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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267633/sclerostin-stimulates-angiogenesis-in-human-endothelial-cells
#1
Angela Oranger, Giacomina Brunetti, Graziana Colaianni, Roberto Tamma, Claudia Carbone, Luciana Lippo, Giorgio Mori, Paolo Pignataro, Nunzio Cirulli, Roberta Zerlotin, Biagio Moretti, Angela Notarnicola, Domenico Ribatti, Maria Grano, Silvia Colucci
Sclerostin, negative regulator of bone formation, has been originally known as an osteocyte product. Recently, it has been also detected in hypertrophic chondrocytes, distinctive cells of avascular cartilage which is invaded by capillaries and then replaced by vascularized bone. Thus, we hypothesized that sclerostin, in addition to its role already known, may exert an angiogenic activity. We first proved that sclerostin increased the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and next, by using the chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) in vivo assay, we demonstrated that it exerts an angiogenic activity similar to that of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)...
March 3, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145573/static-osteogenesis-does-not-precede-dynamic-osteogenesis-in-periosteal-ossification-of-pleurodeles-caudata-amphibia-and-pogona-squamata-lepidosauria
#2
Jorge Cubo, Mylaine Hui, François Clarac, Alexandra Quilhac
Two successive mechanisms have been described in perichondral ossification: (1) in static osteogenesis, mesenchymal cells differentiate into stationary osteoblasts oriented randomly, which differentiate into osteocytes in the same site; (2) in dynamic osteogenesis, mesenchymal cells differentiate into osteoblasts that are all oriented in the same direction and move back as they secrete collagen fibers. This study is aimed at testing the hypothesis that the ontogenetic sequence static then dynamic osteogenesis observed in the chicken and in the rabbit is homologous and was acquired by the last common ancestor of amniotes or at a more inclusive node...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118357/endochondral-ossification-is-accelerated-in-cholinesterase-deficient-mice-and-in-avian-mesenchymal-micromass-cultures
#3
Janine Spieker, Thomas Mudersbach, Astrid Vogel-Höpker, Paul G Layer
Most components of the cholinergic system are detected in skeletogenic cell types in vitro, yet the function of this system in skeletogenesis remains unclear. Here, we analyzed endochondral ossification in mutant murine fetuses, in which genes of the rate-limiting cholinergic enzymes acetyl- (AChE), or butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), or both were deleted (called here A-B+, A+B-, A-B-, respectively). In all mutant embryos bone growth and cartilage remodeling into mineralizing bone were accelerated, as revealed by Alcian blue (A-blu) and Alizarin red (A-red) staining...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076010/foreign-bodies-on-lateral-neck-radiographs-in-adults-imaging-findings-and-common-pitfalls
#4
Alba Castán Senar, Laura E Dinu, José M Artigas, Raquel Larrosa, Ylenia Navarro, Elena Angulo
Foreign-body (FB) ingestion is less common in adults than in children, but still occurs. Diagnostic management of patients with suspected FB ingestion in emergency departments depends on FB type and location, both of which are related to the patient profile. In adults, fish and chicken bones are the most common FB types, and the oropharynx and cricopharyngeal muscle are the most common locations. Once accidentally swallowed, an FB may become lodged in the oropharynx, and in such cases indirect or fiberoptic laryngoscopy is the first clinical management option...
January 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038739/physicochemical-antioxidant-and-biocompatible-properties-of-chondroitin-sulphate-isolated-from-chicken-keel-bone-for-potential-biomedical-applications
#5
Aruna Rani, Rwivoo Baruah, Arun Goyal
Chicken keel bone cartilage was explored for cheaper and sustainable source for isolation of chondroitin sulphate (CS) for its future use in tissue engineering and pharmaceutical industry. HPSEC analysis displayed two peaks of 100kDa for CS-keel polysaccharide and 1kDa for protein. DLS analysis of CS-keel displayed polydispersity. CS-keel yield was 15% and 53±5% uronic acid content. The quantified percentages of UA-GalNAc4S and UA-GalNAc6S disaccharide in CS-keel were 58% and 42%, respectively. FT-IR identified CS-keel to be chondroitin 4-sulphate...
March 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921302/the-role-of-embryo-movement-in-the-development-of-the-furcula
#6
A S Pollard, S Boyd, I M McGonnell, A A Pitsillides
The pectoral girdle is a complex structure which varies in its morphology between species. A major component in birds is the furcula, which can be considered equivalent to a fusion of the paired clavicles found in many mammals, and the single interclavicle found in many reptiles. These elements are a remnant of the dermal skeleton and the only intramembranous bones in the trunk. Postnatally, the furcula plays important mechanical roles by stabilising the shoulder joint and acting as a mechanical spring during flight...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861854/lectins-selectively-label-cartilage-condensations-and-the-otic-neuroepithelium-within-the-embryonic-chicken-head
#7
Poulomi Ray, Ami J Hughes, Misha Sharif, Susan C Chapman
Cartilage morphogenesis during endochondral ossification follows a progression of conserved developmental events. Cells are specified towards a prechondrogenic fate and subsequently undergo condensation followed by overt differentiation. Currently available molecular markers of prechondrogenic and condensing mesenchyme rely on common regulators of the chondrogenic program that are not specific to the tissue type or location. Therefore tissue-specific condensations cannot be distinguished based on known molecular markers...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855926/sulfated-glycosaminoglycan-derived-oligosaccharides-produced-from-chicken-connective-tissue-promote-iron-uptake-in-a-human-intestinal-caco-2-cell-line
#8
Henan Wang, Mirko Betti
Food grade sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) polysaccharides were successfully extracted from chicken cartilage and skin. Their respective oligosaccharides were obtained by bovine testicular hyaluronidase digestion. The antioxidant capacity was analyzed to determine the possible mechanism explaining how GAGs promote iron uptake by the Caco-2 cells. The sulfated GAG oligosaccharides derived from cartilage possessed the greatest DPPH scavenging and ferric reducing activities (p<0.05), but limited ferrous chelating activities...
April 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729062/screening-for-peptides-targeted-to-il-7r%C3%AE-for-molecular-imaging-of-rheumatoid-arthritis-synovium
#9
Carmen Burtea, Sophie Laurent, Tuba Sanli, Deborah Fanfone, Aude Devalckeneer, Sébastien Sauvage, Marie-Claire Beckers, Sandrine Rorive, Isabelle Salmon, Luce Vander Elst, Bernard R Lauwerys, Robert N Muller
BACKGROUND: Interleukin-7 receptor alpha (IL-7Rα) represents a biomarker with potential applications in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) diagnosis and therapy. We have therefore searched by phage display potential IL-7Rα specific peptides with the primary goal being to develop in vivo molecular imaging tools. METHODS: IL-7Rα-targeted peptides were searched within a disulfide-constrained combinatorial phage displayed library of random linear heptapeptides. The apparent dissociation constant (Kd) and half maximal inhibition constant (IC50) were estimated for phage clones and synthesized peptides by ELISA...
October 12, 2016: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649924/greater-growth-of-proximal-metatarsals-in-bird-embryos-and-the-evolution-of-hallux-position-in-the-grasping-foot
#10
João Francisco Botelho, Daniel Smith-Paredes, Sergio Soto-Acuña, Daniel Núñez-León, Verónica Palma, Alexander O Vargas
In early theropod dinosaurs-the ancestors of birds-the hallux (digit 1) had an elevated position within the foot and had lost the proximal portion of its metatarsal. It no longer articulated with the ankle, but was attached at about mid-length of metatarsal 2 (mt2). In adult birds, the hallux is articulated closer to the distal end of mt2 at ground level with the other digits. However, on chick embryonic day 7, its position is as in early theropods at half-length of mt2. The adult distal location is acquired during embryonic days 8-10...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574787/acetylcholinesterase-regulates-skeletal-in-ovo-development-of-chicken-limbs-by-ach-dependent-and-independent-mechanisms
#11
Janine Spieker, Anica Ackermann, Anika Salfelder, Astrid Vogel-Höpker, Paul G Layer
Formation of the vertebrate limb presents an excellent model to analyze a non-neuronal cholinergic system (NNCS). Here, we first analyzed the expression of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by IHC and of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) by ISH in developing embryonic chicken limbs (stages HH17-37). AChE outlined formation of bones, being strongest at their distal tips, and later also marked areas of cell death. At onset, AChE and ChAT were elevated in two organizing centers of the limb anlage, the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) and zone of polarizing activity (ZPA), respectively...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27511310/pathogenesis-of-enterococcal-spondylitis-caused-by-enterococcus-cecorum-in-broiler-chickens
#12
L B Borst, M M Suyemoto, A H Sarsour, M C Harris, M P Martin, J D Strickland, E O Oviedo, H J Barnes
Enterococcal spondylitis (ES) is a disease of commercial broiler chickens, with a worldwide distribution. Symmetrical hind limb paralysis typical of ES results from infection of the free thoracic vertebra (FTV) by pathogenic strains of Enterococcus cecorum . To determine the pathogenesis of ES, birds with natural and experimental ES were studied over time. In natural disease, case birds (n = 150) from an affected farm and control birds (n = 100) from an unaffected farm were evaluated at weeks 1-6. In control birds, intestinal colonization by E...
January 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27295565/pannexin-3-is-required-for-late-stage-bone-growth-but-not-for-initiation-of-ossification-in-avian-embryos
#13
Stephen R Bond, John Abramyan, Kathy Fu, Christian C Naus, Joy M Richman
BACKGROUND: Pannexin 3 (PANX3) is a channel-forming protein capable of stimulating osteogenesis in vitro. Here, we studied the in vivo roles of PANX3 in the chicken embryo using the RCAS retroviral system to over-express and knockdown expression during endochondral bone formation. RESULTS: In the limbs, PANX3 RNA was first detected in the cartilage condensations and became restricted to the prehypertrophic cartilage of the epiphyses, diaphysis, and perichondrium...
September 2016: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27264541/bmp-signaling-regulates-the-fate-of-chondro-osteoprogenitor-cells-in-facial-mesenchyme-in-a-stage-specific-manner
#14
Petra Celá, Marcela Buchtová, Iva Veselá, Kathy Fu, Jean-Philippe Bogardi, Yiping Song, Amanda Barlow, Paul Buxton, Jirina Medalová, Philippa Francis-West, Joy M Richman
BACKGROUND: Lineage tracing has shown that most of the facial skeleton is derived from cranial neural crest cells. However, the local signals that influence postmigratory, neural crest-derived mesenchyme also play a major role in patterning the skeleton. Here, we study the role of BMP signaling in regulating the fate of chondro-osteoprogenitor cells in the face. RESULTS: A single Noggin-soaked bead inserted into stage 15 chicken embryos induced an ectopic cartilage resembling the interorbital septum within the palate and other midline structures...
September 2016: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27147818/proteomic-changes-in-the-plasma-of-broiler-chickens-with-femoral-head-necrosis
#15
Balamurugan Packialakshmi, Rohana Liyanage, Jackson O Lay, Ronald Okimoto, Narayan C Rath
Femoral head necrosis (FHN) is a skeletal problem in broiler chickens, where the proximal femoral head cartilage shows susceptibility to separation from its growth plate. The selected birds with FHN showed higher body weights and reduced plasma cholesterol. The proteomic differences in the plasma of healthy and FHN-affected chickens were explored using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to prospect for protein biomarkers...
2016: Biomarker Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27105561/fiber-knob-domain-lacking-the-shaft-sequence-but-fused-to-a-coiled-coil-is-a-candidate-subunit-vaccine-against-egg-drop-syndrome
#16
Tetsuya Harakuni, Kiyohiko Andoh, Ryu-Ichi Sakamoto, Yukihiro Tamaki, Takeshi Miyata, Hirotaka Uefuji, Ken-Ichi Yamazaki, Takeshi Arakawa
Egg-drop syndrome (EDS) virus is an avian adenovirus that causes a sudden drop in egg production and in the quality of the eggs when it infects chickens, leading to substantial economic losses in the poultry industry. Inactivated EDS vaccines produced in embryonated duck eggs or cell culture systems are available for the prophylaxis of EDS. However, recombinant subunit vaccines that are efficacious and inexpensive are a desirable alternative. In this study, we engineered chimeric fusion proteins in which the trimeric fiber knob domain lacking the triple β-spiral motif in the fiber shaft region was genetically fused to trimeric coiled coils, such as those of the engineered form of the GCN4 leucine zipper peptide or chicken cartilage matrix protein (CMP)...
June 8, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26939919/heparin-based-self-assembling-peptide-scaffold-reestablish-chondrogenic-phenotype-of-expanded-de-differentiated-human-chondrocytes
#17
Lourdes Recha-Sancho, Carlos E Semino
The use of chondrocytes in cell-based therapies for cartilage lesions are limited by quantity and, therefore, require an in vitro expansion. As monolayer culture leads to de-differentiation, different culture techniques are currently under development to recover chondrocyte phenotype after cell expansion. In the present work, we studied the capacity of the bimolecular heparin-based self-assembling peptide scaffold (RAD16-I) as a three-dimensional (3D) culture system to foster reestablishment of chondrogenic phenotype of de-differentiated human Articular Chondrocytes (AC)...
July 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26919139/mycoplasma-and-host-interaction-in-vitro-gene-expression-modulation-in-mycoplasma-synoviae-and-infected-chicken-chondrocytes
#18
Ivanka Cizelj, Daliborka Dušanić, Dušan Benčina, Mojca Narat
The complex interplay between Mycoplasma synoviae and chicken chondrocytes (CCH), which come into direct contact during infectious synovitis, has been examined at the level of gene expression. Our previous studies demonstrated a significant influence of M. synoviae on the level of CCH gene expression. Here, we show for the first time that in vitro co-cultivation of M. synoviae and CCH also induces upregulation of gene expression in this mycoplasma. We observed significantly increased expression of genes important for M...
March 2016: Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26903410/effects-of-fixation-and-preservation-on-tissue-elastic-properties-measured-by-quantitative-optical-coherence-elastography-oce
#19
Yuting Ling, Chunhui Li, Kairui Feng, Robyn Duncan, Roos Eisma, Zhihong Huang, Ghulam Nabi
Fixed and preserved tissues have been massively used in the development of biomedical equipment and instrumentation. Not only the tissue morphology, but also its mechanical properties need to be considered in the fixation and preservation procedures since mechanical properties have significant influence on the design and performance of such instruments. Understanding the effects of storage and preservation conditions on the mechanical properties of soft tissue has both clinical and experimental significance...
May 3, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26888088/molecular-development-of-fibular-reduction-in-birds-and-its-evolution-from-dinosaurs
#20
João Francisco Botelho, Daniel Smith-Paredes, Sergio Soto-Acuña, Jingmai O'Connor, Verónica Palma, Alexander O Vargas
Birds have a distally reduced, splinter-like fibula that is shorter than the tibia. In embryonic development, both skeletal elements start out with similar lengths. We examined molecular markers of cartilage differentiation in chicken embryos. We found that the distal end of the fibula expresses Indian hedgehog (IHH), undergoing terminal cartilage differentiation, and almost no Parathyroid-related protein (PTHrP), which is required to develop a proliferative growth plate (epiphysis). Reduction of the distal fibula may be influenced earlier by its close contact with the nearby fibulare, which strongly expresses PTHrP...
March 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
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