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Tuberculosis x Ray

Gilberto Ayala, Julio Garay, Miguel Aragon, Tom Decroo, Rony Zachariah
Objective To describe trends in tuberculosis (TB) notification and treatment outcomes in 25 prisons in El Salvador from 2009-2014 and to determine if a set of interventions introduced in 2011 affected TB case finding and management. Methods This was operational research that utilized a retrospective cohort study of program data from 2009-2014. The package of interventions introduced in 2011 provides staff training, engages inmates in TB case finding, and offers diagnosis through mobile X-ray and Xpert® MTB/RIF...
January 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
B A Thiel, C M Bark, J G Nakibali, F van der Kuyp, J L Johnson
SETTING: Chest radiographs (CXRs) are widely used for diagnosing pulmonary TB and assessing response to therapy. The Timika X-ray score has been proposed as a tool for measuring disease severity and predicting treatment outcome. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate inter- and intra-reader agreement of Timika scores and assess the ability of the score to predict microbiologic outcome at 2 months. DESIGN: Analytical validation study. Disease severity was measured by two readers using pretreatment radiographs and follow-up films taken at 2, 6 and 12 months after the start of treatment among 110 human immunodeficiency virus negative adults with pulmonary TB...
October 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Laura C Luciani-Giacobbe, María V Ramírez-Rigo, Yamila Garro-Linck, Gustavo A Monti, Ruben H Manzo, María E Olivera
One of the main obstacles to the successful treatment of tuberculosis is the poor and variable oral bioavailability of rifampicin (RIF), which is mainly due to its low hydrophilicity and dissolution rate. The aim of this work was to obtain a hydrophilic new material that allows a very fast dissolution rate of RIF and therefore is potentially useful in the development of oral solid dosage forms. The acid form of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) was co-processed with RIF by solvent impregnation to obtain CMC-RIF powder, which was characterized by polarized optical microscopy, powder x-ray diffraction, DSC-TGA, hot stage microscopy, (13)C and (15)N solid-state NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy...
October 6, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Margret Johansson Gudjónsdóttir, Karsten Kötz, Ruth Stangebye Nielsen, Philip Wilmar, Sofia Olausson, Daniel Wallmyr, Birger Trollfors
BACKGROUND: Immigrants from countries with high incidence of tuberculosis (TB) are usually offered screening when they arrive to low incidence countries. The tuberculin skin test (TST) is often used. The interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) are more specific and not affected by BCG vaccination. The aims of this study were 1. To see if there if there is a correlation between a positive IGRA (QFT) and presence of a BCG scar in children with TST ≥10 mm, 2. To compare the TST diameter with QFT result, 3...
October 6, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Pascalina Chanda-Kapata, Nathan Kapata, Felix Masiye, Mwendaweli Maboshe, Eveline Klinkenberg, Frank Cobelens, Martin P Grobusch
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) prevalence surveys offer a unique opportunity to study health seeking behaviour at the population level because they identify individuals with symptoms that should ideally prompt a health consultation. OBJECTIVE: To assess the health-seeking behaviour among individuals who were presumptive TB cases in a national population based TB prevalence survey. METHODS: A cross sectional survey was conducted between 2013 and 2014 among 66 survey clusters in Zambia...
2016: PloS One
Yumi Park, Angela Pacitto, Tracy Bayliss, Laura A T Cleghorn, Zhe Wang, Travis Hartman, Kriti Arora, Thomas R Ioerger, Jim Sacchettini, Menico Rizzi, Stefano Donini, Tom L Blundell, David B Ascher, Kyu Y Rhee, Ardala Breda, Nian Zhou, Veronique Dartois, Surendranadha Reddy Jonnala, Laura E Via, Valerie Mizrahi, Ola Epemolu, Laste Stojanovski, Frederick Ryan Carne Simeons, Maria Osuna-Cabello, Lucy Ellis, Claire J MacKenzie, Alasdair R C Smith, Susan Helen Davis, Dinakaran Murugesan, Kirsteen I Buchanan, Penelope A Turner, Margaret Huggett, Fabio Zuccotto, Maria Jose Rebollo-Lopez, Maria Jose Lafuente-Monasterio, Olalla Sanz, Gracia Santos Diaz, Joël Lelièvre, Lluis Ballell, Carolyn Selenski, Matthew Axtman, Sonja Ghidelli-Disse, Hannah Pflaumer, Markus Boesche, Gerard Drewes, Gail Freiberg, Matthew D Kurnick, Myron Srikumaran, Dale J Kempf, Simon R Green, Peter Christopher Ray, Kevin D Read, Paul G Wyatt, Clifton E Barry Rd, Helena I M Boshoff
A potent, non-cytotoxic indazole sulfonamide was identified by high-throughput screening of >100,000 synthetic compounds for activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). This non-cytotoxic compound did not directly inhibit cell wall biogenesis but triggered a slow lysis of Mtb cells as measured by release of intracellular green fluorescent protein (GFP). Isolation of resistant mutants followed by whole-genome sequencing showed an unusual gene amplification of a 40 gene region spanning Rv3371 to Rv3411c and in one case a potential promoter mutation upstream of guaB2 (Rv3411c) encoding inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH)...
October 5, 2016: ACS Infectious Diseases
R Siva Kumar, Prahalad K Singhi, M Chidambaram, Kiran Kakkandki
INTRODUCTION: Patella osteomyelitis is a rare entity in adults. Most often it is seen in children of five to twelve years of age because of its unique ossification and vascularity. Immuno compromised states like HIV, tuberculosis, intravenous drug abuse and trauma have been predisposing factors for adult patellar osteomyelitis. We report two cases of patellar osteomyelitis in adult diabetic women with uncontrolled glycemic levels and having no previous history of any trauma or systemic infection...
April 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
Ioana Streata, January Weiner, Marco Iannaconne, Gayle McEwen, Marius Sorin Ciontea, Marian Olaru, Rosanna Capparelli, Mihai Ioana, Stefan H E Kaufmann, Anca Dorhoi
Genetic variants in the CARD9 gene predispose to inflammatory disorders and chronic infectious diseases. Tuberculosis (TB), a chronic infectious disease affecting the lung, is lethal in Card9-deficient mice. We hypothesized that polymorphisms in the CARD9 gene influence TB progression and disease-associated lung damage in humans. We tested genotype distributions of the CARD9 polymorphisms rs4077515, rs10781499 and rs10870077 in TB patients and healthy subjects in a Caucasian cohort. SNPs were in linkage disequilibrium and none of the haplotypes was significantly enriched in the TB group...
2016: PloS One
Alban Fouasson-Chailloux, Benoit Metayer, Pierre Menu, Lydie Khatchatourian, Joelle Glemarec, Marc Dauty
OBJECTIVE: The loosening of total joint replacement is a frequent complication after total hip arthroplasty (THA). Septic osteolysis should always be feared. We report here a rare case of hip arthroplasty infection due to Mycobacterium bovis after Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) therapy in a context of bladder cancer. OBSERVATIONS: A 70-year-old man was referred to the department of rheumatology in September 2015, because of a total functional disability of the left lower limb...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
George Sikalengo, Adria Ramirez, Diana Faini, Kim Mwamelo, Manuel Battegay, Levan Jugheli, Christoph Hatz, Klaus Reither, Emilio Letang
BACKGROUND: Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis of EPTB is challenging in resource-limited settings due to difficulties in obtaining samples, as well as the paucibacillarity of the specimens. Skeletal tuberculosis accounts for 10-35 % of EPTB cases, with vertebral osteomyelitis (Pott's disease) representing 50 % of the cases. We present two cases of suspected Pott's disease, diagnosed through GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay in urine at a rural Tanzanian hospital...
September 26, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Ozgul Yigit, Meltem Erol, Ozlem Bostan Gayret, Isıl Ustun, Selami Ulas
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis remains a major public health problem in developing countries. Diagnosing extrapulmonary tuberculosis can be difficult, as it requires a higher index of suspicion than primary tuberculosis. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis may mimic malignancies and many other diseases, so it should be included in the differential diagnosis. Here, we present a case of extrapulmonary tuberculosis associated with Pott's disease and hip arthritis in a patient who recovered after 12 months of antituberculosis therapy...
July 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
Paolo Tomà, Laura Lancella, Laura Menchini, Roberta Lombardi, Aurelio Secinaro, Alberto Villani
The incidence of tuberculosis is increasing in the developed world and children in particular represent a high-risk group for developing the disease. The aim of this review is to analyse the spectrum of radiological signs as reported in the recent literature, in light of our series over a 15-year period, to pinpoint the most common radiological patterns in a developed country and to determine the role played by the different chest imaging techniques in diagnosis improvement. Lung TB was present in 217 out of 255 patients (85 %): 146 patients were under 5 years of age (76 under 2 years) and 71 over 5 years (41 over 10 years)...
September 20, 2016: La Radiologia Medica
Yeongsang Jeong, Yong Hyun Bang, Yun-Kyung Kim
Migrating pulmonary lesions in children are uncommon, and most are caused by eosinophilic lung disease and parasite, fungus, and tuberculosis infections. A 12-year-old boy was referred to our hospital because of an abnormal chest x-ray. Serial computed tomography scans performed over several months showed a migrating pulmonary consolidation in the left lung, although the patient remained asymptomatic. Finally, surgical biopsy was performed and follicular bronchiolitis was diagnosed. The consolidation disappeared 17 months later without treatment, and the patient has remained asymptomatic...
September 18, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
D Kienzl-Palma, H Prosch
CLINICAL ISSUE: Tuberculosis (TB) is a granulomatous disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and transmission is via an airborne route by droplet infection. In the majority of cases patients have thoracic TB, which most frequently presents with hilar lymphadenopathy and pulmonary manifestation. Due to the rise in incidence of TB in central Europe to be expected over the coming years, it is essential to be acquainted with the radiological manifestations of pulmonary TB, particularly to be able to discriminate active from inactive TB...
October 2016: Der Radiologe
Margaret Jones
This paper, based on World Health Organization and Sri Lankan sources, examines the attempts to control tuberculosis in Sri Lanka from independence in 1948. It focuses particularly on the attempt in 1966 to implement a World Health Organization model of community-orientated tuberculosis control that sought to establish a horizontally structured programme through the integration of control into the general health services. The objective was to create a cost- effective method of control that relied on a simple bacteriological test for case finding and for treatment at the nearest health facility that would take case detection and treatment to the rural periphery where specialist services were lacking...
October 2016: Medical History
M A Shahin, M I Sultan, M J Alam, A Saeed, A K Azad, M R Choudhury
Cystic tuberculosis of the bone is a rare form of tuberculosis (TB). The condition presents like Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) of children. In children, the lesions symmetrically involve the peripheral skeleton, which are less sclerotic than adults. A case report is presented here where the patient presented with i) the extensive involvement of bones with cystic lesion, ii) Hand & feet involvement with multiple bony exostosis iii) Synovial swelling of multiple joints and 4) fever for 6 months. Swelling of the joints was disproportionately greater than pain...
July 2016: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
Serkan Bayram, Ali Erşen, Murat Altan, Hayati Durmaz
INTRODUCTION: One of the infectious causes of wrist tenosynovitis is Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tendon sheath involvement is rare. Herein, we report the diagnosis and treatment of a patient with neglected wrist flexor tendon sheath tuberculosis. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We report the diagnosis and treatment of a man aged 50 years with neglected wrist flexor tendon sheath tuberculosis. DISCUSSION: In patients with tendon sheath involvement, symptoms are generally non-specific such as pain and swelling; therefore, it can be diagnosed late due to the lack of systemic symptoms...
2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Katharigatta N Venugopala, G B Dharma Rao, Subhrajyoti Bhandary, Melendhran Pillay, Deepak Chopra, Bandar E Aldhubiab, Mahesh Attimarad, Osama Ibrahim Alwassil, Sree Harsha, Koleka Mlisana
The novel (1-(4-aryl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)methyl, substituted phenyl-6-methyl-2-oxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine-5-carboxylate derivatives were synthesized by the click reaction of the dihydropyrimidinones, bearing a terminal alkynyl group, with various substituted aryl azides at room temperature using a catalytic amount of Cu(OAc)2 and sodium ascorbate in a 1:2 ratio of acetone and water as a solvent. The newly synthesized compounds were characterized by a number of spectroscopic techniques, such as infrared, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, (1)H, and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance along with single crystal X-ray diffraction...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Rosaria Luciani, Puneet Saxena, Sachin Surade, Matteo Santucci, Alberto Venturelli, Chiara Borsari, Gaetano Marverti, Glauco Ponterini, Stefania Ferrari, Tom L Blundell, Maria Paola Costi
Thymidylate synthase X (ThyX) represents an attractive target for tuberculosis drug discovery. Herein, we selected 16 compounds through a virtual screening approach. We solved the first X-ray crystal structure of Thermatoga maritima (Tm) ThyX in complex with a nonsubstrate analog inhibitor. Given the active site similarities between Mycobacterium tuberculosis ThyX (Mtb-ThyX) and Tm-ThyX, our crystal structure paves the way for a structure-based design of novel antimycobacterial compounds. The 1H-imidazo[4,5-d]pyridazine was identified as scaffold for the development of Mtb-ThyX inhibitors...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Dina Nair, Nandita Rajshekhar, Joel Shyam Klinton, Basilea Watson, Banurekha Velayutham, Jaya Prasad Tripathy, Mohideen Shaheed Jawahar, Soumya Swaminathan
BACKGROUND: Contact investigation is an active case finding strategy to increase detection of Tuberculosis (TB) and a key component of TB control programs. The household contacts are at a higher risk of exposure than members of the general population. The information on the value and yield of household contact screening and the approaches used in high incidence settings like India is limited. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the yield of active case finding in household contacts of newly diagnosed smear positive TB patients and the factors associated with increased yield...
2016: PloS One
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