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Erika L Rangel, Douglas S Smink, Manuel Castillo-Angeles, Gifty Kwakye, Marguerite Changala, Adil H Haider, Gerard M Doherty
Importance: Although family priorities influence specialty selection and resident attrition, few studies describe resident perspectives on pregnancy during surgical training. Objective: To directly assess the resident experience of childbearing during training. Design, Setting, and Participants: A self-administered 74-question survey was electronically distributed in January 2017 to members of the Association of Women Surgeons, to members of the Association of Program Directors in Surgery listserv, and through targeted social media platforms...
March 21, 2018: JAMA Surgery
Luciana Alves Bandeira, Maxuel Cruz Dos Santos, Êrica Rosalba Mallmann Duarte, Andrea Gonçalves Bandeira, Deise Lisboa Riquinho, Letícia Becker Vieira
OBJECTIVE: To describe the social networks of patients with chronic skin damages. METHOD: A qualitative study conducted through semi-structured interviews with nine subjects with chronic skin lesions from June 2016 to March 2017; we used the theoretical-methodological framework of Lia Sanicola's Social Network. RESULTS: The analysis of the relational maps revealed that the primary network was formed mainly by relatives and neighbors; its characteristics, such as: reduced size, low density and few exchanges/relationships, configures fragility in these links...
2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Gao-Wu Yan, Anup Bhetuwal, Guo-Qing Yang, Quan-Shui Fu, Na Hu, Lin-Wei Zhao, Hong Chen, Xiao-Ping Fan, Jing Yan, Hao Zeng, Qing Zhou
RATIONALE: Congenital absence of the right coronary artery (RCA) is a rare congenital malformation of the cardiovascular system which may have fatal consequences. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 63-year-old man with a 5-year history of chest pain after exertion which had aggravated for >1 month was advised for admission and computed tomography angiography (CTA) examination of the coronary artery to screen for coronary artery disease (CAD). DIAGNOSES: The coronary artery CTA showed absence of RCA arising form the aortic root after which a selective coronary angiography (SCA) examination was done that confirmed the diagnosis of congenital absence of RCA...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Ivo J Kruyt, Rik C Nelissen, Emmanuel A M Mylanus, Myrthe K S Hol
OBJECTIVE: To compare 3-year implant stability, survival, and tolerability of a 4.5-mm-wide (test) and a 3.75-mm-wide (control) percutaneous titanium implant for bone-conduction hearing, loaded with the sound processor after 3 weeks. METHODS: Sixty implants were allocated in a 2:1 ratio (test-control) in 57 adult patients included in this prospective randomized controlled clinical trial. Follow-up visits were performed at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days; 6 and 12 weeks; 6 months; and at 1, 2, and 3 years after implantation...
March 20, 2018: Otology & Neurotology
Susanna Esposito, Manuel E Soto-Martinez, Wojciech Feleszko, Marcus H Jones, Kun-Ling Shen, Urs B Schaad
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an overview of the mechanistic and clinical evidence for the use of nonspecific immunomodulators in paediatric respiratory tract infection (RTI) and wheezing/asthma prophylaxis. RECENT FINDINGS: Nonspecific immunomodulators have a long history of empirical use for the prevention of RTIs in vulnerable populations, such as children. The past decade has seen an increase in both the number and quality of studies providing mechanistic and clinical evidence for the prophylactic potential of nonspecific immunomodulators against both respiratory infections and wheezing/asthma in the paediatric population...
March 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Haleh Saadat, Zeev N Kain
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review examines the different preventive measures that have been found to be useful to abolish or decrease the negative effects of burnout and increase resilience in anesthesiologists. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies in anesthesiology cite autonomy, control of the work environment, professional relationships, leadership, and organizational justice as the most important factors in job satisfaction. Factors such as difficulty in balancing personal and professional life, poor attention to wellness, work alcoholism, and genetic factors increase an individual's susceptibility to burnout...
March 19, 2018: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
Juri L Habicht, Claudia Kiessling, Andreas Winkelmann
The International Federation of Associations of Anatomists (IFAA) recommended in 2012 that only donated bodies be used for anatomy teaching and research. However, in many countries around the world, anatomists still depend on bodies that do not stem from voluntary donations by the deceased, but rather are "unclaimed." A broad search of the literature was conducted to produce a baseline overview of the sources of cadavers used for anatomy teaching in undergraduate medical curricula on a global scale...
March 20, 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Atta Abbas Naqvi, Rizwan Ahmad, Fatima Zehra, Raafia Yousuf, Bharti Kachela, Muhammad Nehal Nadir
This study was conducted among pharmacy students in Karachi, Pakistan, to document prevalence, opinions and their attitudes toward dietary supplement (DS) use. A cross-sectional study was conducted for a period of four months. The study used a specially formulated dietary supplement questionnaire (DSQ). The prevalence of DS use was reported at 48.2%: 51% in males and 47.3% in females. Physician recommendation was cited by majority of students as reason for DS use (n = 153, 25%). Most of the students used multivitamins (n = 315, 51...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Dietary Supplements
Guillermo Chiappe, Enrique Louis, J A Verges
Electronic polarizability of finite chains is accurately calculated from the total energy
 variation of the system produced by small but finite static electric fields applied
 along the chain direction. Normalized polarizability, that is, polarizability divided
 by chain length, diverges as the second power of length for metallic systems but
 approaches a constant value for insulating systems. This behaviour provides a very convenient
 way to characterize the wave--function malleability of finite systems as it avoids the
 need of attaching infinite contacts to the chain ends...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Paulo M Serôdio, Martin McKee, David Stuckler
OBJECTIVE: To (i) evaluate the extent to which Coca-Cola's 'Transparency Lists' of 218 researchers that it funds are comprehensive; (ii) map all scientific research acknowledging funding from Coca-Cola; (iii) identify those institutions, authors and research topics funded by Coca-Cola; and (iv) use Coca-Cola's disclosure to gauge whether its funded researchers acknowledge the source of funding. DESIGN: Using Web of Science Core Collection database, we retrieved all studies declaring receipt of direct funding from the Coca-Cola brand, published between 2008 and 2016...
March 21, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
Martina Larsson, Pollyanna Cohen, Gayle Hann, Sarah M Creighton, Deborah Hodes
This pilot study researched the attitudes towards and the knowledge of female genital mutilation (FGM) in adult women with FGM and their partners. The participant population consisted of English-speaking women and men over 18 years old attending specialist FGM clinics in two London hospitals. The participants completed a questionnaire on the attitudes and the knowledge of FGM, which were adapted with permission from the United Nations Children's Fund and the United States Agency for International Development household surveys...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
David Fraser, Katherine E Koralesky, Geoff Urton
Animal protection law in Canada varies across the country. Federal animal protection law exists in the Criminal Code, in regulations for the transport of animals, and in regulations for humane handling and slaughter at abattoirs that are inspected by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency. Provincial animal protection laws often include provisions that i) describe a duty of care toward animals; ii) prohibit causing or permitting animal "distress;" iii) specify exemptions from prosecution; and iv) reference various national and other standards...
March 2018: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
Ibrahim Saleh Al-Busaidi, Gregory Patrick Tarr
PURPOSE: To examine factors associated with successful publications resulting from mandatory public health research training attachment, the Trainee Intern Health Care Evaluation (TIHE) projects, at the University of Otago, Dunedin School of Medicine, New Zealand. METHODS: A total of 227 TIHE projects completed during the period from January 1985 to December 2013 were included in the study. In February 2016, Medline and Google Scholar databases were searched independently by both authors for publications using predefined search criteria...
March 20, 2018: Postgraduate Medical Journal
Pia Noel, Cliodhna Cork, Ross G White
Social capital (SC) is highlighted as an important factor for post-crisis mental health outcomes. However, the heterogeneous nature of the construct makes it difficult to get a clear picture of the evidence concerning the association between SC indices and mental health. This review examines how SC is conceptualized and measured, and the relationships with other variables in quantitative empirical studies investigating the associations between SC and mental health in post-disaster and post-conflict contexts...
March 21, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Donna Koller, Sherry Espin
Despite the prevalence of medical errors in pediatrics, little research examines stakeholder perspectives on the disclosure of adverse events, particularly in the case of children's own perspectives. Stakeholder perspectives, however, are integral to informing processes for pediatric disclosure. Building on a systematic review of the literature, this article presents findings from a series of focus groups with key pediatric stakeholders where perspectives were sought on the disclosure of medical errors. Focus groups were conducted with three stakeholder groups...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Child Health Care: for Professionals Working with Children in the Hospital and Community
Deborah Toppenberg-Pejcic, Jane Noyes, Tomas Allen, Nyka Alexander, Marsha Vanderford, Gaya Gamhewage
A rapid review of gray literature from 2015 to 2016 was conducted to identify the lessons learned for emergency risk communication from recent outbreaks of Ebola, Zika, and yellow fever. Gray literature databases and key websites were searched and requests for documents were posted to expert networks. A total of 83 documents met inclusion criteria, 68 of which are cited in this report. This article focuses on the 3 questions, out of 12 posed by World Health Organization as part of a Guideline development process, dealing most directly with communicating risk during health emergencies: community engagement, trust building, and social media...
March 20, 2018: Health Communication
Alison Callahan, Rainer Winnenburg, Nigam H Shah
Measuring the usage of informatics resources such as software tools and databases is essential to quantifying their impact, value and return on investment. We have developed a publicly available dataset of informatics resource publications and their citation network, along with an associated metric (u-Index) to measure informatics resources' impact over time. Our dataset differentiates the context in which citations occur to distinguish between 'awareness' and 'usage', and uses a citing universe of open access publications to derive citation counts for quantifying impact...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Data
William J Cottam, Sarina J Iwabuchi, Marianne M Drabek, Diane Reckziegel, Dorothee P Auer
Resting-state functional connectivity (FC) has proven a powerful approach to understand the neural underpinnings of chronic pain, reporting altered connectivity in three main networks: the default mode (DMN), central executive (CEN), and the salience network (SN). The interrelation and possible mechanisms of these changes are less well understood in chronic pain. Based on emerging evidence of its role to drive switches between network states, the right anterior insula (rAI, an SN hub) may play a dominant role in network connectivity changes underpinning chronic pain...
March 16, 2018: Pain
Zhihui Lu, Nana Song, Bo Shen, XiaLian Xu, Yi Fang, Yiqin Shi, Yichun Ning, Jiachang Hu, Yan Dai, Xiaoqiang Ding, Jianzhou Zou, Jie Teng
BACKGROUND: The hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) target pathway plays pivotal renoprotective roles after acute kidney injury (AKI). Syndecan-1 serves as the co-receptor for HGF. Shedding of syndecan-1 is involved in various pathological processes. Thus, we hypothesized that IRI induced syndecan-1 shedding and inhibiting syndecan-1 shedding would protect against kidney injury by potentiating activation of the HGF receptor c-Met. METHODS: Expression of syndecan-1 and its sheddases were observed in kidneys of sham and I/R mice...
March 20, 2018: Transplantation
Ramsey Hachem, Paul Corris
BACKGROUND: Lung transplantation is a therapeutic option for select patients with end-stage lung disease. However, successful lung transplantation is hampered by chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD), in particular bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). Although there is no approved or standard treatment for BOS, which may have several distinct phenotypes, extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) has shown promising results in patients who develop BOS refractory to azithromycin treatment...
March 19, 2018: Transplantation
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