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Waste Management

Diogo Henrique Fernandes da Paz, Kalinny Patrícia Vaz Lafayette, Maria do Carmo Sobral
The objective of this article was to plan a network for municipal management of construction and demolition waste in Brazil with the assistance of a geographic information system, using the city of Recife as a case study. The methodology was carried out in three stages. The first was to map the illegal construction and demolition of waste disposal points across Recife and classify the waste according to its recyclability. In sequence, a method for indicating suitable areas for installation of voluntary delivery points, for small waste generators, are presented...
May 1, 2018: Waste Management & Research
Jesus D Fernandez-Bayo, Ramin Yazdani, Christopher W Simmons, Jean S VanderGheynst
The management of organic wastes is an environmental and social priority. Aerobic digestion (AED) or composting and anaerobic digestion (AD) are two organic waste management practices that produce a value-added final product. Few side-by-side comparisons of both technologies and their digestate products have been performed. The objective of this study was to compare the impact of initial feedstock properties (moisture content and/or C/N ratio) on stabilization rate by AED and AD and soil amendment characteristics of the final products...
May 14, 2018: Waste Management
Hamilton C Tsang, Adam Garcia, Robert Scott, David Lancaster, Dianne Geary, Anh-Thu Nguyen, Raina Shankar, Leslie Buchanan, Tho D Pham
BACKGROUND: The ordering process at Stanford Health Care involved twice-daily shipments predicated upon current stock levels from the blood center to the hospital transfusion service. Manual census determination is time consuming and error prone. We aimed to enhance inventory management by developing an informatics platform to streamline the ordering process and reallocate staff productivity. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The general inventory accounts for more than 50 product categories based on characteristics including component, blood type, irradiation status, and cytomegalovirus serology status...
May 16, 2018: Transfusion
E Topp
A key strategy for attenuating the development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is ensuring judicious use of antimicrobials in human and veterinary medicine and in agriculture. Research on AMR in agriculture includes risk assessment, risk management, and identifying the role of agricultural practices in development of AMR. Risk assessment includes an impact assessment of antimicrobial use in livestock and on the environment; for example, many antimicrobials are excreted unchanged and thus reach the environment through manure application...
November 2, 2017: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
Grégoire Meylan, Adelene Lai, John Hensley, Michael Stauffacher, Pius Krütli
Solid waste management (SWM) is a significant challenge for the Seychelles. Waste generation, fueled by economic development and tourism, increases steadily, while landfilling continues to be the main disposal path, thus exacerbating the island nation's specific weaknesses. Due to the small scale of the Seychelles economy, there is little capital available to stimulate innovations in SWM and generate the knowledge for setting priorities and guiding SWM action. Students from ETH Zurich and UniSey conducted a transdisciplinary case study (tdCS) to fill this knowledge gap and gain insights into the obstacles and opportunities related to sustainable SWM...
May 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
E Baldi, L Cavani, A Margon, M Quartieri, G Sorrenti, C Marzadori, M Toselli
The aim of the present study was to compare the quantity and the type of carbon (C) stored during the 14-year lifetime of a commercial nectarine orchard ecosystem fertilized with mineral or organic fertilizers. The study was carried out in the Po valley, Italy, in a nectarine orchard of the variety Stark RedGold, grafted on GF677 hybrid peach × almond. Since orchard planting in August 2001, the following treatments were applied in a randomized complete block design with four replicates per block and compared: 1...
May 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Vlastimír Nevrlý, Radovan Šomplák, Jiří Gregor, Martin Pavlas, Jiří Jaromír Klemeš
Waste management has still been a developing and progressing field, which demands continual improvements in waste transportation as well as proper selection of locations and technical operation of new treatment facilities. Most of research papers on waste management planning have been dealing with optimisation of network flows, thus minimising the cost and improving economic criteria. The shortest paths to treatment facilities are considered together with detailed analysis of their operation including heat and electricity demands in their vicinity...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Charles L Hofacre, John A Smith, Greg F Mathis
The future poultry nutritionist, veterinarian, and husbandryman will have many new regulatory requirements and consumer preferences to navigate in addition to their normal responsibility of raising birds in a cost-efficient and wholesome manner. New challenges include changes to antibiotic use, increased food safety regulations, and more concern over how birds are raised and how to dispose of poultry house waste. All of these new programs and new regulations will alter how we have been raising birds for the last 60 years since the inception of the integrated poultry industry...
June 1, 2018: Poultry Science
D Ruiz, G San Miguel, B Corona, A Gaitero, A Domínguez
This paper investigates the environmental and economic performance of the power production from biogas using Life Cycle Assessment, Life Cycle Costing and Cost Benefit Analysis methodologies. The analysis is based on a commercial thermophilic biogas plant located in Spain where is installed a Combined Heat and Power system that produces electricity that is sold to the grid. Power generation has been assumed as the only function of the biogas system, expanding the system boundaries to include the additional function related to the end-of-life management of the biowastes...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Pekka E Kauppi, Vilma Sandström, Antti Lipponen
A universal turnaround has been detected in many countries of the World from shrinking to expanding forests. The forest area of western Europe expanded already in the 19th century. Such early trends of forest resources cannot be associated with the rapid rise of atmospheric carbon dioxide nor with the anthropogenic climate change, which have taken place since the mid 20th century. Modern, most recent spatial patterns of forest expansions and contractions do not correlate with the geography of climate trends nor with dry versus moist areas...
2018: PloS One
Aurora Romar-Gasalla, Juan Carlos Nóvoa-Muñoz, Manuel Arias-Estévez, María J Fernández-Sanjurjo, Esperanza Álvarez-Rodríguez, Avelino Núñez-Delgado
Batch experiments were used to test P sorbent potential of soil samples, pyritic and granitic materials, mussel shell, mussel shell ash, sawdust, and slate waste fines for different pH and incubation times. Maximum P sorption varied in a wide range of pH: < 4 for pyritic material, 4-6 for forest soil, > 5 for slate fines, > 6 for shell ash, and pH 6-8 for mussel shell. P sorption was rapid (< 24 h) for forest soil, shell ash, pyritic material, and fine shell. On the opposite side, it was clearly slower for vineyard soil, granitic material, slate fines, pine sawdust, and coarse shell, with increased P sorption even 1 month later...
May 13, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
R Matthew Asmussen, Josef Matyáš, Nikolla P Qafoku, Albert A Kruger
One of the key challenges for radioactive waste management is the efficient capture and immobilization of radioiodine, because of its radiotoxicity, high mobility in the environment, and long half-life (t1/2  = 1.57 × 107 years). Silver-functionalized silica aerogel (AgAero) represents a strong candidate for safe sequestration of radioiodine from various nuclear waste streams and subsurface environments. Batch sorption experiments up to 10 days long were carried out in oxic and anoxic conditions in both deionized water (DIW) and various Hanford Site Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) off-gas condensate simulants containing from 5 to 10 ppm of iodide (I- ) or iodate (IO3 - )...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Vibol San, Vin Spoann, Johannes Schmidt
Approximately 56% out of the total 1302 Cambodian firms are operated in the Capital city of Cambodia. The necessary information on industrial pollution to set strategies, priorities and action plans on environmental protection issues is absent in Cambodia. In the absence of this data, effective environmental protection cannot be implemented. The objective of this study is to estimate industrial pollution load by employing the Industrial Pollution Projection System, a rapid environmental management tool for assessment of pollution load, to produce a scientific rational basis for preparing future policy direction to reduce industrial pollution in Phnom Penh city...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Malak Anshassi, Steven Laux, Timothy G Townsend
In Florida, the passing of the Energy, Climate Change, and Economic Security Act of 2008 established a statewide mass-based municipal solid waste recycling rate goal of 75% by 2020. In this study, we describe an alternative approach to tracking performance of materials management systems that incorporates life-cycle thinking. Using both greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy use as life-cycle indicators, two different materials management baselines were developed based on a hypothetical 75% recycling rate in Florida in 2008...
May 11, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Ching-Wei Hu, Ching-Hsuan Hu, Yah-Huei Wu-Chou, Lun-Jou Lo
BACKGROUND: Primary systemic carnitine deficiency (SCD) is an autosomal-recessive disorder caused by SLC22A5 gene mutation resulting in defective cellular carnitine transporter organic cation transporter 2. Defective carnitine transporter causes renal carnitine wasting and low serum carnitine. Carnitine is an essential cofactor for the transportation of long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria. Lacking of carnitine may cause metabolic decompensation and sudden death when the patient is exposed to prolonged fasting before an operation...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Lidia Lombardi, Giulia Costa, Riccardo Spagnuolo
In this work, ash generated by the combustion of wood in a central heating plant was used to remove and permanently store by accelerated carbonation CO2 contained in a gas mixture simulating biogas. The process was studied as an alternative treatment to the ones currently available on the market for biogas upgrading. The process was investigated at laboratory scale by setting up a facility for directly contacting the wood ash and the synthetic biogas in a fixed bed reactor. The process was able to completely remove CO2 during its initial phase...
May 11, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jorge Paz-Ferreiro, Aurora Nieto, Ana Méndez, Matthew Peter James Askeland, Gabriel Gascó
Ever increasing volumes of biosolids (treated sewage sludge) are being produced by municipal wastewater facilities. This is a consequence of the continued expansion of urban areas, which in turn require the commissioning of new treatment plants or upgrades to existing facilities. Biosolids contain nutrients and energy which can be used in agriculture or waste-to-energy processes. Biosolids have been disposed of in landfills, but there is an increasing pressure from regulators to phase out landfilling. This article performs a critical review on options for the management of biosolids with a focus on pyrolysis and the application of the solid fraction of pyrolysis (biochar) into soil...
May 10, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Syed Omar Shah, Jacqueline Kraft, Nethra Ankam, Paula Bu, Kristen Stout, Sara Melnyk, Fred Rincon, M Kamran Athar
INTRODUCTION: Prolonged immobility in patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) can lead to muscle wasting and weakness, longer hospital stays, increased number of days in restraints, and hospital-acquired infections. Increasing evidence demonstrates the safety and feasibility of early mobilization in the ICU. However, there is a lack of evidence in the safety and feasibility of mobilizing patients with external ventricular drains (EVDs). The purpose of this study was to determine the safety and feasibility of early mobility in this patient population...
June 2018: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Álvaro Lozano, Javier Caridad, Juan Francisco De Paz, Gabriel Villarrubia González, Javier Bajo
New solutions for managing waste have emerged due to the rise of Smart Cities and the Internet of Things. These solutions can also be applied in rural environments, but they require the deployment of a low cost and low consumption sensor network which can be used by different applications. Wireless technologies such as LoRa and low consumption microcontrollers, such as the SAM L21 family make the implementation and deployment of this kind of sensor network possible. This paper introduces a waste monitoring and management platform used in rural environments...
May 8, 2018: Sensors
Sabah M Abdelbasir, Saad S M Hassan, Ayman H Kamel, Rania Seif El-Nasr
The increasing use of electrical and electronic equipment leads to a huge generation of electronic waste (e-waste). It is the fastest growing waste stream in the world. Almost all electrical and electronic equipment contain printed circuit boards as an essential part. Improper handling of these electronic wastes could bring serious risk to human health and the environment. On the other hand, proper handling of this waste requires a sound management strategy for awareness, collection, recycling, and reuse. Nowadays, the effective recycling of this type of waste has been considered as a main challenge for any society...
May 8, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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