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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643282/energy-and-exergy-optimization-of-food-waste-pretreatment-and-incineration
#1
Yuanjun Tang, Jun Dong, Yong Chi, Zhaozhi Zhou, Mingjiang Ni
With the aim of upgrading current food waste (FW) management strategy, a novel FW hydrothermal pretreatment and air-drying incineration system is proposed and optimized from an energy and exergy perspective. Parameters considered include the extracted steam quality, the final moisture content of dehydrated FW, and the reactor thermal efficiency. Results show that optimal working condition can be obtained when the temperature and pressure of extracted steam are 159 °C and 0.17 MPa, the final moisture content of dehydrated FW is 10%, and the reactor thermal efficiency is 90%...
June 22, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642075/greenhouse-gas-emissions-from-different-municipal-solid-waste-management-scenarios-in-china-based-on-carbon-and-energy-flow-analysis
#2
Yili Liu, Weixin Sun, Jianguo Liu
Waste management is a major source of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and many opportunities exist to reduce these emissions. To identify the GHG emissions from waste management in China, the characteristics of MSW and the current and future treatment management strategies, five typical management scenarios were modeled by EaseTech software following the principles of life cycle inventory and analyzed based on the carbon and energy flows. Due to the high organic fraction (50-70%) and moisture content (>50%) of Chinese municipal solid waste (MSW), the net GHG emissions in waste management had a significant difference from the developed countries...
June 19, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641473/co-targeting-intracellular-ph-and-essential-amino-acid-uptake-cooperates-to-induce-cell-death-of-t-all-ll-cells
#3
Véronique Imbert, Marielle Nebout, Didier Mary, Hitoshi Endou, Michael F Wempe, Claudiu T Supuran, Jean-Yves Winum, Jean-François Peyron
Cancer cells reprogram their metabolism to optimize their growth and proliferation in the host microenvironment. For this purpose, they enhance the uptake of extracellular nutrients and deal with the metabolic waste products through the overexpression of numerous membrane proteins including amino-acid transporters (LAT1) and acid-base regulating enzymes, such as carbonic anhydrases (CAs). Here we describe the anti-tumoral effects of a new class of CAXII inhibitors, the glycosyl coumarins on T-ALL/LL cells. These effects appeared to be mediated through inhibition of mTOR/Akt pathway and c-myc downregulation...
June 22, 2017: Leukemia & Lymphoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636053/evidence-of-bad-recycling-practices-bfrs-in-children-s-toys-and-food-contact-articles
#4
A Guzzonato, F Puype, S J Harrad
Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have been used intentionally in a wide range of plastics, but are now found in an even wider range of such materials (including children's toys and food contact articles) as a result of recycling practices that mix BFR-containing waste plastics with "virgin" materials. In this study Br was quantified in toy and food contact samples on the assumption that its concentration can be used as a metric for BFR contamination. Subsequently, compound specific determination of BFRs was performed to evaluate the validity of the aforementioned assumption, crucial to render rapid, inexpensive, in situ Br determination in non-laboratory environments (such as waste handling facilities) a viable option for sorting wastes according to their BFR content...
June 21, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634869/discharge-permit-market-and-farm-management-nexus-an-approach-for-eutrophication-control-in-small-basins-with-low-income-farmers
#5
Somaye Imani, Mohammad Hossein Niksokhan, Shervin Jamshidi, Karim C Abbaspour
The economic concerns of low-income farmers are barriers to nutrient abatement policies for eutrophication control in surface waters. This study brings up a perspective that focuses on integrating multiple-pollutant discharge permit markets with farm management practices. This aims to identify a more economically motivated waste load allocation (WLA) for non-point sources (NPS). For this purpose, we chose the small basin of Zrebar Lake in western Iran and used the soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) for modeling...
July 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634773/development-and-validation-of-a-fall-risk-assessment-index-for-dialysis-patients
#6
Kenichi Kono, Yusuke Nishida, Hiroki Yabe, Yoshihumi Moriyama, Toshihiko Mori, Ryota Shiraki, Takashi Sato
BACKGROUND: Dialysis patients often have low physical performance due to uremic sarcopenia, protein energy wasting (PEW), and incidence intradialytic hypotension (IDH), which are indicated as risk factors for falling. The objective of this study was to develop a symptom-encompassing evaluation form to predict falls with high sensitivity for dialysis patients. METHODS: A total of 251 patients who had been receiving maintenance hemodialysis therapy three times a week were enrolled in the study...
June 20, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633912/life-cycle-assessment-and-life-cycle-costs-for-pre-disaster-waste-management-systems
#7
Yohei Wakabayashi, Tsai Peii, Tomohiro Tabata, Takashi Saeki
This study develops a method of environmental and economic evaluation of an integrated disaster waste management system that considers the spatial scale of removal, transport, and treatment of disaster waste. A case study was conducted on combustibles, which is a type of disaster waste derived from dwellings, in Mie Prefecture, Japan. First, we calculated the quantity and the spatial distribution of disaster waste derived from dwellings and tsunami debris produced as a result of a large-scale earthquake. The quantity of disaster waste was estimated as 7,178,000t with functioning flood-preventing facilities and 11,956,000t without functioning flood prevention facilities...
June 17, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633401/biomedical-text-mining-for-research-rigor-and-integrity-tasks-challenges-directions
#8
Halil Kilicoglu
An estimated quarter of a trillion US dollars is invested in the biomedical research enterprise annually. There is growing alarm that a significant portion of this investment is wasted because of problems in reproducibility of research findings and in the rigor and integrity of research conduct and reporting. Recent years have seen a flurry of activities focusing on standardization and guideline development to enhance the reproducibility and rigor of biomedical research. Research activity is primarily communicated via textual artifacts, ranging from grant applications to journal publications...
June 13, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623725/a-new-route-to-the-stable-capture-and-final-immobilization-of-radioactive-cesium
#9
Jae Hwan Yang, Ahreum Han, Joo Young Yoon, Hwan-Seo Park, Yung-Zun Cho
Radioactive Cs released from damaged fuel materials in the event of nuclear accidents must be controlled to prevent the spreading of hazardous Cs into the environment. This study describes a simple and novel process to safely manage Cs gas by capturing it within ceramic filters and converting it into monolithic waste forms. The results of Cs trapping tests showed that CsAlSiO4 was a reaction product of gas-solid reactions between Cs gas and our ceramic filters. Monolithic waste forms were readily prepared from the Cs-trapping filters by the addition of a glass frit followed by thermal treatment at 1000°C for 3h...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623572/nutritional-fe-mn-ni-and-cr-and-growth-responses-of-rice-plant-affected-by-perennial-application-of-two-bio-solids
#10
Seyed Majid Mousavi, Mohammad Ali Bahmanyar, Hemmatollah Pirdashti, Salahedin Moradi
Trace toxic elements often restrict the land application of different bio-solids in agriculture. In order to evaluate the separate influence of the municipal solid waste compost (MSW), sewage sludge (SS) and combined application with inorganic fertilizers (chemical fertilizer (CF)) on nutritional (Fe, Mn, Ni, and Cr) and growth responses of rice plant, a research was conducted on paddy soil from 2013 to 2015. Obtained results showed that SS levels were superior to MSW in most studied traits. The maximum chlorophyll content (46...
July 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623023/pyrolysis-reaction-models-of-waste-tires-application-of-master-plots-method-for-energy-conversion-via-devolatilization
#11
Dilan Irmak Aslan, Prakash Parthasarathy, Jillian L Goldfarb, Selim Ceylan
Land applied disposal of waste tires has far-reaching environmental, economic, and human health consequences. Pyrolysis represents a potential waste management solution, whereby the solid carbonaceous residue is heated in the absence of oxygen to produce liquid and gaseous fuels, and a solid char. The design of an efficient conversion unit requires information on the reaction kinetics of pyrolysis. This work is the first to probe the appropriate reaction model of waste tire pyrolysis. The average activation energy of pyrolysis was determined via iso-conversional methods over a mass fraction conversion range between 0...
June 13, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620854/renewable-energy-and-greenhouse-gas-emissions-from-the-waste-sectors-of-european-union-member-states-a-panel-data-analysis
#12
Hélde Araujo Domingos, Alexandre Magno De Melo Faria, José Alberto Fuinhas, António Cardoso Marques
In the last two decades, there has been a rich debate about the environmental degradation that results from exposure to solid urban waste. Growing public concern with environmental issues has led to the implementation of various strategic plans for waste management in several developed countries, especially in the European Union. In this paper, the relationships were assessed between economic growth, renewable energy extraction and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the waste sector. The Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis was analysed for the member states of the European Union, in the presence of electricity generation, landfill and GHG emissions for the period 1995 to 2012...
June 15, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617191/operator-models-for-delivering-municipal-solid-waste-management-services-in-developing-countries-part-b-decision-support
#13
Reka Soós, Andrew D Whiteman, David C Wilson, Cosmin Briciu, Sofia Nürnberger, Barbara Oelz, Ellen Gunsilius, Ekkehard Schwehn
This is the second of two papers reporting the results of a major study considering 'operator models' for municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in emerging and developing countries. Part A documents the evidence base, while Part B presents a four-step decision support system for selecting an appropriate operator model in a particular local situation. Step 1 focuses on understanding local problems and framework conditions; Step 2 on formulating and prioritising local objectives; and Step 3 on assessing capacities and conditions, and thus identifying strengths and weaknesses, which underpin selection of the operator model...
June 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617175/operator-models-for-delivering-municipal-solid-waste-management-services-in-developing-countries-part-a-the-evidence-base
#14
David C Wilson, Jennifer Bangirana Kanjogera, Reka Soós, Cosmin Briciu, Stephen R Smith, Andrew D Whiteman, Sandra Spies, Barbara Oelz
This article presents the evidence base for 'operator models' - that is, how to deliver a sustainable service through the interaction of the 'client', 'revenue collector' and 'operator' functions - for municipal solid waste management in emerging and developing countries. The companion article addresses a selection of locally appropriate operator models. The evidence shows that no 'standard' operator model is effective in all developing countries and circumstances. Each city uses a mix of different operator models; 134 cases showed on average 2...
June 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616175/seasonal-habitat-use-by-elephants-loxodonta-africana-in-the-mole-national-park-of-ghana
#15
George Ashiagbor, Emmanuel Danquah
To avoid unnecessary waste of limited resources and to help prioritize areas for conservation efforts, this study aimed to provide information on habitat use by elephants between the wet and dry seasons in the Mole National Park (MNP) of Ghana. We compiled coordinates of 516 locations of elephants' encounters, 256 for dry season and 260 for wet season. Using nine predictor variables, we modeled the probability of elephant's distribution in MNP. We threshold the models to "suitable" and "nonsuitable" regions of habitat use using the equal training sensitivity and specificity values of 0...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614115/trafficking-and-regulation-of-the-nkcc2-cotransporter-in-the-thick-ascending-limb
#16
Kerim Mutig
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The kidney Na-K-2Cl cotransporter (NKCC2) is essential for urinary concentration and renal electrolyte handling. Loss of function mutations in the NKCC2 gene cause urinary salt and potassium wasting, whereas excessive NKCC2 function has been linked to high blood pressure. Loop diuretics, targeting the transporter, are instrumental for relieving edema or hypertension. This review focuses on intrinsic mechanisms regulating NKCC2 activity at the posttranslational level, namely its trafficking and phosphorylation...
June 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609213/aspergillus-spp-prevalence-in-different-portuguese-occupational-environments-what-is-the-real-scenario-in-high-load-settings
#17
Carla Viegas, Tiago Faria, Liliana Aranha Caetano, Elisabete Carolino, Anita Quintal Gomes, Susana Viegas
The genus Aspergillus is one of the most prevalent regarding fungi in several highly contaminated occupational environments. The goal of the current study was to assess the prevalence of Aspergillus spp. in different settings, focusing on those where a higher load of fungal contamination is expected according to the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work. A specific protocol to ensure a more accurate assessment of the exposure to Aspergillus spp. is proposed aimed at allowing a detailed risk characterization and management...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606066/treatment-outcome-of-children-with-persistent-diarrhoea-admitted-to-an-urban-hospital-dhaka-during-2012-2013
#18
Mustafa Mahfuz, Mohammed Ashraful Alam, Shoeb Bin Islam, Nurun Nahar Naila, Mohammod Jobayer Chisti, Nur Haque Alam, Shafiqul Alam Sarker, Tahmeed Ahmed
BACKGROUND: Despite availability of treatment guidelines, persistent diarrhoea (PD) has been a major contributor of diarrhoeal deaths in low and middle income countries. We evaluated the outcome of children under the age of 5 years who were treated for PD using management algorithm with locally available foods in a diarrhoeal disease hospital in Dhaka. METHODS: We extracted retrospective data from electronic database for all the under-five children admitted for PD in the Longer Stay Ward and Intensive Care Unit of the Dhaka hospital at icddr,b between 2012 and 2013...
June 12, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606005/group-assessment-of-key-indicators-of-sustainable-waste-management-in-developing-countries
#19
Bojana Tot, Goran Vujić, Zorica Srđević, Dejan Ubavin, Mário Augusto Tavares Russo
Decision makers in developing countries are struggling to solve the present problems of solid waste management. Prioritisation and ranking of the most important indicators that influence the waste management system is very useful for any decision maker for the future planning and implementation of a sustainable waste management system. The aim of this study is to evaluate key indicators and their related sub-indicators in a group decision-making environment. In order to gain insight into the subject it was necessary to obtain the qualified opinions of decision makers from different countries who understand the situation in the sector of waste management in developing countries...
June 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605951/a-novel-approach-to-find-and-optimize-bin-locations-and-collection-routes-using-a-geographic-information-system
#20
Seyed Mohammad Hassan Erfani, Shahnaz Danesh, Seyed Mohsen Karrabi, Rouzbeh Shad
One of the major challenges in big cities is planning and implementation of an optimized, integrated solid waste management system. This optimization is crucial if environmental problems are to be prevented and the expenses to be reduced. A solid waste management system consists of many stages including collection, transfer and disposal. In this research, an integrated model was proposed and used to optimize two functional elements of municipal solid waste management (storage and collection systems) in the Ahmadabad neighbourhood located in the City of Mashhad - Iran...
June 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
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