst, ectopic pancreas, and other rare conditions...
October 16, 2016: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736991/loss-of-pancreas-upon-activated-wnt-signaling-is-concomitant-with-emergence-of-gastrointestinal-identity
#6
Jose Luis Muñoz-Bravo, Alvaro Flores-Martínez, Griselda Herrero-Martin, Sapna Puri, Makoto Mark Taketo, Anabel Rojas, Matthias Hebrok, David A Cano
Organ formation is achieved through the complex interplay between signaling pathways and transcriptional cascades. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway plays multiple roles during embryonic development including patterning, proliferation and differentiation in distinct tissues. Previous studies have established the importance of this pathway at multiple stages of pancreas formation as well as in postnatal organ function and homeostasis. In mice, gain-of-function experiments have demonstrated that activation of the canonical Wnt pathway results in pancreatic hypoplasia, a phenomenon whose underlying mechanisms remains to be elucidated...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721721/incomplete-annular-pancreas-with-ectopic-opening-of-the-pancreatic-and-bile-ducts-into-the-pyloric-ring-first-report-of-a-rare-anomaly
#7
Shinjiro Kobayashi, Horoyuki Hoshino, Kouhei Segami, Satoshi Koizumi, Nobuyuki Ooike, Takehito Otsubo
The patient was a 56-year-old woman who had experienced epigastralgia and dorsal pain several times over the last 20 years. She was admitted for a diagnosis of acute cholecystitis, and severe intra- and extrahepatic bile duct dilatation with inner air density was noted. No papilla of Vater was present in the descending duodenum, and 2 small holes were present in the pyloric ring. Bile excretion from one of the small holes was observed under forward-viewing endoscope. It was considered that the pancreatic and bile ducts separately opened into the pyloric ring...
May 2016: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716570/ectopic-pregnancy-in-simultaneous-pancreas-kidney-transplantation-a-case-report
#8
Shinji Yamamoto, Maria Nelander
INTRODUCTION: We present a case report of ectopic pregnancy (EP) after simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation (SKPTx). PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 33-year-old female status post SKPTx suddenly got abdominal pain in the lower level. She had high human chorionic Gonadotropin test. Ultrasonography revealed that there was no fetus in the uterus but a dilated right fallopian tube, which strongly suggested ectopic pregnancy. An emergency operation was performed and a dilated right side uterine tube was found with adhesions to her transplant...
2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678349/exploring-the-metabolic-syndrome-nonalcoholic-fatty-pancreas-disease
#9
REVIEW
Roberto Catanzaro, Biagio Cuffari, Angelo Italia, Francesco Marotta
After the first description of fatty pancreas in 1933, the effects of pancreatic steatosis have been poorly investigated, compared with that of the liver. However, the interest of research is increasing. Fat accumulation, associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome (MetS), has been defined as "fatty infiltration" or "nonalcoholic fatty pancreas disease" (NAFPD). The term "fatty replacement" describes a distinct phenomenon characterized by death of acinar cells and replacement by adipose tissue. Risk factors for developing NAFPD include obesity, increasing age, male sex, hypertension, dyslipidemia, alcohol and hyperferritinemia...
September 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672644/cystic-jejunal-duplication-with-heinrich-s-type-i-ectopic-pancreas-incidentally-discovered-in-a-patient-with-pancreatic-tail-neoplasm
#10
Simona Gurzu, Tivadar Bara, Tivadar Bara, Annamaria Fetyko, Ioan Jung
The aim of this study was to present a case of enteric duplication cyst and criteria for a proper differential diagnosis. A 51-year-old male was hospitalized for pancreatic tail neoplasm and distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy was performed. During surgery, a jejunal cystic lesion was incidentally detected and jejunectomy was performed. Microscopically, the cyst was observed to be covered by Keratin 7/Keratin 20 positive intestinal type epithelium and the muscularis layer was shared by the cyst and adjacent jejunum, without a cleavage plane between the cyst wall and jejunal muscularis propria...
September 16, 2016: World Journal of Clinical Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27627810/generation-of-an-in%C3%A2-vitro-3d-pdac-stroma-rich-spheroid-model
#11
Matthew J Ware, Vazrik Keshishian, Justin J Law, Jason C Ho, Carlos A Favela, Paul Rees, Billie Smith, Sayeeduddin Mohammad, Rosa F Hwang, Kimal Rajapakshe, Cristian Coarfa, Shixia Huang, Dean P Edwards, Stuart J Corr, Biana Godin, Steven A Curley
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is characterized by a prominent desmoplastic/stromal reaction, which contributes to the poor clinical outcome of this disease. Therefore, greater understanding of the stroma development and tumor-stroma interactions is highly required. Pancreatic stellate cells (PSC) are myofibroblast-like cells located in exocrine areas of the pancreas, which as a result of inflammation produced by PDAC migrate and accumulate in the tumor mass, secreting extracellular matrix components and producing the dense PDAC stroma...
November 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27408770/autonomous-interconversion-between-adult-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-and-%C3%AE-cells-after-differential-metabolic-challenges
#12
Risheng Ye, Miao Wang, Qiong A Wang, Stephen B Spurgin, Zhao V Wang, Kai Sun, Philipp E Scherer
BACKGROUND: Evidence hints at the ability of β-cells to emerge from non-β-cells upon genetic or pharmacological interventions. However, their quantitative contributions to the process of autonomous β-cell regeneration without genetic or pharmacological manipulations remain to be determined. METHODS & RESULTS: Using PANIC-ATTAC mice, a model of titratable, acute β-cell apoptosis capable of autonomous, and effective islet mass regeneration, we demonstrate that an extended washout of residual tamoxifen activity is crucial for β-cell lineage tracing studies using the tamoxifen-inducible Cre/loxP systems...
July 2016: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27344314/novel-phenotypes-of-prediabetes
#13
REVIEW
Hans-Ulrich Häring
This article describes phenotypes observed in a prediabetic population (i.e. a population with increased risk for type 2 diabetes) from data collected at the University hospital of Tübingen. We discuss the impact of genetic variation on insulin secretion, in particular the effect on compensatory hypersecretion, and the incretin-resistant phenotype of carriers of the gene variant TCF7L2 is described. Imaging studies used to characterise subphenotypes of fat distribution, metabolically healthy obesity and metabolically unhealthy obesity are described...
September 2016: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27329561/pancreatic-accessory-spleen-false-positive-with-99m-tc-octreotide
#14
J Serrano-Vicente, J R Infante-Torre, L García-Bernardo, M Moreno-Caballero, A Martínez-Esteve, J I Rayo-Madrid
The case is presented on a patient with abdominal pain and suspicion of neuroendocrine tumor in the tail of the pancreas shown in the abdominal CT and MRI. Whole-body scintigraphy and abdominal SPECT/CT with (99m)Tc-octreotide were performed that showed a nodular lesion partially on the posterior side of the pancreas tail. This nodule showed faint tracer uptake, and was reported as probable neuroendocrine tumor. Partial pancreatectomy and splenectomy were performed, and the histological study identified the lesion as an ectopic spleen...
June 18, 2016: Revista Española de Medicina Nuclear e Imagen Molecular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27329092/a-case-mucinous-cystic-neoplasm-from-a-gastric-ectopic-pancreas
#15
Viviana Parra, Fanny Acero, Eligio Alvarez, Diego Mauricio Aponte, Luis Carlos Sabbagh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 18, 2016: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27311170/-serous-cystadenoma-in-supernumerary-ovary-case-report-and-literature-review
#16
REVIEW
María del Carmen Fregoso-García, Rubén Darío Campomanes-Azamar, José Luis Rodríguez-Chávez, Victor Manuel Madrigal-Rodríguez, Alberto Bañuelos-Franco
BACKGROUND: The ovaries accessories, ectopic and supernumerary represent a rare gynecological disorder; incidence ranges from 129,000 to 1:700,000 cases. CLINIC CASE: Patient 55 years of age who arrived at by diffuse abdominal pain 2 weeks of evolution, nausea and vomiting, with no history of chronic degenerative diseases or surgical. Palpation abdomen soft depressible globoso palpable mass at the expense of 30x20 cm, painless to superficial and deep pressure. Bimanual: anteversoflexion uterus 9 cm, 20 cm tumor, soft, fixed, mild pain in the cervical mobilization funds free bag...
November 2015: Ginecología y Obstetricia de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27275595/preliminary-analysis-of-hybrid-laparoscopic-procedure-for-resection-of-gastric-submucosal-tumors
#17
Pedro Henrique Lambach Caron, Mariana Ismael Dias Martins, Pedro Luiz Bertevello
OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the feasibility, safety and benefits of minimally invasive surgery for resection of gastric submucosal tumor (GSMT). METHODS: we conducted a retrospective study of medical records of patients undergoing endoscopy-assisted laparoscopic resection of gastric submucosal tumors (prospectively collected) from 2011 to 2014. We evaluated clinical data, surgical approach, clinicopathological characteristics of the GSMT (size, location, histopathological and immunohistochemical exams), outcome and patients follow-up...
March 2016: Revista do Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgiões
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27268412/expression-and-localization-of-x11-family-proteins-in-neurons
#18
Rika Motodate, Yuhki Saito, Saori Hata, Toshiharu Suzuki
The X11/Mint family of proteins comprises X11/X11α/Mint1, X11L/X11β/Mint2, and X11L2/X11γ/Mint3. Each of these molecules is an adaptor protein that contains a phosphotyrosine interaction/binding (PI/PTB) and two PDZ domains in its carboxy-terminal region. X11/Mint family members associate with a broad spectrum of membrane proteins, including Alzheimer's β-amyloid precursor protein (APP), alcadeins, and low density lipoprotein receptor proteins, as well as various cytoplasmic proteins including Arf, kalirin-7, and Munc18...
September 1, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27194746/overnutrition-ectopic-lipid-and-the-metabolic-syndrome
#19
REVIEW
Scott M Grundy
The metabolic syndrome is a constellation of metabolic risk factors including atherogenic dyslipidemia (elevated serum triglycerides, reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol), elevated blood pressure, dysglycemia (insulin resistance and elevated serum glucose), a pro-inflammatory state, and a prothrombotic state. Most persons with metabolic syndrome are obese, and usually have abdominal obesity. Generally, obesity is a reflection of overnutrition. A current view is that when adipose tissue fails to store all excess nutrients as triglyceride, lipid begins to accumulate in various tissues (eg, muscle, liver, pancreas, and heart)...
August 2016: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27150861/ectopic-opening-of-the-common-bile-duct-accompanied-by-choledochocele-and-pancreas-divisum
#20
Tetsuya Takikawa, Atsushi Kanno, Atsushi Masamune, Seiji Hongo, Naoki Yoshida, Eriko Nakano, Shin Miura, Shin Hamada, Kiyoshi Kume, Kazuhiro Kikuta, Morihisa Hirota, Tooru Shimosegawa
A 32-year-old woman was referred due to abdominal pain and elevated liver enzymes. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed ectopic opening of the common bile duct (CBD) into the duodenal bulb. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed a hemispheric bulge in the duodenal bulb. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) revealed the bulge to be cystic dilatation of the CBD. ERCP also showed no communication between the ventral and dorsal pancreatic ducts. We diagnosed the patient with ectopic opening of the CBD accompanied by choledochocele and pancreas divisum...
2016: Internal Medicine
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