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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793175/apolipoprotein-ciii-and-n-terminal-prohormone-b-type-natriuretic-peptide-as-independent-predictors-for-cardiovascular-disease-in-type-2-diabetes
#1
Marco Colombo, Helen C Looker, Bassam Farran, Felix Agakov, M Julia Brosnan, Paul Welsh, Naveed Sattar, Shona Livingstone, Paul N Durrington, D John Betteridge, Paul M McKeigue, Helen M Colhoun
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Developing sparse panels of biomarkers for cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes would enable risk stratification for clinical decision making and selection into clinical trials. We examined the individual and joint performance of five candidate biomarkers for incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) in type 2 diabetes that an earlier discovery study had yielded. METHODS: Apolipoprotein CIII (apoCIII), N-terminal prohormone B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), high sensitivity Troponin T (hsTnT), Interleukin-6, and Interleukin-15 were measured in baseline serum samples from the Collaborative Atorvastatin Diabetes trial (CARDS) of atorvastatin versus placebo...
May 21, 2018: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793033/expression-of-anabaena-sensory-rhodopsin-is-influenced-by-different-codons-of-seven-residues-at-the-n-terminal-region
#2
Otgontuya Tsogbadrakh, Ah Reum Choi, Kwang-Hwan Jung
Microbial rhodopsins are well-known seven-transmembrane proteins that have been extensively studied for their structure and function. These retinal-binding proteins can be divided into two types. Type I is microbial rhodopsin, and type II (visual pigment) is expressed mostly in mammalian eyes. The two primary functions of type I rhodopsin are ion pumping activity and sensory transduction. Anabaena sensory rhodopsin (ASR) is a microbial rhodopsin with a specific function of photosensory transduction. ASR is expressed at moderate levels in Escherichia coli, but its expression level is lower compared to the general green light absorbing proteorhodopsin (GPR)...
May 21, 2018: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793031/cloning-overexpression-and-purification-of-a-gene-of-unknown-function-of-prophage-loci-from-candidatus-liberibacter-asiaticus-the-destructive-bacterial-pathogen-of-huanglongbing-disease-in-citrus-plants
#3
Duangtip Sudhan, Thamrongjet Puttamuk, Supachai Vuttipongchaikij, Pitak Chuawong
Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) or citrus greening is one of the most destructive diseases affecting citrus industry worldwide. The causal agent in Asia is a phloem-limited, Gram-negative bacterium, 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (CLas). Within the genome of CLas lies prophage regions, classified as Type-A, B, C, and D. In particular, Type-D has been indicated to correlate with the blotchy-mottle symptoms of citrus trees. Here we reported the cloning, overexpression, and purification of the ORF1, an open reading frame from the partial Type-D region of CLas obtained from an infected lime tree (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle)...
May 21, 2018: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792962/effect-of-casein-and-inulin-addition-on-physico-chemical-characteristics-of-low-fat-camel-dairy-cream
#4
Leila Ziaeifar, Mohsen Labbafi Mazrae Shahi, Maryam Salami, Gholam R Askari
The effect of the addition of the camel casein fraction on some physico-chemical properties of low fat camel milk cream was studied. Oil-in-water emulsions, 25, 30, and 35 (w/w) fat, were prepared using inulin, camel skim milk, milk fat and variable percentages of casein (1, 2, and 3% w/w). The droplet size, ζ-potential, surface protein concentration, viscosity and surface tension of low fat dairy creams was measured. Cream containing 2% (w/w) casein had better stability. The modifications in physico-chemical properties appeared to be driven by changes in particle size distribution caused by droplet aggregation...
May 21, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792879/astragaloside-suppresses-apoptosis-of-the-podocytes-in-rats-with-diabetic-nephropathy-via-mir-378-traf5-signaling-pathway
#5
Xiao Lei, Bo-da Zhang, Ji-Gang Ren, Fang-Li Luo
AIMS: Apoptosis of podocytes plays a crucial role in diabetic nephropathy (DN) development, and astragaloside (AS-IV) has a significant impact on podocyte apoptosis. This study aims to explore the effect of AS-IV on diabetic nephropathy progression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The diabetic nephropathy model was established in rats with streptozotocin (STZ) injection. The albuminuria was examined by using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The expression of miR-378, tumor-necrosis factor (TNF) receptor (TNFR)-associated factor 5 (TRAF5) mRNA and protein was analyzed by qRT-PCR and western blot, respectively...
May 21, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792810/optogenetic-inhibition-of-g%C3%AE-q-protein-signaling-reduces-calcium-oscillation-stochasticity
#6
Pimkhuan Hannanta-Anan, Brian Y Chow
As fast terminators of G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling, regulators of G-protein signaling (RGS) serve critical roles in fine-tuning second messenger levels and, consequently, cellular responses to external stimuli. Here, we report the creation of an optogenetic RGS2 (opto-RGS2) that suppresses agonist-evoked calcium oscillations by the inactivation of Gαq protein. In this system, cryptochrome-mediated hetero-dimerization of the catalytic RGS2-box with its N-terminal amphipathic helix reconstitutes a functional membrane-localized complex that can dynamically suppress store-operated release of calcium...
May 24, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792687/co-mobility-of-gabarap-and-phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase-2a-on-cytoplasmic-vesicles
#7
Yan Chen, Hui-Qiao Sun, John P Eichorst, Joseph P Albanesi, Helen Yin, Joachim D Mueller
We previously reported that recruitment of the Type IIA phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase (PI4K2A) to autophagosomes by GABARAP, a member of the Atg8 family of autophagy-related proteins, is important for autophagosome-lysosome fusion. Because both PI4K2A and GABARAP have also been implicated in the intracellular trafficking of plasma membrane receptors in the secretory/endocytic pathway, we characterized their interaction in cells under non-autophagic conditions. Fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy measurements revealed that GABARAP exists predominantly as a cytosolic monomer in live cells, but is recruited to small cytoplasmic vesicles upon overexpression of PI4K2A...
May 24, 2018: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792667/control-of-selectivity-in-palladium-ii-catalyzed-oxidative-transformations-of-allenes
#8
Bin Yang, Youai Qiu, Jan-E Bäckvall
Oxidation reactions play a central role in organic synthesis, and it is highly desirable that these reactions are mild and occur under catalytic conditions. In Nature, oxidation reactions occur under mild conditions via cascade processes, and furthermore, they often occur in an enantioselective manner with many of them involving molecular oxygen or hydrogen peroxide as the terminal oxidant. Inspired by the reactions in Nature, we have developed a number of Pd(II)-catalyzed cascade reactions under mild oxidative conditions...
May 24, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792531/the-expression-of-lysophosphatidic-acid-receptor-5-is-necessary-for-the-regulation-of-intestinal-na-h-exchanger-3-by-lysophosphatidic-acid-in-vivo
#9
Kayte A Jenkin, Peijian He, C Chris Yun
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid molecule, which regulates a broad range of pathophysiological processes. Recent studies have demonstrated that LPA modulates electrolyte flux in the intestine and its potential as an anti-diarrheal agent has been suggested. Of six LPA receptors, LPA5 is highly expressed in the intestine. Recent studies by our group have demonstrated activation of Na+ /H+ exchanger 3 (NHE3) by LPA5 . However, much of what has been elucidated was achieved using colonic cell lines that were transfected to express LPA5 ...
May 24, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792439/the-power-of-triplet-and-singlet-oxygen-in-synthesis-2-oxindoles-3-hydroxy-2-oxindoles-and-isatins-from-furans
#10
Myron Triantafyllakis, Kalliopi Sfakianaki, Dimitris Kalaitzakis, Georgios Vassilikogiannakis
A straightforward synthesis of substituted 2-oxindoles, 3-hydroxy-2-oxindoles, and isatins has been developed. Easily accessible furans were transformed into tetrahydropyranopyrrolones by a singlet oxygen initiated cascade reaction sequence. An acid-catalyzed rearrangement, followed by aromatization, gave access to a variety of 2-oxindole motifs, which were oxidized to 3-hydroxy-2-oxindoles or isatins using methylene blue as a radical initiator and molecular oxygen as a terminal oxidant.
May 24, 2018: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792429/divergent-syntheses-of-z-3-alkylideneisobenzofuran-1-3h-ones-and-1h-isochromen-1-ones-by-copper-catalyzed-cycloisomerization-of-2-alkynylbenzoic-acids-in-ionic-liquids
#11
Raffaella Mancuso, Christian S Pomelli, Piera Chiappetta, Katia Francesca Gioia, Asif Maner, Nadia Marino, Lucia Veltri, Cinzia Chiappe, Bartolo Gabriele
The cycloisomerization of readily available 2-alkynylbenzoic acids 1 in ionic liquids (ILs) as recyclable reaction media has been studied under the catalytic action of CuCl2. With substrates bearing an aryl group on the triple bond, a mixture of (Z)-3-alkylideneisobenzofuran-1(3H)-ones (from 5-exo-dig cyclization) and 1H-isochromen-1-ones (from 6-endo-dig cyclization) was observed in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethyl sulfate (EmimEtSO4), while the reaction turned out to be selective toward the formation of the isobenzofuranone only using N-ethyl-N-methylmorpholinium dicyanamide [Mor1,2N(CN)2], as the solvent...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792414/hybrid-assembly-of-different-sized-supertetrahedral-clusters-into-a-unique-non-interpenetrated-mn-in-s-open-framework-with-large-cavity
#12
Hongxiang Wang, Wei Wang, Dandan Hu, Min Luo, Chaozhuang Xue, Dongsheng Li, Tao Wu
Reported here is a unique crystalline semiconductor open-framework material built from the large-sized supertetrahedral T4 and T5 clusters with the Mn-In-S compositions. The hybrid assembly between T4 and T5 clusters by sharing terminal μ2 -S2- is for the first time observed among the cluster-based chalcogenide open frameworks. Such three-dimensional structure displays non-interpenetrated diamond-type topology with extra-large nonframework volume of 82%. Moreover, ion exchange, CO2 adsorption, as well as photoluminescence properties of the title compound are also investigated...
May 24, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792307/putative-vaccine-candidates-and-drug-targets-identified-by-reverse-vaccinology-and-subtractive-genomics-approaches-to-control-haemophilus-ducreyi-the-causative-agent-of-chancroid
#13
Alissa de Sarom, Arun Kumar Jaiswal, Sandeep Tiwari, Letícia de Castro Oliveira, Debmalya Barh, Vasco Azevedo, Carlo Jose Oliveira, Siomar de Castro Soares
Chancroid is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Haemophilus ducreyi The control of chancroid is difficult and the only current available treatment is antibiotic therapy; however, antibiotic resistance has been reported in endemic areas. Owing to recent outbreaks of STIs worldwide, it is important to keep searching for new treatment strategies and preventive measures. Here, we applied reverse vaccinology and subtractive genomic approaches for the in silico prediction of potential vaccine and drug targets against 28 strains of H...
May 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792234/long-term-outcomes-of-acute-treatment-with-cognitive-therapy-v-interpersonal-psychotherapy-for-adult-depression-follow-up-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Lotte H J M Lemmens, Suzanne C van Bronswijk, Frenk Peeters, Arnoud Arntz, Steven D Hollon, Marcus J H Huibers
BACKGROUND: Although equally efficacious in the acute phase, it is not known how cognitive therapy (CT) and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) for major depressive disorder (MDD) compare in the long run. This study examined the long-term outcomes of CT v. IPT for MDD. METHODS: One hundred thirty-four adult (18-65) depressed outpatients who were treated with CT (n = 69) or IPT (n = 65) in a large open-label randomized controlled trial (parallel group design; computer-generated block randomization) were monitored across a 17-month follow-up phase...
May 24, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791979/functional-and-structural-characterization-of-zebrafish-asc
#15
Yajuan Li, Yi Huang, Xiaocong Cao, Xueying Yin, Xiangyu Jin, Sheng Liu, Jiansheng Jiang, Wei Jiang, Tsan Sam Xiao, Rongbin Zhou, Gang Cai, Bing Hu, Tengchuan Jin
The zebrafish genome encodes homologs for most of the proteins involved in inflammatory pathways; however, the molecular components and activation mechanisms of fish inflammasomes are largely unknown. ASC (apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase-recruitment domain (CARD)) is the only adaptor involved in the formation of multiple types of inflammasomes. Here, we demonstrate that zASC is also involved in inflammasome activation in zebrafish. When overexpressed in vitro and in vivo in zebrafish, both the zASC and zASC pyrin domain (PYD) proteins form speck and filament structures...
May 23, 2018: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791962/nerve-entrapment-syndromes-at-the-wrist-and-elbow-by-sonography
#16
Andrea S Klauser, Tommaso Buzzegoli, Mihra S Taljanovic, Sylvia Strobl, Stefan Rauch, James Teh, Julia Wanschitz, Wolfgang Löscher, Carlo Martinoli
Nerve entrapment syndromes of the upper extremity are associated with structural abnormalities or by an intrinsic abnormality of the nerve. Nerve entrapment syndromes generally have a typical clinical presentation, and findings on physical examination and in conjunction with electrodiagnostic studies imaging is used to evaluate the cause, severity, and etiology of the entrapment. With the development of high-frequency linear array transducers (12-24 MHz), ultrasound (US) is incomparable in terms of spatial resolution to depict morphological aspects and changes in nerves...
July 2018: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791849/activation-of-entorhinal-cortical-projections-to-the-dentate-gyrus-underlies-social-memory-retrieval
#17
Celeste Leung, Feng Cao, Robin Nguyen, Krutika Joshi, Afif J Aqrabawi, Shuting Xia, Miguel A Cortez, O Carter Snead, Jun Chul Kim, Zhengping Jia
Social interactions are essential to our mental health, and a deficit in social interactions is a hallmark characteristic of numerous brain disorders. Various subregions within the medial temporal lobe have been implicated in social memory, but the underlying mechanisms that tune these neural circuits remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that optical activation of excitatory entorhinal cortical perforant projections to the dentate gyrus (EC-DG) is necessary and sufficient for social memory retrieval. We further show that inducible disruption of p21-activated kinase (PAK) signaling, a key pathway important for cytoskeletal reorganization, in the EC-DG circuit leads to impairments in synaptic function and social recognition memory, and, importantly, optogenetic activation of the EC-DG terminals reverses the social memory deficits in the transgenic mice...
May 22, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791797/modulating-macrophage-polarization-through-ccr2-inhibition-and-multivalent-engagement
#18
Michael B Deci, Scott W Ferguson, Sydney L Scatigno, Juliane Nguyen
Excessive or prolonged recruitment of inflammatory monocytes to damaged tissue can significantly worsen patient outcomes. Monocytes migrate to sites of tissue inflammation in response to high local concentrations of CCL2, a chemokine that binds to and signals through the CCR2 receptor. While the role of CCR2 in cellular migration is well studied, it is unclear how CCR2 inhibition affects macrophage polarization and if multivalency can increase downstream signaling effects. Using affinity selection with a phage library, we identified a novel scFv (58C) that binds specifically and with high affinity to the N-terminal domain of CCR2 (KD = 59...
May 23, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791776/polymorphism-in-disease-related-apolipoprotein-c-ii-amyloid-fibrils-a-structural-model-for-rod-like-fibrils
#19
Courtney O Zlatic, Yu Mao, Nevena Todorova, Yee-Foong Mok, Geoffrey J Howlett, Irene Yarovsky, Paul R Gooley, Michael D W Griffin
Human apolipoprotein (apo) C-II is one of several plasma apolipoproteins that form amyloid deposits in vivo and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Lipid-free apoC-II readily self-assembles into twisted-ribbon amyloid fibrils but forms straight, rod-like amyloid fibrils in the presence of low concentrations of micellar phospholipids. Charge mutations exerted significantly different effects on rod-like fibril formation compared to their effects on twisted-ribbon fibril formation. For instance, the double mutant K30D, D69K apoC-II readily formed twisted-ribbon fibrils, while the rate of rod-like fibril formation in the presence of micellar phospholipid was negligible...
May 23, 2018: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791766/protein-regulation-by-intrinsically-disordered-regions-a-role-for-subdomains-in-the-idr-of-the-hiv-1-rev-protein
#20
Ofrah Faust, Dana Grunhaus, Odelia Shimshon, Eylon Yavin, Assaf Friedler
Intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) in proteins are highly abundant, but they are still commonly viewed as long stretches of polar, solvent accessible residues. Here we show that the disordered C-terminal domain of HIV-1 Rev has two sub-regions that carry out two distinct complementary roles of regulating oligomerization and contributing to stability. We propose this is carried out by a delicate balance between charged and hydrophobic residues within the IDR. We suggest that intrinsically disordered regions in proteins should be divided to sub domains similarly to structured regions, rather than being viewed as a long flexible stretches...
May 23, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
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