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Deconvolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715416/signatures-of-inflammation-and-impending-multiple-organ-dysfunction-in-the-hyperacute-phase-of-trauma-a-prospective-cohort-study
#1
Claudia P Cabrera, Joanna Manson, Joanna M Shepherd, Hew D Torrance, David Watson, M Paula Longhi, Mimoza Hoti, Minal B Patel, Michael O'Dwyer, Sussan Nourshargh, Daniel J Pennington, Michael R Barnes, Karim Brohi
BACKGROUND: Severe trauma induces a widespread response of the immune system. This "genomic storm" can lead to poor outcomes, including Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome (MODS). MODS carries a high mortality and morbidity rate and adversely affects long-term health outcomes. Contemporary management of MODS is entirely supportive, and no specific therapeutics have been shown to be effective in reducing incidence or severity. The pathogenesis of MODS remains unclear, and several models are proposed, such as excessive inflammation, a second-hit insult, or an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways...
July 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711774/a-rotating-slit-collimator-based-gamma-radiation-mapper
#2
Jonas M C Nilsson, Robert R Finck, Christopher L Rääf
For situations with radioactive material out of control where it may be physically difficult or prohibited to access areas close to the source, measurements from distance may be the only way to assess the radiation environment. Using collimated detectors will provide means to locate the direction of the radiation from the source. To investigate the possibilities of mapping gamma emitting radioactive material in a closed non-enterable area, a tentative system for mapping radioactive materials from a distance was built...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710907/distinct-contributions-of-the-fornix-and-inferior-longitudinal-fasciculus-to-episodic-and-semantic-autobiographical-memory
#3
Carl J Hodgetts, Mark Postans, Naomi Warne, Alice Varnava, Andrew D Lawrence, Kim S Graham
Autobiographical memory (AM) is multifaceted, incorporating the vivid retrieval of contextual detail (episodic AM), together with semantic knowledge that infuses meaning and coherence into past events (semantic AM). While neuropsychological evidence highlights a role for the hippocampus and anterior temporal lobe (ATL) in episodic and semantic AM, respectively, it is unclear whether these constitute dissociable large-scale AM networks. We used high angular resolution diffusion-weighted imaging and constrained spherical deconvolution-based tractography to assess white matter microstructure in 27 healthy young adult participants who were asked to recall past experiences using word cues...
June 20, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710684/utility-of-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-absorption-modeling-to-predict-the-impact-of-salt-to-base-conversion-on-prasugrel-hcl-product-bioequivalence-in-the-presence-of-proton-pump-inhibitors
#4
Jianghong Fan, Xinyuan Zhang, Liang Zhao
Prasugrel HCl may convert to prasugrel base during manufacturing or storage. It was reported that formulations with different ratios of salt to base were bioequivalent in healthy subjects, but formulations with a higher extent of conversion were not bioequivalent in subjects taking proton pump inhibitor (PPI) whose stomach pH is elevated. The objective of this study was to assess the magnitude of impact of salt-to-base conversion on prasugrel HCl products BE evaluation in healthy subjects on PPI. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) absorption model was constructed to predict pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles of active metabolite after oral administration of prasugrel HCl products containing various fractions of base based on the prasugrel salt and base intrinsic solubility...
July 14, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706728/effects-of-ageing-and-alzheimer-disease-on-haemodynamic-response-function-a-challenge-for-event-related-fmri
#5
Davud Asemani, Hassan Morsheddost, Mahsa Alizadeh Shalchy
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can generate brain images that show neuronal activity due to sensory, cognitive or motor tasks. Haemodynamic response function (HRF) may be considered as a biomarker to discriminate the Alzheimer disease (AD) from healthy ageing. As blood-oxygenation-level-dependent fMRI signal is much weak and noisy, particularly for the elderly subjects, a robust method is necessary for HRF estimation to efficiently differentiate the AD. After applying minimum description length wavelet as an extra denoising step, deconvolution algorithm is here employed for HRF estimation, substituting the averaging method used in the previous works...
June 2017: Healthcare Technology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706066/snap-deconvolution-an-informatics-approach-to-high-throughput-discovery-of-catalytic-reactions
#6
Konstantin Troshin, John F Hartwig
We present an approach to multidimensional high-throughput discovery of catalytic coupling reactions that integrates molecular design with automated analysis and interpretation of mass spectral data. We simultaneously assessed the reactivity of three pools of compounds that shared the same functional groups (halides, boronic acids, alkenes, and alkynes, among other groups) but carried inactive substituents having specifically designed differences in masses. The substituents were chosen such that the products from any class of reaction in multiple reaction sets would have unique differences in masses, thus allowing simultaneous identification of the products of all transformations in a set of reactants...
July 14, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703922/sensitivity-evaluation-and-selective-plane-imaging-geometry-for-x-ray-induced-luminescence-imaging
#7
Bryan P Quigley, Corey D Smith, Shih-Hsun Cheng, Jeffrey S Souris, Charles A Pelizzari, Chin-Tu Chen, Leu-Wei Lo, Chester S Reft, Rodney D Wiersma, Patrick J La Riviere
PURPOSE: X-ray induced luminescence (XIL) is a hybrid X-ray/optical imaging modality that employs nanophosphors that luminescence in response to X-ray irradiation. X-ray-activated phosphorescent nanoparticles have potential applications in radiation therapy as theranostics, nanodosimeters, or radiosensitizers. Extracting clinically relevant information from the luminescent signal requires the development of a robust imaging model that can determine nanophosphor distributions at depth in an optically scattering environment from surface radiance measurements...
July 13, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702592/inhibition-of-gnnqqny-prion-peptide-aggregation-by-trehalose-a-mechanistic-view
#8
Nidhi Katyal, Shashank Deep
Deposition of amyloid fibrils is the seminal event in the pathogenesis of numerous neurodegenerative diseases. The formation of this amyloid assembly is the manifestation of a cascade of structural transitions including toxic oligomer formation in the early stages of aggregation. Thus a viable therapeutic strategy involves the use of small molecular ligands to interfere with this assembly. In this perspective, we have explored the kinetics of aggregate formation of the fibril forming GNNQQNY peptide fragment from the yeast prion protein SUP35 using multiple all atom MD simulations with explicit solvent and provided mechanistic insights into the way trehalose, an experimentally known aggregation inhibitor, modulates the aggregation pathway...
July 12, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700963/application-of-dip-strs-to-sexual-physical-assault-investigations-eight-case-reports
#9
Fabio Oldoni, Vincent Castella, Diana Hall
DIP-STRs are compound markers formed by a deletion/insertion polymorphism linked to a microsatellite. They enable the deconvolution of unbalanced DNA mixtures from two individuals, up to 1000 fold excess of one contributor. In practice, this novel tool allows to test for the presence of a DNA of interest in traces appearing not useful because of the masking effect of the major DNA contributor. Thus far two sets of DIP-STRs have been published: the first set was described as proof-of-principle, while the second set was specifically developed for forensic applications...
July 1, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698403/identifying-mitotane-induced-mitochondria-associated-membranes-dysfunctions-metabolomic-and-lipidomic-approaches
#10
Ségolène Hescot, Larbi Amazit, Marie Lhomme, Simon Travers, Anais DuBow, Stéphanie Battini, Geoffrey Boulate, Izzie Jacques Namer, Anne Lombès, Anatol Kontush, Alessio Imperiale, Eric Baudin, Marc Lombès
Mitotane (o,p'DDD), the most effective drug in adrenocortical carcinoma, concentrates into the mitochondria and impacts mitochondrial functions. To address the molecular mechanisms of mitotane action and to identify its potential target, metabolomic and lipidomic approaches as well as imaging analyses were employed in human adrenocortical H295R cells allowing identification of Mitochondria-Associated Membranes dysfunction as a critical impact of mitotane. Study of intracellular energetic metabolites by NMR spectroscopy showed that mitotane significantly decreased aspartate while concomitantly increased glutamate content in a time- and concentration-dependent manner...
July 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696183/visual-system-involvement-in-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-parkinson-disease
#11
Alessandro Arrigo, Alessandro Calamuneri, Demetrio Milardi, Enricomaria Mormina, Laura Rania, Elisa Postorino, Silvia Marino, Giuseppe Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe Pio Anastasi, Maria Felice Ghilardi, Pasquale Aragona, Angelo Quartarone, Michele Gaeta
Purpose To assess intracranial visual system changes of newly diagnosed Parkinson disease in drug-naïve patients. Materials and Methods Twenty patients with newly diagnosed Parkinson disease and 20 age-matched control subjects were recruited. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted imaging) was performed with a 3-T MR imager. White matter changes were assessed by exploring a white matter diffusion profile by means of diffusion-tensor imaging-based parameters and constrained spherical deconvolution-based connectivity analysis and by means of white matter voxel-based morphometry (VBM)...
July 11, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694526/intrapatient-functional-clonality-deconvoluted-by-coupling-intracellular-flow-cytometry-and-next-generation-sequencing-in-human-leukemia
#12
Q Zhang, M C Ball, Y Zhao, M Balasis, C Letson, A Vedder, A F List, P K Epling-Burnette, R S Komrokji, E Padron
The interplay between tumor heterogeneity and microenvironmental factors is a critical mechanism for clonal selection in leukemia. Evidence of unique clonal capacities to engraft within patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models suggests that intrapatient genetic architecture may be defined by functional differences at the clonal level. However, methods to detect functional differences assigned to genetically defined clones remain limited. Here, we describe a scalable method to directly measure the functional properties of clones within the same leukemia patient by coupling intracellular flow cytometry and next-generation sequencing (NGS)...
June 21, 2017: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688583/image-improvement-method-for-positron-emission-mammography
#13
Nikolai V Slavine, Stephen J Seiler, Roderick W McColl, Robert E Lenkinski
PURPOSE: To evaluate in clinical use a rapidly converging, efficient iterative deconvolution algorithm (RSEMD) for improving the quantitative accuracy of previously reconstructed breast images by a commercial positron emission mammography (PEM) scanner. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The RSEMD method was tested on imaging data from clinical Naviscan Flex Solo II PEM scanner. This method was applied to anthropomorphic like breast phantom data and patient breast images previously reconstructed with Naviscan software to determine improvements in image resolution, signal to noise ratio (SNR) and contrast to noise ratio (CNR)...
July 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687530/comparison-of-segmental-dependent-permeability-in-human-and-in-situ-perfusion-model-in-rat
#14
Ruiz-Picazo Alejandro, Lozoya-Agullo Isabel, Ortiz-Azcarate Miguel, Merino-Sanjuán Matilde, González-Álvarez Marta, González-Álvarez Isabel, Bermejo Marival
Nowadays, alternative methods have been developed to predict intestinal permeability values in human as in vitro, in situ or ex vivo methods. They were developed by the necessity to avoid the problems of the human permeability experiments. However, determination of human permeability is needed to properly validate the alternative methods. For this reason, recently, Dahlgren et al. published an indirect method based on a deconvolution technique to estimate the human permeability in different gastrointestinal segments (jejunum, ileum and colon)...
July 4, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686886/measurement-of-neutron-spectra-in-a-silicon-filtered-neutron-beam-using-stilbene-detectors-at-the-lvr-15-research-reactor
#15
Michal Košťál, Jaroslav Šoltés, Ladislav Viererbl, Zdeněk Matěj, František Cvachovec, Vojtěch Rypar, Evžen Losa
A well-defined neutron spectrum is an essential tool for calibration and tests of spectrometry and dosimetry detectors, and evaluation methods for spectra processing. Many of the nowadays used neutron standards are calibrated against a fission spectrum which has a rather smooth energy dependence. In recent time, at the LVR-15 research reactor in Rez, an alternative approach was tested for the needs of fast neutron spectrometry detector calibration. This process comprises detector tests in a neutron beam, filtered by one meter of single-crystalline silicon, which contains several significant peaks in the fast neutron energy range...
June 27, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685762/opportunities-and-challenges-in-phenotypic-drug-discovery-an-industry-perspective
#16
REVIEW
John G Moffat, Fabien Vincent, Jonathan A Lee, Jörg Eder, Marco Prunotto
Phenotypic drug discovery (PDD) approaches do not rely on knowledge of the identity of a specific drug target or a hypothesis about its role in disease, in contrast to the target-based strategies that have been widely used in the pharmaceutical industry in the past three decades. However, in recent years, there has been a resurgence in interest in PDD approaches based on their potential to address the incompletely understood complexity of diseases and their promise of delivering first-in-class drugs, as well as major advances in the tools for cell-based phenotypic screening...
July 7, 2017: Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682396/nanoscale-clustering-of-the-neurotrophin-receptor-trkb-revealed-by-super-resolution-sted-microscopy
#17
Borislav Angelov, Angelina Angelova
The nanoscale organization of the tropomyosin-related kinase receptor type B (TrkB), a promising therapeutic target for severe neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders, is examined by stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy using the deconvoluted gated STED option. The performed immunofluorescence nanoscopic subdiffraction imaging of the membrane receptor localization reveals that clusters of oligomeric TrkB states and randomly organized nanodomains are formed in the membranes of differentiated human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, which are studied as an in vitro model of neurodegeneration...
July 6, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682247/line-detection-as-an-inverse-problem-application-to-lung-ultrasound-imaging
#18
N Anantrasirichai, Wesley Hayes, Marco Allinovi, David Bull, Alin Achim
This paper presents a novel method for line restoration in speckle images. We address this as a sparse estimation problem using both convex and non-convex optimisation techniques based on the Radon transform and sparsity regularisation. This breaks into subproblems which are solved using the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM), thereby achieving line detection and deconvolution simultaneously. We include an additional deblurring step in the Radon domain via a total variation blind deconvolution to enhance line visualisation and to improve line recognition...
June 29, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682148/pharmacokinetics-of-an-intracerebroventricularly-administered-antibody-in-rats
#19
Yuki Noguchi, Motohiro Kato, Kazuhisa Ozeki, Masaki Ishigai
The pharmacokinetics (PK) of an antibody in the brain and the spinal cord is insufficiently understood, which is an obstacle to the discovery of antibody drugs that target diseases in the central nervous system. In this study, we focused on the elimination of IgG from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulating in the brain and the spinal cord in rats, and, in order to evaluate the influence of CSF bulk flow on the clearance of IgG, also examined the PK of inulin in CSF. To monitor their concentrations in CSF, IgG and inulin were co-administered into the lateral ventricle via a catheter, and CSF was collected from the cisterna magna via another catheter time-sequentially...
July 6, 2017: MAbs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682078/insight-into-water-structure-at-the-surfactant-surfaces-and-in-micro-emulsion-confinement
#20
Chayan Dutta, Anton Svirida, Muhammet Mammetkuliyev, Marina Rukhadze, Alexander V Benderskii
Interactions with surfactant molecules can significantly alter the structure of interfacial water. We present a comparative study of water/surfactant interactions using two different spectroscopic approaches: water at planar surfactant monolayers by sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy, and interfacial water confined in reverse micelles formed by the same surfactants using infrared (IR) absorption spectroscopy. We report spectral features in the OH stretching region (3200-3700 cm(-1)) that are observed in both IR and SFG spectra, albeit with different relative amplitudes, for ionic surfactant sodium 1,4 bis 2 ethylhexylsulfosuccinate (AOT) and nonionic surfactant polyoxyethylene 4-lauryl ether (Brij L-4) reverse micelles in hexane and corresponding monolayers at the air/water interface...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
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