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Invasive fungal infection

Ricardo Ferrer, Rafael Zaragoza, Alejandro H Rodríguez, Emilio Maseda, Pedro Llinares, Santiago Grau, Francisco Álvarez-Lerma, Guillermo Quindós, Miguel Salavert, Rafael Huarte
BACKGROUND: Although the management of invasive fungal infection (IFI) has improved, a number of controversies persist regarding the approach to invasive fungal infection in non-neutropenic medical ward patients. AIMS: To identify the essential clinical knowledge to elaborate a set of recommendations with a high level of consensus necessary for the management of IFI in non-neutropenic medical ward patients. METHODS: A prospective, Spanish questionnaire, which measures consensus through the Delphi technique, was anonymously answered and e-mailed by 30 multidisciplinary national experts, all specialists (intensivists, anesthesiologists, microbiologists, pharmacologists and specialists in infectious diseases) in IFI and belonging to six scientific national societies...
October 18, 2016: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
Athanasios Tragiannidis, Ioannis Kyriakidis, Ilse Zündorf, Andreas H Groll
Macromolecular immunosuppressive monoclonal antibodies and fusion proteins directed against molecules or cells involved in inflammation and immunity represent a recent and important addition to our therapeutic armamentarium. Tumor necrosis alpha (TNFα) is a cytokine involved in systemic inflammation and clinical utilization of its antagonists has revolutionized treatment of juvenile rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and plaque psoriasis. Clinical utility has also been demonstrated for use against steroid-refractory graft-vs-host disease and other immune-mediated conditions...
October 21, 2016: Mycoses
Huy X Ngo, Sylvie Garneau-Tsodikova, Keith D Green
Fungal infections directly affect millions of people each year. In addition to the invasive fungal infections of humans, the plants and animals that comprise our primary food source are also susceptible to diseases caused by these eukaryotic microbes. The need for antifungals, not only for our medical needs, but also for use in agriculture and livestock causes a high demand for novel antimycotics. Herein, we provide an overview of the most commonly used antifungals in medicine and agriculture. We also present a summary of the recent progress (from 2010-2016) in the discovery/development of new agents against fungal strains of medical/agricultural relevance, as well as information related to their biological activity, their mode(s) of action, and their mechanism(s) of resistance...
July 1, 2016: MedChemComm
Nicole Robbins, Gerard D Wright, Leah E Cowen
Invasive fungal infections are becoming an increasingly important cause of human mortality and morbidity, particularly for immunocompromised populations. The fungal pathogens Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Aspergillus fumigatus collectively contribute to over 1 million human deaths annually. Hence, the importance of safe and effective antifungal therapeutics for the practice of modern medicine has never been greater. Given that fungi are eukaryotes like their human host, the number of unique molecular targets that can be exploited for drug development remains limited...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Ying Yang, Min Chen, Zongwei Li, Abdullah M S Al-Hatmi, Sybren de Hoog, Weihua Pan, Qiang Ye, Xiaochen Bo, Zhen Li, Shengqi Wang, Junzhi Wang, Huipeng Chen, Wanqing Liao
Penicillium capsulatum is a rare Penicillium species used in paper manufacturing, but recently it has been reported to cause invasive infection. To research the pathogenicity of the clinical Penicillium strain, we sequenced the genomes and transcriptomes of the clinical and environmental strains of P. capsulatum. Comparative analyses of these two P. capsulatum strains and close related strains belonging to Eurotiales were performed. The assembled genome sizes of P. capsulatum are approximately 34.4 Mbp in length and encode 11,080 predicted genes...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jay-Hyun Jo, Elizabeth A Kennedy, Heidi H Kong
Skin constantly encounters external elements, including microbes. Culture-based studies have identified fungi present on human skin and have linked some species with certain skin diseases. Moreover, modern medical treatments, especially immunosuppressants, have increased the population at risk for cutaneous and invasive fungal infections, emphasizing the need to understand skin fungal communities in health and disease. A major hurdle for studying fungal flora at a community level has been the heterogeneous culture conditions required by skin fungi...
October 18, 2016: Virulence
Fabio de Araujo Motta, Libera Maria Dalla-Costa, Marisol Dominguez Muro, Andrea Lenzi, Gledson Luiz Picharski, Marion Burger
BACKGROUND: Candida species are the primary cause of invasive fungal infection in hospitalized children. There are few data on risk factors for postoperative candidemia in pediatric patients with congenital heart defects. This study aimed to identify risk factors for candidemia in patients with congenital heart defects who underwent cardiac surgery. METHODS: This was a case-control study conducted in patients admitted to a pediatric cardiology intensive care unit from January 2006 to December 2013...
November 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Pedro Llinares, Isabel Ruiz, Rafael Zaragoza, Ricard Ferrer, Alejandro H Rodríguez, Emilio Maseda, Santiago Grau
BACKGROUND: Although in the past decade the management of invasive fungal infections has improved, a number of controversies persist regarding empirical antifungal treatment in critically-ill hematology patients. AIMS: To identify key clinical knowledge to elaborate a set of recommendations, with a high level of consensus, necessary for the approach to fungal infections in critically-ill hematology patients. METHODS: A Spanish prospective questionnaire, which measures consensus through the Delphi technique, was anonymously answered and e-mailed by 30 multidisciplinary national experts, all specialists in fungal invasive infections from six scientific national societies; intensivists, anesthesiologists, microbiologists, pharmacologists and specialists in infectious diseases...
October 14, 2016: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
Mapi Fleury, Caroline Fonzo-Christe, Charline Normand, Pascal Bonnabry
A heavily immunosuppressed, 43-kg, 9-year-old patient was recovering from a bone marrow transplant. Primary prophylaxis against invasive fungal infections was liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome(®), 2.3 mg/kg [100 mg] two times per week). Once home, following a first amphotericin B infusion, he presented with strong diarrhoea and vomiting; this was repeated after the second infusion. The clinical situation worsened rapidly and the patient was rehospitalised. On admission, he presented with acute renal failure...
December 2016: Drug Saf Case Rep
Elena M Marín Martínez, Ana Isabel Aller García, Estrella Martín-Mazuelos
BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal infection (IFI) has increased in recent years due to there being a greater number of risk factors. IFI caused by Candida is the most frequent, and although Candida albicans is the most isolated species, there is currently a decrease of C. albicans and an increase of other species of the genus. AIMS: To analyse the epidemiology, risk factors, and antifungal susceptibility of blood culture isolates of non-C.albicans Candida species in our hospital in the last 12years...
October 13, 2016: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
L F A Guimarães, M Halpern, A S de Lemos, E F de Gouvêa, R T Gonçalves, M A A da Rosa Santos, M Nucci, G Santoro-Lopes
INTRODUCTION: Invasive fungal disease (IFD) is an important complication after solid organ transplantation (SOT). A marked geographic variation in the epidemiology of IFD after kidney transplantation (KT) has been suggested by the results of previous studies. Nevertheless, data from Latin American centers are scarce. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to describe the epidemiology of IFD at a Brazilian KT center. METHODS: This study was a retrospective single-center cohort study that included patients who underwent KT between 1998 and 2009 and were followed up until July 2015...
September 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
S Marques, R Carmo, I Ferreira, M Bustorff, S Sampaio, M Pestana
BACKGROUND: In solid organ transplant patients, 8% of invasive fungal infections are attributed to Cryptococcus. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency, risk factors, clinical characteristics, and outcome of kidney transplant recipients (TR) infected with Cryptococcus. CASE SERIES: Between 2007 and 2014, a total of 500 kidney transplantations were performed at São João Hospital, in Porto, Portugal. Six infections by C. neoformans were reported, an incidence of 1...
September 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
Tanvi Shekhar-Guturja, Walters Aji Tebung, Harley Mount, Ningning Liu, Julia R Köhler, Malcolm Whiteway, Leah E Cowen
Invasive fungal infections are a leading cause of human mortality. Effective treatment is hindered by the rapid emergence of resistance to the limited number of antifungal drugs, demanding new strategies to treat life-threatening fungal infections. Here, we explore a powerful strategy to enhance antifungal efficacy using the natural product beauvericin against leading human fungal pathogens. We found that beauvericin potentiates the activity of azole antifungals against azole-resistant Candida isolates via inhibition of multidrug efflux, and that beauvericin itself is effluxed via Yor1...
October 10, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Raajeev V Hingorani, Rishi Kumar, Ashit V Hegde, Rajeev N Soman, Rasika A Sirsat, Camilla Rodrigues, Anjali Shetty
Pulmonary involvement is a fairly common complication of leptospirosis. A high dose of steroids is often used in the treatment of pulmonary leptospirosis. Here we report two cases who developed severe invasive fungal infections following the use of steroids for pulmonary leptospirosis. Routine use of steroids for pulmonary leptospirosis may do more harm than good as the evidence for this practice is sparse.
March 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Sharafine Stephen, Beula Subashini, Regi Thomas, Ajay Philip, Rajan Sundaresan
Malignant otitIs externa (skull base osteomyelitis) is predominantly caused by bacteria while fungal etiology is rare. We report a middle aged diabetic gentleman who succumbed to invasive skull base infection due to Apophysomyces elegans a fungus belonging to Zygomycetes which causes only skin and soft tissue infections. Mortality and invasive infections due to this genus is rarely reported, especially in the ear.
February 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Jordan J Allensworth, Scott H Troob, Tyler S Weaver, Javier D Gonzalez, Daniel Petrisor, Mark K Wax
OBJECTIVE: Acute invasive fungal sinusitis (AIFS) is a frequently fatal infection for which extensive and debilitating surgical debridement is a mainstay of therapy. Resulting defects are often composite in nature, mandating free tissue-transfer reconstruction. Outcomes data for free flap reconstruction are limited. The purpose of this study was to examine surgical outcomes and survival in patients undergoing free flap transfer following invasive fungal sinusitis. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series...
October 12, 2016: Laryngoscope
Aaron Smith, Vikrum Thimmappa, Brandon Shepherd, Meredith Ray, Anthony Sheyn, Jerome Thompson
BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal sinusitis (IFS) represents an often fatal condition within the pediatric population. In an effort to characterize demographics, treatment modalities, and prognostic factors, we performed a systematic review. METHODS: We systematically reviewed EMBASE, Medline, TRIPdatabase, SCOPUS and the Cochrane database for invasive fungal nasal and sinus infections limited to individuals <18 years of age. Case series including 3 or more patients were included...
November 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Y Ji, Y Q Sun, H Huang, J Chen, X Y Zhang, F Y Meng, M Z Han, D P Wu, X J Huang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 14, 2016: Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Xueyexue Zazhi
Hugh Cross, Jørn Henrik Sønstebø, Nina E Nagy, Volkmar Timmermann, Halvor Solheim, Isabella Børja, Håvard Kauserud, Tor Carlsen, Barbara Rzepka, Katarzyna Wasak, Adam Vivian-Smith, Ari M Hietala
High biodiversity is regarded as a barrier against biological invasions. We hypothesized that the invasion success of the pathogenic ascomycete Hymenoscyphus fraxineus threatening common ash in Europe relates to differences in dispersal and colonization success between the invader and the diverse native competitors. Ash leaf mycobiome was monitored by high-throughput sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) and quantitative PCR profiling of H. fraxineus DNA. Initiation of ascospore production by H...
September 26, 2016: New Phytologist
Naeimeh Fathi, Rasoul Mohammadi, Mohammad Amin Tabatabaiefar, Mohammad Ghahri, Seyedeh Zahra Sadrossadati
BACKGROUND: Candida species are the most prevalent cause of invasive fungal infections such as candidemia. Candidemia is a lethal fungal infection among immunocompromised patients worldwide. Main pathogen is Candida albicans but a global shift in epidemiology toward non-albicans species have reported. Species identification is imperative for good management of candidemia as a fatal infection. The aim of the study is to identify Candida spp. obtained from candidemia and determination of mortality rate among this population...
2016: Advanced Biomedical Research
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