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Tuberculosis x Ray

Sean Sylvia, Hao Xue, Chengchao Zhou, Yaojiang Shi, Hongmei Yi, Huan Zhou, Scott Rozelle, Madhukar Pai, Jishnu Das
BACKGROUND: Despite recent reductions in prevalence, China still faces a substantial tuberculosis (TB) burden, with future progress dependent on the ability of rural providers to appropriately detect and refer TB patients for further care. This study (a) provides a baseline assessment of the ability of rural providers to correctly manage presumptive TB cases; (b) measures the gap between provider knowledge and practice and; (c) evaluates how ongoing reforms of China's health system-characterized by a movement toward "integrated care" and promotion of initial contact with grassroots providers-will affect the care of TB patients...
October 2017: PLoS Medicine
Juliana Barbosa Brunelli, Karina Rossi Bonfiglioli, Clovis A Silva, Katia Tomie Kozu, Claudia Goldenstein-Schainberg, Eloisa Bonfa, Nadia Emi Aikawa
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate, in an endemic country, the long-term efficacy of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) screening and primary prophylaxis in patients with JIA receiving TNF blockers. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort that included JIA patients eligible to anti-TNF therapy. Patients were screened for LTBI prior to anti-TNF using tuberculin skin test (TST), chest X-ray and history of exposure to TB. Subjects were regularly followed at 2-month intervals...
September 2017: Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia
C Chen, C-G Yang, X Gao, Z-Z Lu, F-X Tang, J Cheng, Q Gao, V Cárdenas
SETTING: Current passive case finding strategies are not effective at identifying tuberculosis (TB) patients in rural China. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a community-based, active case finding (ACF) scheme in identifying symptomatic individuals with TB. DESIGN: We conducted door-to-door household visits of all residents aged 15 years at two rural sites to screen for TB symptoms. Individuals with symptoms were enrolled and asked to provide three sputum samples...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
E L P Bemba, R Moyikoua, A R Ouedraogo, R G Bopaka, P P Koumeka, K B Ossale Abacka, J Mboussa
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis is a real public health problem in Congo. Pulmonary localization can lead to sequelae of respiratory functional repercussions. OBJECTIVE: Describe the spirometric and radiographic profile of patients treated with pulmonary tuberculosis treated and cured. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study that included 150 patients with previous pulmonary tuberculosis with positive microscopy treated and cured in the Pulmonary Department of Brazzaville University Hospital...
October 11, 2017: Revue de Pneumologie Clinique
Daniela E Kirwan, Cesar Ugarte-Gil, Robert H Gilman, Syed M Hasan Rizvi, Gustavo Cerrillo, Jaime Cok, Eduardo Ticona, José Luis Cabrera, Eduardo D Matos, Carlton A Evans, David A J Moore, Jon S Friedland, The Lymph Node Tuberculosis Lntb Working Group
The differential diagnosis for lymphadenopathy is wide and clinical presentations overlap, making obtaining an accurate diagnosis challenging. We sought to characterize the clinical and radiological characteristics, histological findings, and diagnoses for a cohort of patients with lymphadenopathy of unknown etiology. 121 Peruvian adults with lymphadenopathy underwent lymph node biopsy for microbiological and histopathological evaluation. Mean patient age was 41 years (Interquartile Range 26-52), 56% were males, and 39% were HIV positive...
October 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Chang-Jin Choi, Whan-Seok Choi, Churl-Min Kim, Sook-Young Lee, Kyung-Soo Kim
Short-term prospective studies have suggested that pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) preludes permanent loss of lean tissue and fat mass even when TB treatment is effective. The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of sarcopenia and osteoporosis among Korean male TB survivors. Data of the population-based, Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) (2008-2011) were analyzed, including 3,228 males aged 50 years or older who underwent chest X-ray (CXR) and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Grace Mugumbate, Vitor Mendes, Michal Blaszczyk, Mohamad Sabbah, George Papadatos, Joel Lelievre, Lluis Ballell, David Barros, Chris Abell, Tom L Blundell, John P Overington
Mycobacterium phenotypic hits are a good reservoir for new chemotypes for the treatment of tuberculosis. However, the absence of defined molecular targets and modes of action could lead to failure in drug development. Therefore, a combination of ligand-based and structure-based chemogenomic approaches followed by biophysical and biochemical validation have been used to identify targets for Mycobacterium tuberculosis phenotypic hits. Our approach identified EthR and InhA as targets for several hits, with some showing dual activity against these proteins...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Małgorzata Szczesio, Andrzej Olczak, Katarzyna Gobis, Marek L Główka
The search for new tuberculostatics is important considering the occurrence of drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Three polymorphs of N'-(1,3-dithiolan-2-ylidene)-4-nitrobenzohydrazide (a potentially tuberculostatic agent), C10H9N3O3S2, denoted (I1), (I2) and (I3), and the monohydrate of this compound, C10H9N3O3S2·H2O, (I4), have been characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The conformations of the molecules in all these structures are very similar. Structures (I1), (I2) and (I3) provide an example of packing polymorphism resulting from different intermolecular interactions...
October 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section C, Structural Chemistry
Hui Cui, Yun Lin, Mingchu Luo, Yongjun Lu, Xishan Huang, Zhigang She
Diaporisoindoles A (1) and B (2), two novel isoprenylisoindole alkaloids, and an unusual diisoprenylisoindole dimer diaporisoindole C (3), together with a precursor tenellone C (4) were all isolated from the endophytic fungus Diaporthe sp. SYSU-HQ3. The absolute configurations of 1-4 were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, X-ray diffraction, and quantum chemical calculations. Diaporisoindole A (1) and tenellone C (4) exhibited inhibitory activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein tyrosine phosphatase B with IC50 values of 4...
September 29, 2017: Organic Letters
A Mallick Gupta, S Mukherjee, A Dutta, J Mukhopadhyay, D Bhattacharyya, S Mandal
Promoter binding specificity is one of the important characteristics of transcription by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) sigma (σ) factors, which remains unexplored due to limited structural evidence. Our previous study on the structural features of Mtb-SigH, consisting of three alpha helices, and its interaction with core RNA polymerase has been extended herein to determine the little known DNA sequence recognition pattern involving its cognate promoters. Herein, high resolution X-ray crystallographic structures of the protein-DNA complexes were inspected to determine the tentative DNA-binding helix of the σ factor...
September 27, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
Zhuquan Su, Changhao Zhong, Shiyue Li, Xiaobo Chen, Yu Chen, Chunli Tang
Lung cancer is one of the most fatal cancers in the world. To early distinguish benign and malignant pulmonary nodule is critical for disease prognosis. Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) can be used to explore bronchus mucous membrane, alveolar elastic fiber structures and microvessels, and could be helpful for the diagnostic imaging and for the localization guidance. In this report, we presented two cases of peripheral pulmonary nodule. Under the guidance of X-ray and endobronchial ultrasound, needle-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (nCLE) could directly approach the peripheral pulmonary nodule via an exploratory puncture needle...
August 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Jianzhuang Yao, Xia Wang, Haixia Luo, Pengfei Gu
Shikimate kinase (SK), is the fifth bacterial enzyme involved in the shikimate pathway for biosynthesis of life indispensable components, such as aromatic amino acids. Absence of shikimate pathway in human makes SK an attractive target for rational design of drug toward pathogenesis bacteria, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Helicobacter pylori. However, effective inhibitor of SK (e.g., transition state analogue) is still not available in the market due to (at least partly) the lack of knowledge on the catalytic mechanism and the nature of the rate-limiting transition state...
September 18, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Alex Rosenthal, Andrei Gabrielian, Eric Engle, Darrell E Hurt, Sofia Alexandru, Valeriu Crudu, Eugene Sergueev, Valery Kirichenko, Vladzimir Lapitskii, Eduard Snezhko, Vassili Kovalev, Andrei Astrovko, Alena Skrahina, Jessica Taaffe, Michael Harris, Alyssa Long, Kurt Wollenberg, Irada Akhundova, Sharafat Ismayilova, Aliaksandr Skrahin, Elcan Mammadbayov, Hagigat Gadirova, Rafik Abuzarov, Mehriban Seyfaddinova, Zaza Avaliani, Irina Strambu, Dragos Zaharia, Alexandru Muntean, Eugenia Ghita, Miron Bogdan, Roxana Mindru, Victor Spinu, Alexandra Sora, Catalina Ene, Sergo Vashakidze, Natalia Shubladze, Ucha Nanava, Alexander Tuzikov, Michael Tartakovsky
The TB Portals Program is an international consortium of physicians, radiologists, and microbiologists from countries with a heavy burden of drug-resistant tuberculosis working with data scientists and IT professionals. Together, we have built the TB Portals, a repository of socioeconomic/geographic, clinical, laboratory, radiological, and genomic data from patient cases of drug-resistant tuberculosis and backed by shareable, physical samples. Currently, there are 1,299 total cases from five country sites (Azerbaijan, Belarus, Moldova, Georgia, and Romania), of which 976 (75...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Manuel Quiroz, Álvaro Undurraga, Rafael Moya, Cristina Fernández, Katiuska Bezares, Virginia Linacre
Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma is a multifocal tumor that rarely metastasizes. It is difficult to diagnose, most often it is an incidental finding in young asymptomatic women. The radiologic pattern is heterogeneous. Histologic confirmation of Weibel-Palade bodies or immunohistochemistry based on specific tumor markers such as factor VIII and CD34 are the most important finding to confirm the diagnosis. We report a 21 years old woman Presenting with cough and dyspnea. A chest X ray was suggestive of tuberculosis...
May 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
Alexander V Panteleev, Irina Yu Nikitina, Irina A Burmistrova, George A Kosmiadi, Tatyana V Radaeva, Rasul B Amansahedov, Pavel V Sadikov, Yana V Serdyuk, Elena E Larionova, Tatef R Bagdasarian, Larisa N Chernousova, Vitaly V Ganusov, Irina V Lyadova
It is generally thought that Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)-specific CD4(+) Th1 cells producing IFN-γ are essential for protection against tuberculosis (TB). In some studies, protection has recently been associated with polyfunctional subpopulation of Mtb-specific Th1 cells, i.e., with cells able to simultaneously secrete several type 1 cytokines. However, the role for Mtb-specific Th1 cells and their polyfunctional subpopulations during established TB disease is not fully defined. Pulmonary TB is characterized by a great variability of disease manifestations...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
Brijesh Takkar, Pradeep Venkatesh, Nripen Gaur, Sat Pal Garg, Rajpal Vohra, Supriyo Ghose
AIM: To study patterns of uveitis in Indian children and compare with data sets published earlier in the literature. METHODS: Consecutive patients below 16 years of age presenting to the uvea clinic of a tertiary eye care center were included prospectively through the period of July 2009-August 2013. Children with retinal vasculitis, exogenous endophthalmitis and masquerade syndromes were excluded from analysis. Uveitis was classified as per the nomenclature system adopted by the International Uveitis Study Group...
August 31, 2017: International Ophthalmology
Kara-Lee Pool, Charlotte C Heuvelings, Sabine Bélard, Martin P Grobusch, Heather J Zar, Dorothy Bulas, Brian Garra, Savvas Andronikou
Diagnosing childhood pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) may be challenging due to difficulties in obtaining adequate sputum samples, paucibacillary disease and the low sensitivity of diagnostic tests. Chest radiography is an important diagnostic tool for pulmonary TB, but it involves radiation exposure, requires facilities that can house X-ray equipment and has poor inter-reader agreement. The cardinal radiologic finding of mediastinal lymphadenopathy may be detected using mediastinal ultrasound (US). We describe technical aspects of performing mediastinal US, which may assist diagnosis of paediatric pulmonary TB...
August 29, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
Ashok Dongamanti, Vikas Kumar Aamate, Mohan Gandhi Devulapally, Srinivas Gundu, Saikrishna Balabadra, Vijjulatha Manga, Perumal Yogeeswari, Dharmarajan Sriram, Sridhar Balasubramanian
On the basis of reported antimycobacterial property of chroman-4-one pharmacophore, a series of chemically modified bis-spirochromanones were synthesized starting from 2-hydroxyacetophenone and 1,4-dioxaspiro[4.5] decan-8-one using a Kabbe condensation approach. The synthesized bis-spirochromanones were established based on their spectral data and X-ray crystal structure of 6e. All synthesized compounds were evaluated against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (ATCC 27294) strain, finding that some products exhibited good antimycobacterial activity with minimum inhibitory concentration as low as [Formula: see text]...
August 24, 2017: Molecular Diversity
R O Oladele, N K Irurhe, P Foden, A S Akanmu, T Gbaja-Biamila, A Nwosu, H A Ekundayo, F T Ogunsola, M D Richardson, D W Denning
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) as an alternative diagnosis of smear-negative tuberculosis (TB) and treatment failure in TB patients in Nigeria. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional multicentre survey in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive and negative adult patients at the end of their TB treatment in clinics in Lagos and Ilorin states. All were assessed using clinical examination, chest X-ray (CXR) and aspergillus immunoglobulin G (IgG) serology, and some for sputum fungal culture...
September 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Salma Hameed, Kartyk Moganeradj, Nasir Mahmood, Timothy D McHugh, Muhammad Nawaz Chaudhry, Catherine Arnold
Molecular screening of new patients suspected for TB could help in the effective control of TB in Pakistan as it is a high TB burden country. It will be informative to understand the prevalence of multi drug resistance for a better drug regimen management in this geographical area. The Rifampicin resistance determining region (RRDR) sequencing was used to identify mutations associated with drug resistance in DNA extracts from 130 known multidrug resistant (MDR) cultured strains and compared with mutations observed in DNA extracts directly from 86 sputum samples from consecutive newly diagnosed cases in Lahore, Pakistan...
2017: PloS One
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