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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817723/sequence-analysis-of-the-rifampicin-resistance-determining-region-rrdr-of-rpob-gene-in-multidrug-resistance-confirmed-and-newly-diagnosed-tuberculosis-patients-of-punjab-pakistan
#1
Salma Hameed, Kartyk Moganeradj, Nasir Mahmood, Timothy D McHugh, Muhammad Nawaz Chaudhry, Catherine Arnold
Molecular screening of new patients suspected for TB could help in the effective control of TB in Pakistan as it is a high TB burden country. It will be informative to understand the prevalence of multi drug resistance for a better drug regimen management in this geographical area. The Rifampicin resistance determining region (RRDR) sequencing was used to identify mutations associated with drug resistance in DNA extracts from 130 known multidrug resistant (MDR) cultured strains and compared with mutations observed in DNA extracts directly from 86 sputum samples from consecutive newly diagnosed cases in Lahore, Pakistan...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815830/determinants-of-the-inhibition-of-dpre1-and-cyp2c9-by-antitubercular-thiophenes
#2
Renhe Liu, Xiaoxuan Lyu, Mei-Hui Hsu, Catherine Vilcheze, Scott G Franzblau, William R Jacobs, Gurdyal S Besra, Eric F Johnson, Klaus Fütterer, Feng Wang
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) DprE1, an essential isomerase for the biosynthesis of the mycobacterial cell wall, is a validated target for tuberculosis (TB) drug development. Here we report the X-ray crystal structures of DprE1 and the DprE1 resistant mutant (Y314C) in complexes with TCA1 derivatives to elucidate the molecular basis of their inhibitory activities and an unconventional resistance mechanism, which enabled us to optimize the potency of the analogs. The selected lead compound showed excellent in vitro and in vivo activities, and low risk of toxicity profile except for the inhibition of CYP2C9...
August 16, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808447/predictors-for-mortality-among-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-patients-in-tanzania
#3
Edson W Mollel, Jaffu O Chilongola
PROBLEM: Factors related to MDRTB mortality in Tanzania have not been adequately explored and reported. OBJECTIVES: To determine demographic, clinical, radiographic, and laboratory factors associated with MDRTB mortality in a Tanzanian TB Referral Hospital. METHODOLOGY: This was a cross-sectional study with 193 participants. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and radiological data were collected, and their associations with mortality among MDRTB patients were determined...
2017: Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776532/etiology-and-outcome-of-moderate-to-massive-hemoptysis-experience-from-a-tertiary-care-center-of-north-india
#4
Ashish Bhalla, Ashok Kumar Pannu, Vikas Suri
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the etiology of hemoptysis in patients presenting to emergency department of Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, India. METHOD: Prospectively 110 patients presenting to the emergency department with history of hemoptysis were screened for a period of one and half years. Out of these, 64 patients having true hemoptysis were enrolled in the study. The patients were clinically evaluated with detailed history...
July 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776522/an-evaluation-of-innovative-community-based-approaches-and-systematic-tuberculosis-screening-to-improve-tuberculosis-case-detection-in-ebonyi-state-nigeria
#5
Daniel C Oshi, Joachim C Omeje, Sarah N Oshi, Isaac N Alobu, Ngozi E Chukwu, Chukwuemeka Nwokocha, Obiageli F Emelumadu, Chidubem L Ogbudebe, Anthony O Meka, Kingsley N Ukwaja
BACKGROUND: National tuberculosis (TB) programmes globally rely heavily on passive case finding for detecting TB in the community as advocated by the World Health Organization (WHO). TB case detection is low in Nigeria despite improvement in TB services and coverage. METHODS: A retrospective evaluation of an active case-finding intervention utilizing community-based approaches and targeted systematic TB screening in Ebonyi State, Nigeria was done. The analysis was performed using Epi Info...
July 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761601/childhood-tuberculosis-management-and-treatment-outcomes-among-children-in-northwest-ethiopia-a-cross-sectional-study
#6
Zemene Tigabu Kebede, Belaynew Wasie Taye, Yohannes Hailu Matebe
INTRODUCTION: Childhood tuberculosis (TB) treatment is becoming a major challenge in the TB control efforts of the Ethiopian health system. This study assessed childhood tuberculosis management, and treatment outcomes among children who completed anti-TB treatment in Northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among children who completed their anti-TB treatment in Gondar University Referral Hospital and 6 satellite health centers. Data from each child with tuberculosis were obtained from review of medical records...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759620/prevalence-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-among-prison-inmates-a-cross-sectional-survey-at-the-correctional-and-detention-facility-of-abidjan-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire
#7
Benjamin Séri, Ange Koffi, Christine Danel, Timothée Ouassa, Marcel-Angora Blehoué, Eric Ouattara, Jeanne-d'Arc Assemien, Jean-Marie Masumbuko, Patrick Coffie, Nathalie Cartier, Arnaud Laurent, Gilles Raguin, Denis Malvy, Thérèse N'Dri-Yoman, Serge P Eholié, Serge K Domoua, Xavier Anglaret, Marie-Catherine Receveur
BACKGROUND: In Côte d'Ivoire, a TB prison program has been developed since 1999. This program includes offering TB screening to prisoners who show up with TB symptoms at the infirmary. Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of pulmonary TB among inmates at the Correctional and Detention Facility of Abidjan, the largest prison of Côte d'Ivoire, 16 years after this TB program was implemented. METHODS: Between March and September 2015, inmates, were screened for pulmonary TB using systematic direct smear microscopy, culture and chest X-ray...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757299/the-incidence-of-subclinical-forms-of-urogenital-tuberculosis-in-patients-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#8
Roman Zachoval, Petr Nencka, Martina Vasakova, Emilie Kopecka, Vladimir Borovička, Jiri Wallenfels, Pavel Cermak
The aim of our study was to determine whether patients with pulmonary tuberculosis may have subclinical forms of urogenital tuberculosis. Between 2011 and 2012, a prospective study was conducted. Basic demographic parameters were recorded and the following investigations were performed: direct bacilloscopy of sputum, evaluation of affected lung fields and presence of cavities on chest X-ray, Mantoux tuberculin skin test II, and interferon gamma release assay. Culture and molecular methods for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in urine were performed...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754530/tuberculosis-in-children-from-diagnosis-to-decision-to-treat
#9
S Ramos, R Gaio, F Ferreira, J Paulo Leal, S Martins, J Vasco Santos, I Carvalho, R Duarte
SETTING: Confirmation of tuberculosis (TB) in children is difficult, so clinicians use different procedures when deciding to treat. OBJECTIVE: Identify criteria to initiate and maintain TB treatment in children younger than 5 years-old, without diagnosis confirmation. DESIGN: A web-based survey was distributed by email to the corresponding authors of journal articles on childhood TB. The observations were clustered into disjoint groups, and analyzed by Ward's method...
July 25, 2017: Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739566/loculated-empyema-due-to-tuberculosis-in-a-child
#10
Pierre Goussard, Julie Morrison, Ilse Nadine Appel, Savvas Andronikou
A 9-year-old girl from black ethnic origin presented with a history of fever, cough, loss of weight and right-sided chest wall pain for 2 weeks. Chest X-ray demonstrated an effusion, which was shown to be loculated on chest CT scan. She was not responding to medical treatment and at thoracotomy loculated pus was drained. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) was cultured from the pus. TB is a rare cause of loculated empyema with an overlapping clinical and radiological picture with pyogenic infections.
July 24, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721354/diagnostic-outcomes-after-chest-radiograph-interpretation-in-patients-with-suspected-tuberculosis-and-negative-sputum-smears-in-a-high-burden-human-immunodeficiency-virus-and-tuberculosis-setting
#11
Patrick G T Cudahy, Rodney Dawson, Brian W Allwood, Gary Maartens, Douglas Wilson
BACKGROUND: Evaluation of patients with suspected tuberculosis and negative sputum smears for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) is challenging, especially in high human immunodeficiency virus coinfection settings where sputum smears have lower sensitivity for detecting AFB. METHODS: We examined the utility of chest radiographs for detecting smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis. Three hundred sixty sputum smear-negative patients who were referred from primary care clinics in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa were evaluated...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705215/feasibility-of-district-wide-screening-of-health-care-workers-for-tuberculosis-in-zambia
#12
Suzanne Verver, Nathan Kapata, Mathildah Kakungu Simpungwe, Seraphine Kaminsa, Mavis Mwale, Chitambeya Mukwangole, Bernard Sichinga, Sevim Ahmedov, Max Meis
BACKGROUND: Many health care workers (HCWs) are at increased risk for tuberculosis (TB). The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends screening HCWs for TB in high burden settings but this is often not implemented in countries with a high TB incidence. We assessed the feasibility of TB screening among HCWs, including participation rate and yield, as part of a project introducing facility specific TB interventions. METHODS: This study had a cross-sectional design...
July 14, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703128/structural-insights-into-the-mycobacteria-transcription-initiation-complex-from-analysis-of-x-ray-crystal-structures
#13
Elizabeth A Hubin, Mirjana Lilic, Seth A Darst, Elizabeth A Campbell
The mycobacteria RNA polymerase (RNAP) is a target for antimicrobials against tuberculosis, motivating structure/function studies. Here we report a 3.2 Å-resolution crystal structure of a Mycobacterium smegmatis (Msm) open promoter complex (RPo), along with structural analysis of the Msm RPo and a previously reported 2.76 Å-resolution crystal structure of an Msm transcription initiation complex with a promoter DNA fragment. We observe the interaction of the Msm RNAP α-subunit C-terminal domain (αCTD) with DNA, and we provide evidence that the αCTD may play a role in Mtb transcription regulation...
July 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700283/update-on-immunological-test-quantiferon-tb-gold-contribution-in-the-management-of-tuberculosis-related-ocular-inflammation
#14
S Trad, B Bodaghi, D Saadoun
PURPOSE: To clarify interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) contributions to intraocular tuberculosis management, according to related TB endemic prevalence. METHODS: Despite extensive investigations, including IGRA, the diagnosis of intraocular tuberculosis (TB) is still challenging and remains mostly presumptive. According to the literature, it appears that management of suspected ocular TB differs significantly based on whether patients are from areas of high TB prevalence or from non-TB-endemic countries...
July 12, 2017: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697688/plumbago-auriculata-leaf-extract-mediated-agnps-and-its-activities-as-antioxidant-anti-tb-and-dye-degrading-agents
#15
Neeraj Jaryal, Harpreet Kaur
In the present work, silver nanoparticles have been biosynthesized by utilizing the alcoholic extract of Plumbago auriculata. The optimization of reaction conditions was carried out by monitoring the reactions with the help of UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy. The characterization of AgNP was carried out by infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-Ray diffraction (XRD) studies. The biogenic AgNPs were tested against Mycobacterium tuberculosis using Microplate Almar Blue assay (MABA) and their antioxidant activity was also evaluated...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697621/undiagnosed-tuberculosis-in-patients-with-hiv-infection-who-present-with-severe-anaemia-at-a-district-hospital
#16
Mbulelo Mntonintshi, Don O'Mahony, Sikhumbuzo Mabunda, Kakia A F Namugenyi
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is a major cause of severe anaemia in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in South Africa. However, TB can be difficult to diagnose as it may be extra pulmonary and paucibacillary. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate undiagnosed TB in patients with HIV infection and severe anaemia and to identify the optimal investigations for diagnosing TB. SETTING: Mthatha General Hospital, a district hospital...
June 30, 2017: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695854/the-putative-polyketide-cyclase-msmeg_0129-from-mycobacterium-smegmatis-purification-crystallization-and-x-ray-crystallographic-analysis
#17
Shuping Zheng, Ying Zhou, Joy Fleming, Yafeng Zhou, Wei Liu, Lijun Bi
Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv0164 has previously been identified as a human T-cell antigen that induces significant production of IFN-γ in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. M. smegmatis MSMEG_0129 shares 59% sequence identity with Rv0164. Based on sequence alignment, both proteins are predicted to be members of the cyclase/dehydrase family, which is part of a large group of enzymes referred to as type II polyketide synthases (PKSs). In biosynthetic pathways mediated by type II PKSs, cyclases catalyze the conversion of linear poly-β-ketones to cyclized intermediates...
July 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691431/low-dose-computed-tomography-in-assessment-of-pulmonary-abnormalities-in-children-with-febrile-neutropenia-suffering-from-malignant-diseases
#18
Urszula Zaleska-Dorobisz, Cyprian Michal Olchowy, Mateusz Łasecki, Dąbrówka Sokołowska-Dąbek, Aleksander Pawluś, Jowita Frączkiewicz, Ewa Gorczyńska
BACKGROUND: Management of febrile neutropenia in pediatric patients is challenging. Chest X-ray and CT help to identify infective foci; however, exposure to radiation is a risk factor for development of secondary cancer. For this reason, attention is paid to reduce radiation exposure. OBJECTIVES: TTo define the role of LDCT examination in early detection of pulmonary lesions in children during oncology or autoimmune treatment complicated by neutropenia related fever...
June 27, 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679637/mechanism-based-inactivator-of-isocitrate-lyases-1-and-2-from-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#19
Truc V Pham, Andrew S Murkin, Margaret M Moynihan, Lawrence Harris, Peter C Tyler, Nishant Shetty, James C Sacchettini, Hsiao-Ling Huang, Thomas D Meek
Isocitrate lyase (ICL, types 1 and 2) is the first enzyme of the glyoxylate shunt, an essential pathway for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) during the persistent phase of human TB infection. Here, we report 2-vinyl-d-isocitrate (2-VIC) as a mechanism-based inactivator of Mtb ICL1 and ICL2. The enzyme-catalyzed retro-aldol cleavage of 2-VIC unmasks a Michael substrate, 2-vinylglyoxylate, which then forms a slowly reversible, covalent adduct with the thiolate form of active-site Cys191 2-VIC displayed kinetic properties consistent with covalent, mechanism-based inactivation of ICL1 and ICL2 with high efficiency (partition ratio, <1)...
July 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665588/biochemical-investigation-of-rv3404c-from-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#20
Murray M Dunsirn, James B Thoden, Michel Gilbert, Hazel M Holden
The causative agent of tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is a bacterium with a complex cell wall and a complicated life cycle. The genome of M. tuberculosis contains well over 4000 genes thought to encode proteins. One of these codes for a putative enzyme referred to as Rv3404c, which has attracted research attention as a potential virulence factor for over 12 years. Here we demonstrate that Rv3404c functions as a sugar N-formyltransferase that converts dTDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxyglucose into dTDP-4-formamido-4,6-dideoxyglucose using N(10)-formyltetrahydrofolate as the carbon source...
July 25, 2017: Biochemistry
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