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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521786/role-of-routine-abdominal-ultrasonography-in-intensified-tuberculosis-case-finding-algorithms-at-hiv-clinics-in-high-tb-burden-settings
#1
Sonam Spalgais, Upasna Agarwal, Rohit Sarin, Devesh Chauhan, Anita Yadav, Anand Jaiswal
BACKGROUND: High proportion of TB in people living with HIV (PLHIV) is undiagnosed. Due to this active TB case finding is recommended for HIV clinics in high TB burden countries. Presently sputum examination and chest radiography are frontline tests recommended for HIV infected TB presumptives. Abdominal TB which occurs frequently in PLHIV may be missed even by existing programmatic intensified case finding protocols. This study evaluated the routine use of ultrasonography (USG) for active case finding of abdominal TB in HIV clinics...
May 18, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521188/bis-diphenylphosphino-amines-containing-ruthenium-cymene-complexes-as-potential-anti-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-agents
#2
Juliana P da Silva, Isabel C Silva, Fernando R Pavan, Davi F Back, Márcio P de Araujo
Several ruthenium complexes have been investigated regarding anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis (anti-MTb) activity, with some diphosphine-containing ruthenium complexes comparable to first and second line drugs. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no PNP-containing ruthenium complexes applied as metallodrugs. Thus, this study focused on the synthesis, characterization and anti-MTb activity of a new series of coordination compounds with general formula [RuCl(η(6)-p-cymene)(PN(R)P)]X (R=CH2Py (Py=pyridine)-[1a], CH2Ph (Ph=phenyl)-[1b], Ph-[1c] and p-tol (p-tol=p-tolyl)-[1d]; X=PF6(-) or BF4(-))...
April 9, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513917/fragment-screening-against-the-ethr-dna-interaction-by-native-mass-spectrometry
#3
Daniel Shiu-Hin Chan, Vitor Mendes, Sherine E Thomas, Brendan N McConnell, Dijana Matak-Vinković, Anthony G Coyne, Tom L Blundell, Christopher Abell
Native nanoelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry is an underutilized technique for fragment screening. In this study, the first demonstration is provided of the use of native mass spectrometry for screening fragments against a protein-DNA interaction. EthR is a transcriptional repressor of EthA expression in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) that reduces the efficacy of ethionamide, a second-line anti-tubercular drug used to combat multidrug resistant Mtb strains. A small-scale fragment screening campaign was conducted against the EthR-DNA interaction using native mass spectrometry, and results were compared with those from differential scanning fluorimetry, a commonly used primary screening technique...
May 17, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512556/pediatric-tuberculosis-in-northern-sardinia
#4
Maria Grazia Clemente, Elena Dore, Lidia Abis, Paola Molicotti, Stefania Zanetti, Paolina Olmeo, Roberto Antonucci
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Migration flux is an increasing phenomenon in Italy, and it raises several public health issues and concerns in pediatric infectious diseases. This study investigated the clinical characteristics and outcomes of a pediatric population at high-risk for tuberculosis (TB) and the potential role of immigration as a risk factor. DESIGN: We performed an observational retrospective study of children referred to the only Pediatric Infectious Diseases Unit for Northern Sardinia over a 6-year-period (2009-2014)...
2017: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511433/clinico-radiologic-and-spirometric-profile-of-an-indian-population-with-post-tuberculous-obstructive-airway-disease
#5
Avradip Santra, Pravati Dutta, Rekha Manjhi, Sudarsan Pothal
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis is a public health problem in developing countries and in spite of receiving adequate anti-tuberculous therapy, patients often continues to have several post-tuberculous sequelae, especially airflow limitation. AIM: To evaluate pulmonary function by spirometry among post-tuberculosis cases with airway obstruction and their relationship with smoking. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients who presented to the pulmonary medicine Outpatient Department (OPD) with symptoms of obstructive airway disease and had completed adequate anti-tuberculous therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis were taken up for study...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511392/the-diagnostic-value-of-urine-lipoarabinomannan-lam-antigen-in-childhood-tuberculosis
#6
Agustin Iskandar, Erlin Nursiloningrum, Maimun Zulhaidah Arthamin, Ery Olivianto, Mas Slamet Chandrakusuma
INTRODUCTION: Diagnosis of Tuberculosis (TB) in children is difficult because the clinical presentation is not specific, the chest X-ray interpretation has low accuracy and sputum sample is difficult to obtain. Antigen detection test such as rapid urine LAM is a non-invasive alternative for diagnosing TB . Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) is the main component of M.tuberculosis cell wall. AIM: To determine the diagnostic value of urinary LAM antigen for diagnosis of childhood TB...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499823/structural-and-mechanistic-insights-into-mycothiol-disulphide-reductase-and-the-mycoredoxin-1-alkylhydroperoxide-reductase-e-assembly-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#7
Arvind Kumar, Wilson Nartey, Joon Shin, Malathy Sony Subramanian Manimekalai, Gerhard Grüber
Mycobacteria employ a versatile machinery of the mycothiol-dependent system, containing the proteins mycothiol disulfide reductase (Mtr), the oxido-reductase Mycoredoxin-1 (Mrx-1) and the alkyl-hydroperoxide subunit E (AhpE). The mycothiol-dependent protein ensemble regulates the balance of oxidized-reduced mycothiol, to ensure a reductive intracellular environment for optimal functioning of its proteins even upon exposure to oxidative stress. Here, we determined the first low-resolution solution structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Mtr (MtMtr) derived from small-angle X-ray scattering data, which provides insight into its dimeric state...
May 9, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495884/the-uniqueness-of-subunit-%C3%AE-of-mycobacterial-f-atp-synthases-an-evolutionary-variant-for-niche-adaptation
#8
Priya Ragunathan, Hendrik Sielaff, Lavanya Sundararaman, Goran Biuković, Malathy Sony Subramanian Manimekalai, Dhirendra Singh, Subhashri Kundu, Thorsten Wohland, Wayne Frasch, Thomas Dick, Gerhard Grüber
The F1FO ATP (F-ATP) synthase is essential for growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB). In addition to their synthase function most F-ATP synthases possess an ATP-hydrolase activity, which is coupled to proton-pumping activity. However, the mycobacterial enzyme lacks this reverse activity, but the reason for this deficiency is unclear. Here, we report that a Mycobacterium-specific, 36 amino acid long C-terminal domain in the nucleotide-binding subunit α (Mtα) of F-ATP synthase suppresses its ATPase activity and determined the mechanism of suppression...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491491/tuberculous-pleural-effusion-occurring-concurrently-with-asbestos-related-pleural-disease
#9
Massa Zantah, Debapriya Datta
An eighty-four-year-old man presented with progressive exertional dyspnea, productive cough and weight loss for two months. His physical exam was notable for diminished breath sounds at the right base, with dullness to percussion. Chest-x-ray showed moderate right-sided pleural effusion and bilateral calcified pleural plaques as well as diaphragmatic plaques consistent with asbestos-related pleural disease (ARPD). Pleural fluid was exudative with predominantly mononuclear cells, negative acid fast bacilli stain, negative cultures, and negative cytology for malignant cells...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491221/isolated-tuberculosis-of-metacarpal-bone-in-a-3-year-old-child
#10
El Mouhtadi Aghoutane, Tarik Salama, Redouane El Fezazi
Primary tuberculosis osteomyelitis of metacarpal bone is rare. The majority of cases occur in children and young adults and there is difficulty in diagnosis mainly in young children. We report a new case in children aged of 3 years, presenting a swelling on the dorsal side of her right hand since 8 months. X-ray showed an expansile, cystic and lytic lesion involving the little finger metacarpal. Tuberculosis was confirmed on histological examination. No lesions in lung parenchyma or lymphadenopathy were associated...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482957/pediatric-and-adolescent-tuberculosis-in-latvia-2011-2014-case-detection-diagnosis-and-treatment
#11
B Ziemele, R Ranka, I Ozere
OBJECTIVE: To perform a comprehensive analysis of case detection, diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis (TB) in children and adolescents in Latvia, and to evaluate the utility of the current approach. DESIGN: A retrospective study of all Latvian children and adolescents diagnosed with TB from 1 January 2011 to 31 December 2014. RESULTS: Of 3081 patients diagnosed with TB during 2011-2014, 250 (8%) were aged <18 years, and 80% were identified through contact investigation...
June 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473931/hematochezia-an-uncommon-presentation-of-colonic-tuberculosis
#12
Fares Ayoub, Vikas Khullar, Harry Powers, Angela Pham, Shehla Islam, Amitabh Suman
Abdominal tuberculosis (TB) is an uncommon entity in the United States. Colonic TB is reported in 2-3% of patients with abdominal TB. It is frequently misdiagnosed as Crohn's disease or carcinoma of the colon due to their shared clinical, radiographic, and endoscopic presentations. We present a case of a 72-year-old male with colonic tuberculosis presenting as hematochezia. Our patient presented with shortness of breath and weight loss. Chest X-ray demonstrated ill-defined bilateral parenchymal opacities in the perihilar, mid, and lower lung zones...
2017: Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471360/transcription-factor-rv0081-from-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-purification-crystallization-and-initial-crystallographic-analysis
#13
Shishang Dong, Zhenzhen Ding, Yu Wang, Yan Yang, Yonghong Mao, Ying Wang
Because of its high infectivity and pathogenicity, Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a serious threat to human health. While the transcription-regulatory system of M. tuberculosis remains incompletely understood, Rv0081, an essential regulatory hub, is known to mediate the initial response to hypoxia in the long-term survival of M. tuberculosis. Here, the production, crystallization and initial X-ray crystallographic analysis of Rv0081 are reported. The crystals of Rv0081 belonged to space group P62, with unit-cell parameters a = 67...
May 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464011/a-combination-of-baseline-plasma-immune-markers-can-predict-therapeutic-response-in-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis
#14
Selena Ferrian, Claudia Manca, Sugnet Lubbe, Francesca Conradie, Nazir Ismail, Gilla Kaplan, Clive M Gray, Dorothy Fallows
OBJECTIVE: To identify plasma markers predictive of therapeutic response in patients with multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). METHODS: Fifty HIV-negative patients with active pulmonary MDR-TB were analysed for six soluble analytes in plasma at the time of initiating treatment (baseline) and over six months thereafter. Patients were identified as sputum culture positive or negative at baseline. Culture positive patients were further stratified by the median time to sputum culture conversion (SCC) as fast responders (< 76 days) or slow responders (≥ 76 days)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463762/novel-copper-ii-complexes-with-hydrazides-and-heterocyclic-bases-synthesis-structure-and-biological-studies
#15
Drielly A Paixão, Ivana M Marzano, Edgar H L Jaimes, Marcos Pivatto, Débora L Campos, Fernando R Pavan, Victor M Deflon, Pedro Ivo da S Maia, Ana M Da Costa Ferreira, Isadora A Uehara, Marcelo J B Silva, Françoise V Botelho, Elene C Pereira-Maia, Silvana Guilardi, Wendell Guerra
Five new copper(II) complexes of the type [Cu(NO)(NN)(ClO4)2], in which NO=4-fluorophenoxyacetic acid hydrazide (4-FH) or 4-nitrobenzoic hydrazide (4-NH) and NN=1,10-phenanthroline (phen), 4-4'-dimethoxy-2-2'-bipyridine (dmb) or 2,2-bipyridine (bipy) were synthesized and characterized using various spectroscopic methods. The X-ray structural analysis of one representative compound indicates that the geometry around the copper ion is distorted octahedron, in which the ion is coordinated to hydrazide via the terminal nitrogen and the carbonyl oxygen, and to heterocyclic bases via their two nitrogen atoms...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461265/preparation-and-characterization-of-isoniazid-loaded-crude-soybean-lecithin-liposomes
#16
Christian Isalomboto Nkanga, Rui Werner Krause, Xavier Siwe Noundou, Roderick Bryan Walker
Tuberculosis (TB) is a poverty related infectious disease that is rapidly giving rise to public health concerns. Lengthy drug administration and frequent adverse side-effects associated with TB treatment make anti-tubercular drugs (ATDs) good candidates for drug delivery studies. This work aimed to formulate and prepare liposomes as a cost-effective option for ATD delivery. Liposomes were prepared by film hydration using crude soybean lecithin (CL) and not pure phospholipids as in the normal practice. Cholesterol was also used (up to 25% mass ratio), and isoniazid (INH) was encapsulated as model drug using a freeze-thaw loading technique...
April 29, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449659/vitamin-d-and-activated-vitamin-d-in-tuberculosis-in-equatorial-malaysia-a-prospective-clinical-study
#17
Anna P Ralph, Muhammad Redzwan S Rashid Ali, Timothy William, Kim Piera, Uma Parameswaran, Elspeth Bird, Christopher S Wilkes, Wai Khew Lee, Tsin Wen Yeo, Nicholas M Anstey
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency (low plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25D] concentration) is often reported in tuberculosis. Adjunctive vitamin D has been tested for its potential to improve treatment outcomes, but has proven largely ineffective. To better understand vitamin D in tuberculosis, we investigated determinants of 25D and its immunologically active form, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D), their inter-relationship in tuberculosis, longitudinal changes and association with outcome...
April 27, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416386/structural-analysis-of-the-interaction-between-spiroisoxazoline-smart-420-and-the-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-repressor-ethr2
#18
Alexandre Wohlkönig, Han Remaut, Martin Moune, Abdalkarim Tanina, Franck Meyer, Matthieu Desroses, Jan Steyaert, Nicolas Willand, Alain R Baulard, René Wintjens
Inhibition of transcriptional regulators of bacterial pathogens with the aim of reprogramming their metabolism to modify their antibiotic susceptibility constitutes a promising therapeutic strategy. One example is the bio-activation of the anti-tubercular pro-drug ethionamide, which activity could be enhanced by inhibiting the transcriptional repressor EthR. Recently, we discovered that inhibition of a second transcriptional repressor, EthR2, leads to the awakening of a new ethionamide bio-activation pathway...
April 14, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384891/ways-and-means-to-utilize-private-practitioners-for-tuberculosis-care-in-india
#19
Janmejaya Samal
The growing interest of utilizing the private practitioners in improving the outreach of public health services including Tuberculosis (TB) control programme stemmed out of people's preference for private health facilities in situations where public health facilities fail to meet the expectations. In different parts of India, many models of Public Private Partnership have been tried and tested and proved successful in providing quality TB care in the concerned community. In this paper, several ways and means have been proposed to effectively utilize private practitioners for TB care in India...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380256/investigation-of-the-mycobacterial-enzyme-hsad-as-a-potential-novel-target-for-anti-tubercular-agents-using-a-fragment-based-drug-design-approach
#20
Ali Ryan, Elena Polycarpou, Nathan A Lack, Dimitrios Evangelopoulos, Christian Sieg, Alice Halman, Sanjib Bhakta, Olga Eleftheriadou, Timothy D McHugh, Sebastian Keany, Edward D Lowe, Romain Ballet, Areej Abuhammad, William R Jacobs, Alessio Ciulli, Edith Sim
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: With the emergence of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis, there is a need for new anti-tubercular drugs that work through novel mechanisms of action. The meta cleavage product hydrolase, HsaD, has been demonstrated to be critical for the survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in macrophages and is encoded in an operon involved in cholesterol catabolism, which is identical in M. tuberculosis and M. bovis BCG. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We generated a mutant strain of M...
April 5, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
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