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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332198/drug-delivery-and-transport-into-the-central-circulation-an-example-of-zero-order-in-vivo-absorption-of-rotigotine-from-a-transdermal-patch-formulation
#1
Willi Cawello, Marina Braun, Jens-Otto Andreas
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Pharmacokinetic studies using deconvolution methods and non-compartmental analysis to model clinical absorption of drugs are not well represented in the literature. The purpose of this research was (1) to define the system of equations for description of rotigotine (a dopamine receptor agonist delivered via a transdermal patch) absorption based on a pharmacokinetic model and (2) to describe the kinetics of rotigotine disposition after single and multiple dosing...
January 13, 2018: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331739/determination-of-atomic-scale-chemical-composition-at-semiconductor-heteroepitaxial-interfaces-by-high-resolution-transmission-electron-microscopy
#2
C Wen, Y J Ma
The determination of atomic structures and further quantitative information such as chemical compositions at atomic scale for semiconductor defects or heteroepitaxial interfaces can provide direct evidence to understand their formation, modification, and/or effects on the properties of semiconductor films. The commonly used method, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), suffers from difficulty in acquiring images that correctly show the crystal structure at atomic resolution, because of the limitation in microscope resolution or deviation from the Scherzer-defocus conditions...
January 8, 2018: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327813/computational-tools-for-the-identification-and-interpretation-of-sequence-motifs-in-immunopeptidomes
#3
REVIEW
Bruno Alvarez, Carolina Barra, Morten Nielsen, Massimo Andreatta
Recent advances in proteomics and mass-spectrometry have widely expanded the detectable peptide repertoire presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules on the cell surface, collectively known as the immunopeptidome. Finely characterizing the immunopeptidome brings about important basic insights into the mechanisms of antigen presentation, but can also reveal promising targets for vaccine development and cancer immunotherapy. In this report, we describe a number of practical and efficient approaches to analyze immunopeptidomics data, discussing the identification of meaningful sequence motifs in various scenarios and considering current limitations...
January 12, 2018: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321522/accelerated-proteomic-visualization-of-individual-predatory-venoms-of-conus-purpurascens-reveals-separately-evolved-predation-evoked-venom-cabals
#4
S W A Himaya, Frank Marí, Richard J Lewis
Cone snail venoms have separately evolved for predation and defense. Despite remarkable inter- and intra-species variability, defined sets of synergistic venom peptides (cabals) are considered essential for prey capture by cone snails. To better understand the role of predatory cabals in cone snails, we used a high-throughput proteomic data mining and visualisation approach. Using this approach, the relationship between the predatory venom peptides from nine C. purpurascens was systematically analysed. Surprisingly, potentially synergistic levels of κ-PVIIA and δ-PVIA were only identified in five of nine specimens...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320718/adiposity-and-family-history-of-type-2-diabetes-in-an-admixed-population-of-adolescents-associations-with-insulin-sensitivity-beta-cell-function-and-hepatic-insulin-extraction-in-brams-study
#5
Daniella F Camilo, Ana Carolina J Vasques, Keila Hayashi, Andrea Tura, Cleliani de Cassia da Silva, Mariana P Zambon, Maria Ângela R de G Monteiro Antônio, Bruno Geloneze
AIMS: Insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction manifest differently across racial/ethnic groups, and there is a lack of knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) for ethnically admixed adolescents. This study aimed to investigate the influence of adiposity and family history (FH) of T2DM on aspects of insulin sensitivity, beta-cell function, and hepatic insulin extraction in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS: A total of 82 normoglycemic adolescents were assessed...
January 7, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320160/efforts-aimed-to-reduce-attrition-in-antimalarial-drug-discovery-a-systematic-evaluation-of-current-antimalarial-targets-portfolio
#6
María Jesus Chaparro, Felix Calderon, Pablo Castañeda, Elena Fernandez Alvaro, Raquel Gabarro, Francisco-Javier Gamo, María G Gómez-Lorenzo, Julio Martín, Esther Fernandez
Malaria remains a major global health problem. In 2015 alone, more than 200 million cases of malaria were reported, and more than 400,000 deaths occurred. Since 2010, emerging resistance to current front-line ACTs (Artemisinin Combination Therapies) has been detected in endemic countries. Therefore, there is an urgency for new therapies based on novel modes of action, able to relieve symptoms as fast as the artemisinins and/or block malaria transmission. During the past few years, the antimalarial community has focused their efforts on phenotypic screening as a pragmatic approach to identify new hits...
January 10, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299674/kinetic-and-spectroscopic-characterization-of-tungsten-substituted-dmso-reductase-from-rhodobacter-sphaeroides
#7
Josué Pacheco, Dimitri Niks, Russ Hille
We have examined the kinetic and spectroscopic properties of a tungsten-substituted form of DMSO reductase from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, an enzyme that normally possesses molybdenum. Partial reduction with sodium dithionite yields a well-resolved W(V) EPR signal of the so-called "high-g split" type that exhibits markedly greater g-anisotropy than the corresponding Mo(V) signal of the native form of the enzyme, with the g values shifted to higher magnetic field by as much as Δgave = 0.056. Deuteration of the enzyme confirms that the coupled proton is solvent-exchangeable, allowing us to accurately simulate the tungsten hyperfine coupling...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299119/identifying-mitotane-induced-mitochondria-associated-membranes-dysfunctions-metabolomic-and-lipidomic-approaches
#8
Ségolène Hescot, Larbi Amazit, Marie Lhomme, Simon Travers, Anais DuBow, Stephanie Battini, Geoffrey Boulate, Izzie Jacques Namer, Anne Lombes, Anatol Kontush, Alessio Imperiale, Eric Baudin, Marc Lombes
Mitotane (o,p'DDD), the most effective drug in adrenocortical carcinoma, concentrates into the mitochondria and impacts mitochondrial functions. To address the molecular mechanisms of mitotane action and to identify its potential target, metabolomic and lipidomic approaches as well as imaging analyses were employed in human adrenocortical H295R cells allowing identification of Mitochondria-Associated Membranes dysfunction as a critical impact of mitotane. Study of intracellular energetic metabolites by NMR spectroscopy showed that mitotane significantly decreased aspartate while concomitantly increased glutamate content in a time- and concentration-dependent manner...
December 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297315/utilizing-random-forest-qsar-models-with-optimized-parameters-for-target-identification-and-its-application-to-target-fishing-server
#9
Kyoungyeul Lee, Minho Lee, Dongsup Kim
BACKGROUND: The identification of target molecules is important for understanding the mechanism of "target deconvolution" in phenotypic screening and "polypharmacology" of drugs. Because conventional methods of identifying targets require time and cost, in-silico target identification has been considered an alternative solution. One of the well-known in-silico methods of identifying targets involves structure activity relationships (SARs). SARs have advantages such as low computational cost and high feasibility; however, the data dependency in the SAR approach causes imbalance of active data and ambiguity of inactive data throughout targets...
December 28, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296497/correlative-three-dimensional-fluorescence-and-refractive-index-tomography-bridging-the-gap-between-molecular-specificity-and-quantitative-bioimaging
#10
Kyoohyun Kim, Wei Sun Park, Sangchan Na, Sangbum Kim, Taehong Kim, Won Do Heo, YongKeun Park
Optical diffraction tomography (ODT) provides label-free three-dimensional (3D) refractive index (RI) measurement of biological samples. However, due to the nature of the RI values of biological specimens, ODT has limited access to molecular specific information. Here, we present an optical setup combining ODT with three-channel 3D fluorescence microscopy, to enhance the molecular specificity of the 3D RI measurement. The 3D RI distribution and 3D deconvoluted fluorescence images of HeLa cells and NIH-3T3 cells are measured, and the cross-correlative analysis between RI and fluorescence of live cells are presented...
December 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296484/fast-label-free-microscopy-technique-for-3d-dynamic-quantitative-imaging-of-living-cells
#11
José A Rodrigo, Juan M Soto, Tatiana Alieva
The refractive index (RI) is an important optical characteristic that is often exploited in label-free microscopy for analysis of biological objects. A technique for 3D RI reconstruction of living cells has to be fast enough to capture the cell dynamics and preferably needs to be compatible with standard wide-field microscopes. To solve this challenging problem, we present a technique that provides fast measurement and processing of data required for real-time 3D visualization of the object RI. Specifically, the 3D RI is reconstructed from the measurement of bright-field intensity images, axially scanned by a high-speed focus tunable lens mounted in front of a sCMOS camera, by using a direct deconvolution approach designed for partially coherent light microscopy in the non-paraxial regime...
December 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295746/genuine-sildenafil-tablets-sold-in-brazil-disguised-as-mdma
#12
José Coelho Neto, Renata F P Faraco, Cíntia F Alves, Stela M M Castro, Yuri Machado
MDMA and sildenafil are two examples among many substances consumed in "raves", as well as in other types of "recreative" social events nowadays. During the first six months of 2017, five cases of supposedly MDMA tablets seized by local law enforcement forces in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, and brought to our forensic laboratory for examination, attracted our attention among dozens of others, as the tablets apprehended in these cases were, in fact, colorfully painted versions of genuine, pentagon-shaped, sildenafil tablets, freely available for sale in local pharmacies and drugstores...
December 20, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289119/s2p-core-level-spectroscopy-of-short-chain-oligothiophenes
#13
O Baseggio, D Toffoli, M Stener, G Fronzoni, M de Simone, C Grazioli, M Coreno, A Guarnaccio, A Santagata, M D'Auria
The Near-Edge X-ray-Absorption Fine-Structure (NEXAFS) and X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS) of short-chain oligothiophenes (thiophene, 2,2'-bithiophene, and 2,2':5',2″-terthiophene) in the gas phase have been measured in the sulfur L2,3-edge region. The assignment of the spectral features is based on the relativistic two-component zeroth-order regular approximation time dependent density functional theory approach. The calculations allow us to estimate both the contribution of the spin-orbit splitting and of the molecular-field splitting to the sulfur binding energies and give results in good agreement with the experimental measurements...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286405/live-images-of-glut4-protein-trafficking-in-mouse-primary-hypothalamic-neurons-using-deconvolution-microscopy
#14
Chun Austin Changou, Reni Ajoy, Szu-Yi Chou
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a global health crisis which is characterized by insulin signaling impairment and chronic inflammation in peripheral tissues. The hypothalamus in the central nervous system (CNS) is the control center for energy and insulin signal response regulation. Chronic inflammation in peripheral tissues and imbalances of certain chemokines (such as CCL5, TNFα, and IL-6) contribute to diabetes and obesity. However, the functional mechanism(s) connecting chemokines and hypothalamic insulin signal regulation still remain unclear...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285690/using-single-cell-multiple-omics-approaches-to-resolve-tumor-heterogeneity
#15
REVIEW
Michael A Ortega, Olivier Poirion, Xun Zhu, Sijia Huang, Thomas K Wolfgruber, Robert Sebra, Lana X Garmire
It has become increasingly clear that both normal and cancer tissues are composed of heterogeneous populations. Genetic variation can be attributed to the downstream effects of inherited mutations, environmental factors, or inaccurately resolved errors in transcription and replication. When lesions occur in regions that confer a proliferative advantage, it can support clonal expansion, subclonal variation, and neoplastic progression. In this manner, the complex heterogeneous microenvironment of a tumour promotes the likelihood of angiogenesis and metastasis...
December 28, 2017: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277580/in-vivo-release-of-peptide-loaded-plga-microspheres-assessed-through-deconvolution-coupled-with-mechanistic-approach
#16
Ivana Tomic, Martin Mueller-Zsigmondy, Ana Vidis-Millward, Jean-Michel Cardot
In this study, a reevaluation of the in vivo release phases from long-release PLGA-based microspheres is presented, leading to a better characterization of the plasma concentrations/time profile. Microspheres were designed for intramuscular injection releasing a cyclic somatostatin analog over 70 days. Clinical study was performed in 64 healthy subjects receiving a subcutaneous dose of an immediate release solution as reference formulation and an intramuscular injection of microspheres as test formulation. The in vivo input curve was obtained by numerical deconvolution...
December 19, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276047/overcoming-resistance-to-the-thz-series-of-covalent-transcriptional-cdk-inhibitors
#17
Yang Gao, Tinghu Zhang, Hideki Terai, Scott B Ficarro, Nicholas Kwiatkowski, Ming-Feng Hao, Bandana Sharma, Camilla L Christensen, Edmond Chipumuro, Kwok-Kin Wong, Jarrod A Marto, Peter S Hammerman, Nathanael S Gray, Rani E George
Irreversible inhibition of transcriptional cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) provides a therapeutic strategy for cancers that rely on aberrant transcription; however, lack of understanding of resistance mechanisms to these agents will likely impede their clinical evolution. Here, we demonstrate upregulation of multidrug transporters ABCB1 and ABCG2 as a major mode of resistance to THZ1, a covalent inhibitor of CDKs 7, 12, and 13 in neuroblastoma and lung cancer. To counter this obstacle, we developed a CDK inhibitor, E9, that is not a substrate for ABC transporters, and by selecting for resistance, determined that it exerts its cytotoxic effects through covalent modification of cysteine 1039 of CDK12...
December 15, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250564/measuring-arterial-wall-perfusion-using-photon-counting-computed-tomography-ct-improving-ct-number-accuracy-of-artery-wall-using-image-deconvolution
#18
Kishore Rajendran, Shuai Leng, Steven M Jorgensen, Jill L Anderson, Ahmed F Halaweish, Dilbar Abdurakhimova, Erik L Ritman, Cynthia H McCollough
Changes in arterial wall perfusion mark the onset of atherosclerosis. A characteristic change is the increased spatial density of vasa vasorum (VV), the microvessels in the arterial walls. Measuring this increased VV (IVV) density using contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) has had limited success due to blooming effects from contrast media. If the system point-spread function (PSF) is known, then the blooming effect can be modeled as a convolution between the true signal and the PSF. We report the application of image deconvolution to improve the CT number accuracy in the arterial wall of a phantom and in a porcine model of IVV density, both scanned using a whole-body research photon-counting CT scanner...
October 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248957/ancestry-inference-of-96-population-samples-using-microhaplotypes
#19
Ozlem Bulbul, Andrew J Pakstis, Usha Soundararajan, Cemal Gurkan, Jane E Brissenden, Janet M Roscoe, Baigalmaa Evsanaa, Ariunaa Togtokh, Peristera Paschou, Elena L Grigorenko, David Gurwitz, Sharon Wootton, Robert Lagace, Joseph Chang, William C Speed, Kenneth K Kidd
Microhaplotypes have become a new type of forensic marker with a great ability to identify and deconvolute mixtures because massively parallel sequencing (MPS) allows the alleles (haplotypes) of the multi-SNP loci to be determined directly for an individual. As originally defined, a microhaplotype locus is a short segment of DNA with two or more SNPs defining three or more haplotypes. The length is short enough, less than about 300 bp, that the read length of current MPS technology can produce a phase-known sequence of each chromosome of an individual...
December 16, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240313/deconvolution-of-images-from-3d-printed-cells-in-layers-on-a-chip
#20
Sean Yu, Pranav Joshi, Yi Ju Park, Kyeong-Nam Yu, Moo-Yeal Lee
Layer-by-layer cell printing is useful in mimicking layered tissue structures inside the human body and has great potential for being a promising tool in the field of tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and drug discovery. However, imaging human cells cultured in multiple hydrogel layers in 3D-printed tissue constructs is challenging as the cells are not in a single focal plane. Although confocal microscopy could be a potential solution for this issue, it compromises the throughput which is a key factor in rapidly screening drug efficacy and toxicity in pharmaceutical industries...
December 14, 2017: Biotechnology Progress
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