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Caroline A Yao, Jordan Swanson, Dayana Chanson, Trisa B Taro, Barrie Gura, Jane C Figueiredo, Heather Wipfli, Kristin Hatcher, Richard Vanderburg, William P Magee
BACKGROUND: Despite health system advances, residents of low- and middle-income countries continue to experience substantial barriers in accessing health care, particularly for specialized care such as plastic and reconstructive surgery. METHODS: A cross-sectional household survey of patients seeking surgical care for cleft lip and/or cleft palate was completed at five Operation Smile International mission sites throughout Vietnam (Hanoi, Nghe An, Hue, Ho Chi Minh City, An Giang, and Bac Lieu) in November of 2014...
November 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Thomas Nicholson, Catherine Admay, Aaron Shakow, Salmaan Keshavjee
The human rights arguments that underpinned the fight against HIV over the last three decades were poised, but ultimately failed, to provide a similar foundation for success against multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) and other diseases of the poor. With more than 1.5 million deaths since 2000 attributed to strains of MDR-TB, and with half a million new, and mostly untreated, MDR-TB cases in the world each year, the stakes could not be higher. The World Health Organization (WHO), whose mandate is to champion the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health, recommended unsound medical treatment for MDR-TB patients in resource-poor settings from 1993-2002...
June 2016: Health and Human Rights
Shri Ram
BACKGROUND: This study is a quantitative and qualitative assessment of the global research trends on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) (popularly known as Ice Bucket Challenge), through related literatures retrieved from SCOPUS multidisciplinary database for the period 1974-2013. PURPOSE: This study is aimed at analyzing the literature on ALS in terms of document type, language, annual growth, productive country, journal, authors, subject, and most cited articles...
October 2016: Annals of Neurosciences
Julia M A Sinclair, Sophia E Chambers, Christopher C Manson
AIMS: Advances in technology have led to an increased range of possibilities for forms of mutual aid in addictions, and patient empowerment in the management of long-term conditions. However, the effective processes involved may be different online than for those that meet in person. Soberistas is a 'social network site for people who are trying to resolve their problematic drinking patterns'. We aim to describe the population, component parts and processes that define this online community, and consider potential mechanisms of action for future research...
October 25, 2016: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
John C Tuthill, Rachel I Wilson
The ability of animals to flexibly navigate through complex environments depends on the integration of sensory information with motor commands. The sensory modality most tightly linked to motor control is mechanosensation. Adaptive motor control depends critically on an animal's ability to respond to mechanical forces generated both within and outside the body. The compact neural circuits of insects provide appealing systems to investigate how mechanical cues guide locomotion in rugged environments. Here, we review our current understanding of mechanosensation in insects and its role in adaptive motor control...
October 24, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Devon S Callahan, Zane Ashman, Dennis Y Kim, David S Plurad
Long bone fractures are cited as an etiology for significant blood loss; however, there is scant supporting literature. We examined the relationship between long bone fractures, blood transfusions, and solid organ injuries. We hypothesize that transfusions are rare with long bone fractures in the absence of a liver or splenic injury. We performed a retrospective analysis of patients admitted with femur, tibia, and humerus fractures. Outcomes included transfusion requirements and mortality. A total of 1837 patients were included...
October 2016: American Surgeon
Ying Jin, Huijin Chen, Xiaojian Xu, Yuntao Hu, Changguan Wang, Zhizhong Ma
PURPOSE: To determine the phases of traumatic proliferative vitreoretinopathy after open globe injury by assessing cellular components, extracellular matrix constituents of proliferative vitreoretinopathy membranes, and intraretinal changes over time. METHODS: Twenty-one epiretinal and/or subretinal membrane specimens were obtained from 21 patients with open globe injuries. The patients were divided into Groups A (≤28 days), B (29-120 days), and C (>120 days) according to the interval between injury and vitrectomy...
October 21, 2016: Retina
Ryan M J Ivie, Emily A Vail, Hannah Wunsch, Monica P Goldklang, Robert Fowler, Vivek K Moitra
OBJECTIVE: We conducted this study to determine the generalizability of information gained from randomized controlled trials in critically ill patients by assessing the incidence of eligibility for each trial. DESIGN: Prospective, observational cohort study. We identified the 15 most highly cited randomized controlled trials in critical care medicine published between 1998 and 2008. We examined the inclusion and exclusion criteria for each randomized controlled trial and then assessed the eligibility of each patient admitted to a study ICU for each randomized controlled trial and calculated rates of potential trial eligibility in the cohort...
October 24, 2016: Critical Care Medicine
Zita Ficko, Kevin Koo, Elias S Hyams
Robotic surgery continues to increase in popularity and prevalence. The adoption of robotic technology has generated controversy and frequent media coverage. We evaluate recent reports of surgical robotics in the lay press to characterize its objectivity. LexisNexis and Factiva consumer news databases were queried for articles pertaining to robotic surgery published during 2010-2015 in the three highest circulation national (US) newspapers as well as New England regional newspapers. Two independent reviewers performed content analysis and assessed headline bias with strong reliability (mean κ = 0...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Robotic Surgery
Ethan Groves, Christopher S Palenik, Skip Palenik
The characterization and identification of dyes in fibers can be used to provide investigative leads and strengthen associations between known and questioned items of evidence. The isolation of a dye from its matrix (e.g., a textile fiber) permits detailed characterization, comparison and, in some cases, identification using methods such as thin layer chromatography in conjunction with infrared and Raman spectroscopy. A survey of dye extraction publications reveals that pyridine:water (4:3) is among the most commonly cited extraction solvent across a range of fiber and dye chemistries...
March 25, 2016: Forensic Science International
Isabel E Kenny, Sahrai Saeed, Eva Gerdts, Helga Midtbø, Hilde Halland, Mai T Lønnebakken
BACKGROUND: Masked hypertension (MHT), defined as normal office blood pressure (BP) but high ambulatory BP, has been associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Although MHT has been associated with obesity, there is limited knowledge on the prevalence and covariates of MHT in obese cohorts. METHODS: Office and ambulatory BP recordings and other cardiovascular risk factors were assessed in 323 obese participants included in the fat-associated cardiovascular dysfunction study (mean age 48...
October 21, 2016: Blood Pressure Monitoring
Megan Quinn, Sheila Gephart
BACKGROUND: Palliative care is a holistic framework that is designed to improve quality of life by identifying and treating distressing symptoms of life-threatening or complex conditions. Neonatal palliative care (NPC) has potential benefits for parents, staff, and patients, yet evidence suggests that implementation and utilization of organized NPC services are low. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to answer the clinical question: In neonatal intensive care, what evidence can be used to guide implementation of palliative care protocols? SEARCH STRATEGY: A literature search was conducted using CINAHL (Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature), PubMed, and the Cochrane Library databases...
October 22, 2016: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
Taylor Braunberger, Darren Lynn, Christie Reimer, Monica Doctor, Mary K Hill, Jessica Mounessa, Cory A Dunnick
BACKGROUND: Contact dermatitis (CD) has been assessed by numerous disease severity indices resulting in heterogeneity across published research. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate published CD severity scales and identify a criterion standard for assessment. METHODS: Scopus and Ovid MEDLINE were searched for human randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on CD severity measures published during a 10-year period. Eligible studies were English-language RCTs reporting disease severity outcome measures for CD in humans...
October 21, 2016: Dermatitis
Desmond H Y Tse, Christopher J Wiggins, Benedikt A Poser
PURPOSE: In order to fully benefit from the improved signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios at 9.4T, the challenges of B1+ inhomogeneity and the long acquisition time of high-resolution 2D gradient-recalled echo (GRE) imaging were addressed. THEORY AND METHODS: Flip angle homogenized excitations were achieved by parallel transmission (pTx) of 3-spoke pulses, designed by magnitude least-squares optimization in a slice-by-slice fashion; the acquisition time reduction was achieved by simultaneous multislice (SMS) pulses...
October 23, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Seketoulie Keretsu, Rosy Sarmah
: Protein complex detection from protein-protein interaction (PPI) network has received a lot of focus in recent years. A number of methods identify protein complexes as dense sub-graphs using network information while several other methods detect protein complexes based on topological information. While the methods based on identifying dense sub-graphs are more effective in identifying protein complexes, not all protein complexes have high density. Moreover, existing methods focus more on static PPI networks and usually overlook the dynamic nature of protein complexes...
October 8, 2016: Computational Biology and Chemistry
Nigel Lee, Sue Kildea, Helen Stapleton
PROBLEM/BACKGROUND: Sterile water injections (SWI) are gaining popularity amongst women and midwives for the relief of back pain in labour. However the brief but intense pain associated with the injection has been cited as a deterrent to use and may negatively affect the birth experience. AIM: To explore women's experiences of using sterile water injections as analgesia for back pain in labour. DESIGN: A qualitative study, which generated data through individual semi-structured interviews with postnatal women...
October 19, 2016: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
Jonathan A Dunne, Justin C R Wormald, Reshma Ghedia, Mark Soldin
INTRODUCTION: National guidelines for commissioning of body contouring surgery (BCS) following massive weight loss (MWL) in England were published in 2014. Nearly three-quarters of patients who have MWL seek BCS; however, access is known to vary according to the region. The aim of national guidelines was to standardise access. The purpose of this study was to determine implementation of the national guidelines by clinical commissioning groups (CCGs) in England. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional, web-based survey was sent to all CCG chairs in England...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
Amanda Reichard, Michelle Stransky, Kimberly Phillips, Monica McClain, Charles Drum
BACKGROUND: While it is commonly accepted that disparities in unmet need for care vary by age, race/ethnicity, income, education, and access to care, literature documenting unmet needs experienced by adults with different types of disabilities is developing. OBJECTIVE: The main objective was to determine whether subgroups of people with disabilities are more likely than people without disabilities to delay/forgo necessary care, in general and among the insured. METHODS: We used pooled Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data (2004-2010) to examine delaying or forgoing medical, dental, and pharmacy care among five disability subgroups (physical, cognitive, visual, hearing, multiple) and the non-disabled population...
September 13, 2016: Disability and Health Journal
Sun-Kyeong Park, Seung-Hoo Park, Min-Young Lee, Ji-Hyun Park, Jae-Hong Jeong, Eui-Kyung Lee
PURPOSE: In south Korea, the price of biologics has been decreasing owing to patent expiration and the availability of biosimilars. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of a treatment strategy initiated with etanercept (ETN) compared with leflunomide (LFN) after a 30% reduction in the medication cost of ETN in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with an inadequate response to methotrexate (MTX-IR). METHODS: A cohort-based Markov model was designed to evaluate the lifetime cost-effectiveness of treatment sequence initiated with ETN (A) compared with 2 sequences initiated with LFN: LFN-ETN sequence (B) and LFN sequence (C)...
October 19, 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
George J Greene, Greg Swann, Angela J Fought, Alex Carballo-Diéguez, Thomas J Hope, Patrick F Kiser, Brian Mustanski, Richard T D'Aquila
HIV prevention method preferences were evaluated among 512 U.S. men who have sex with men (MSM; median age: 22 years). Approximately 90 % consistently preferred one option across pairwise comparisons of condoms, daily oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), and long-acting PrEP delivered via either an injectable or one of two types of PrEP implants differing in visibility. Condoms were most frequently preferred (33.8 %), followed by non-visible implants (21.5 %), and oral PrEP (17.0 %); HIV risk was reported by more choosing implants...
October 21, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
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