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Informal waste sector

Jürgen Wittsiepe, Torsten Feldt, Holger Till, Gerd Burchard, Michael Wilhelm, Julius N Fobil
Informal-level electronic waste (e-waste)-processing activities are performed at hotspots in developing countries such as India, China, and Ghana. These activities increase the ambient burden of heavy metals and contribute to the toxic exposure of the general population. However, few data exist on the internal exposure of populations involved in these informal activities and in close contact with fumes from the direct combustion of electronic waste products in these countries. Therefore, in a cross-sectional study design, we analyzed blood, urine, and hair samples from 75 e-waste workers residing in and/or working on a large e-waste recycling site in Agbogbloshie, Accra, Ghana, and compared the results against those of 40 individuals living in a suburb of Accra without direct exposure to e-waste recycling activities...
November 17, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Rafael Laurenti, Åsa Moberg, Åsa Stenmarck
Knowledge about the total waste generated by the production of consumer goods can help raise awareness among policy-makers, producers and consumers of the benefits of closing loops in a future circular economy, avoiding unnecessary production and production steps and associated generation of large amounts of waste. In strict life cycle assessment practice, information on waste outputs from intermediate industrial processes of material and energy transformation is translated into and declared as potential environmental impacts, which are often not reported in the final results...
November 10, 2016: Waste Management & Research
(no author information available yet)
The purpose of SENTIERI-ReNaM Project is to describe mesothelioma incidence in the Italian National Priority Contaminated Sites (NPCSs). The present report deals with 39 NPCSs (20 in Northern Italy, 8 in Central Italy and 11 in Southern Italy). Asbestos is specifically mentioned in the regulatory acts of recognition for 10 NPCSs and it is the only agent that has determined environmental contamination in 3 of them (Casale Monferrato, Broni, and Bari). The timeframe of the study is 2000-2011 for 34 out of 39 sites...
September 2016: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
Kiran Sandhu, Paul Burton, Aysin Dedekorkut-Howes
The informal waste recycling sector has been an indispensable but ironically invisible part of the waste management systems in developing countries as India, often completely disregarded and overlooked by decision makers and policy frameworks. The turn towards liberalization of economy since 1991 in India opened the doors for privatization of urban services and the waste sector found favor with private companies facilitated by the local governments. In joining the privatization bandwagon, the local governments aim to create an image of a progressive city demonstrated most visibly through apt management of municipal solid waste...
October 18, 2016: Waste Management
Predrag Korica, Andreja Cirman, Andreja Žgajnar Gotvajn
An often suggested method for waste prevention is substitution of currently-used materials with materials which are less bulky, contain less hazardous components or are easier to recycle. For policy makers it is important to have tools available that provide information on the impact of this substitution on the changes in total amounts of waste generated and managed. The purpose of this paper is to see how much changes in the mix of 15 waste streams generated in eight economic sectors from 30 European countries have influenced the amounts of waste generated and managed in the period 2004-2012...
November 2016: Waste Management & Research
Akunnaya P Opoko, Adedapo A Oluwatayo
Lagos is one of the fastest growing cities in Africa, which is grappling with the challenges of poorly managed urbanisation. With an estimated population of about 17.5 million, solid waste management is one of the most pressing environmental challenges currently faced in the city. It is estimated that more than 9071847.4kg of urban waste is generated every day in the city. The city lacks the capacity to deal with such magnitude of waste. Consequently, the city has involved the private sector (private sector participation) in its waste management drive...
September 23, 2016: Waste Management & Research
Anne Scheinberg, Jelena Nesić, Rachel Savain, Pietro Luppi, Portia Sinnott, Flaviu Petean, Flaviu Pop
The European Union hosts some of the world's most developed waste management systems and an ambitious policy commitment to the circular economy. The existence of informal recycling and re-use activities in Europe has been vigorously denied until quite recently, and remains a very challenging subject for the European solid waste management sector, as well as for European government and private institutions. In countries ranging from Malta to Macedonia and from France to Turkey, informal recyclers excluded from legal recycling niches increasingly collide with formalised and controlled European Union approaches to urban waste management, packaging recovery schemes, formal re-use enterprises, and extended producer responsibility systems...
September 2016: Waste Management & Research
Kristina O Zacho, Mette A Mosgaard
Local waste management has so far been characterised by end-of-pipe solutions, landfilling, incineration, and recycling. End-of-pipe solutions build on a different mind-set than life cycle-based approaches, and for this reason, local waste managers are reluctant to consider strategies for waste prevention. To accelerate the transition of waste and resource management towards a more integrated management, waste prevention needs to play a larger role in the local waste management. In this review article, we collect knowledge from the scientific community on waste prevention of relevance to local waste management...
July 15, 2016: Waste Management & Research
Steven Jerie
This study identifies and analyses the occupational risks associated with solid waste management practices in the informal enterprises of Gweru. Many concerns have been raised about the potential harm from waste to the environment and the general public, but the risks and consequent costs of occupational hazards in waste management have received little attention in the rush to adopt or adapt technologies such as composting. A multimethods research design that triangulates qualitative and quantitative research paradigms is employed in this study...
2016: Journal of Environmental and Public Health
Ozge Yilmaz, Bahar Y Kara, Ulku Yetis
This paper presents a multi objective mixed integer location/routing model that aims to minimize transportation cost and risks for large-scale hazardous waste management systems (HWMSs). Risks induced by hazardous wastes (HWs) on both public and the environment are addressed. For this purpose, a new environmental impact definition is proposed that considers the environmentally vulnerable elements including water bodies, agricultural areas, coastal regions and forestlands located within a certain bandwidth around transportation routes...
June 29, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
C K M Lee, C L Yeung, Z R Xiong, S H Chung
With the booming economy and increasing population, the accumulation of waste has become an increasingly arduous issue and has aroused the attention from all sectors of society. Hong Kong which has a relative high daily per capita domestic waste generation rate in Asia has not yet established a comprehensive waste management system. This paper conducts a review of waste management approaches and models. Researchers highlight that mathematical models provide useful information for decision-makers to select appropriate choices and save cost...
June 25, 2016: Waste Management
Mentore Vaccari, Andrea Perteghella
Roma communities represent the main involved actors in the informal activities in the Balkan regions, especially because the state does not formally recognize them as formal inhabitants. The Roma community in Zavidovici, despite being resident since the beginning of the 20th century, is still considered a marginalized and vulnerable group. They are actively involved in and dependent on the informal solid waste sector. Waste collection is a 'family business', a kind of self-employment and the main source of income for households...
September 2016: Waste Management & Research
Niladri Basu, Paul Ahoumènou Ayelo, Luc S Djogbénou, Marius Kedoté, Herve Lawin, Honesty Tohon, Elizabeth O Oloruntoba, Nurudeen A Adebisi, Danielle Cazabon, Julius Fobil, Thomas Robins, Benjamin Fayomi
Most in the Economic Community of West African States region are employed in the informal sector. While the informal sector plays a significant role in the region's economy, policymakers and the scientific community have long neglected it. To better understand informal-sector work conditions, the goal here is to bring together researchers to exchange findings and catalyze dialogue. The article showcases research studies on several economic systems, namely agriculture, resource extraction, transportation, and trade/commerce...
August 2016: New Solutions: a Journal of Environmental and Occupational Health Policy: NS
João Aleluia, Paulo Ferrão
This paper characterizes municipal solid waste (MSW) management practices in developing Asia, with a focus on low and middle-income countries. The analysis that is conducted supports a proposed framework that maps out the trends observed in the region in relation to two parameters, waste compositions and urban dimension, which was prepared based on a set of national and urban case studies. The management of MSW in developing Asian countries is driven, first and foremost, by a public health imperative: the collection and disposal of waste in order to avoid the spread of disease vectors from uncollected waste...
May 21, 2016: Waste Management
Leslie Amoroso
The Second International Conference on Nutrition (ICN2) was jointly organized by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) and was held at the FAO Headquarters in Rome, Italy, from 19 to 21 November 2014. The ICN2 was a high-level intergovernmental meeting that focused global attention on addressing malnutrition in all its forms: undernutrition, including micronutrient deficiencies, overweight, and obesity. The ICN2 was held to specifically address the persistent and unacceptably high levels of malnutrition...
2016: World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics
Eleni Iacovidou, Phil Purnell
Construction is the most resource intensive sector in the world. It consumes more than half of the total global resources; it is responsible for more than a third of the total global energy use and associated emissions; and generates the greatest and most voluminous waste stream globally. Reuse is considered to be a material and carbon saving practice highly recommended in the construction sector as it can address both waste and carbon emission regulatory targets. This practice offers the possibility to conserve resources through the reclamation of structural components and the carbon embedded in them, as well as opportunities for the development of new business models and the creation of environmental, economic, technical and social value...
July 1, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Florence Van Stappen, Michaël Mathot, Virginie Decruyenaere, Astrid Loriers, Alice Delcour, Viviane Planchon, Jean-Pierre Goffart, Didier Stilmant
Producing biogas via anaerobic digestion is a promising technology for meeting European and regional goals on energy production from renewable sources. It offers interesting opportunities for the agricultural sector, allowing waste and by-products to be converted into bioenergy and bio-based materials. A consequential life cycle assessment (cLCA) was conducted to examine the consequences of the installation of a farm-scale biogas plant, taking account of assumptions about processes displaced by biogas plant co-products (power, heat and digestate) and the uses of the biogas plant feedstock prior to plant installation...
June 15, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Inoka Suraweera
E-waste is hazardous, complex and expensive to treat in an environmentally sound manner. The management of e-waste is considered a serious challenge in both developed and developing countries and Sri Lanka is no exception. Due to significant growth in the economy and investments and other reasons the consumption of electronic and electrical equipment in Sri Lanka has increased over the years resulting in significant generation of e-waste. Several initiatives such as introduction of hazardous waste management rules, ratification of the Basel Convention in 1992 and the introduction of a National Corporate E-waste Management Program have been undertaken in Sri Lanka to manage e-waste...
March 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
Abhishek Kumar Awasthi, Xianlai Zeng, Jinhui Li
Informal recycling of waste (including e-waste) is an emerging source of environmental pollution in India. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and heavy metals, among other substances, are a major health concern for workers engaged in waste disposal and processing, and for residents living near these facilities, and are also a detriment to the natural environment. The main objective of this review article was to evaluate the status of these impacts. The review found that, huge quantity of e-waste/waste generated, only a small amount is treated formally; the remainder is processed through the informal sector...
June 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Abhishek Kumar Awasthi, Xianlai Zeng, Jinhui Li
The rapid growth of the production of electrical and electronic products has meant an equally rapid growth in the amount of electronic waste (e-waste), much of which is illegally imported to India, for disposal presenting a serious environmental challenge. The environmental impact during e-waste recycling was investigated and metal as well as other pollutants [e.g. polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)] were found in excessive levels in soil, water and other habitats. The most e-waste is dealt with as general or crudely often by open burning, acid baths, with recovery of only a few materials of value...
April 2016: Environmental Pollution
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