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glucose and Dopamine

Adele Bahar, Zahra Kashi, Ezzatossadat Daneshpour, Ozra Akha, Shahram Ala
BACKGROUND: Cabergoline is a long-acting agonist of dopamine, which has a high affinity to dopamine receptors (type 2). Treatment using a dopaminergic agonist reduces hypothalamic stimulation that increases during liver gluconeogenesis, lipids synthesis, and insulin resistance. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of cabergoline on blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). METHODS: This study was a double-blind, controlled clinical trial in patients with type 2 DM...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Miao Ai, Zhiyun Du, Siqi Zhu, Hongjuan Geng, Xu Zhang, Qing Cai, Xiaoping Yang
OBJECTIVE: The object is to find a functional one-dimensional nanofibrous filler for composite resin, which is able to provide both efficient reinforcement and high antibacterial activity. METHODS: Hydroxyapatite (HA) nanowires were synthesized via hydrothermal technique using calcium oleate as the precursor. Polydopamine (PDA)-coated HA (HA-PDA) nanowires were prepared by soaking HA nanowires in dopamine (DA) aqueous solution. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)-laden HA (HA-PDA-Ag) nanowires were prepared via reduction reaction by adding silver nitrate and glucose into HA-PDA suspensions in DI water...
October 10, 2016: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
Jing Qiu, Zhongjun Yan, Kai Tao, Yansong Li, Yuqian Li, Jingchen Li, Yushu Dong, Dayun Feng, Huisheng Chen
BACKGROUND: Astrocyte-mediated neuroinflammation plays a critical role in ischemic stroke-induced secondary cerebral injury. Previous studies have suggested that the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) acts as a key target in regulating the neuroinflammatory response. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are still unknown, and effective DRD2 agonists are lacking. In the present study, we examined the anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of sinomenine (Sino), a monomeric compound with potential immunoregulatory properties in nervous system...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Yunfei Yuan, Yupeng Zhao, Jiali Yang, Yueming Jiang, Fei Lu, Yongxia Jia, Bao Yang
Banana is a tropical fruit widely accepted by people over the world. Its chemical composition is critical for its organoleptic properties and nutritional value. In this work, the metabolite changes during postharvest senescence were investigated using NMR spectroscopy. The 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic information revealed the primary and secondary metabolites in banana fruit, including organic acids, amino acids, carbohydrates and phenolics. Bananas at five senescence stages showed similar chemical profiles, but the levels of the individual compounds varied to a large extent...
March 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Khanh V Doan, Ann W Kinyua, Dong Joo Yang, Chang Mann Ko, Sang Hyun Moh, Ko Eun Shong, Hail Kim, Sang-Kyu Park, Dong-Hoon Kim, Inki Kim, Ji-Hye Paik, Ronald A DePinho, Seul Gi Yoon, Il Yong Kim, Je Kyung Seong, Yun-Hee Choi, Ki Woo Kim
Dopaminergic (DA) neurons are involved in the integration of neuronal and hormonal signals to regulate food consumption and energy balance. Forkhead transcriptional factor O1 (FoxO1) in the hypothalamus plays a crucial role in mediation of leptin and insulin function. However, the homoeostatic role of FoxO1 in DA system has not been investigated. Here we report that FoxO1 is highly expressed in DA neurons and mice lacking FoxO1 specifically in the DA neurons (FoxO1 KO(DAT)) show markedly increased energy expenditure and interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT) thermogenesis accompanied by reduced fat mass and improved glucose/insulin homoeostasis...
2016: Nature Communications
Haiyan Zhang, Sen Liu
Cobalt oxide (Co3O4)-based materials have been extensively investigated as efficient electrocatalysts for non-enzymatic glucose biosensing. The proper tuning the structure of Co3O4-based materials could improve sensing performances for glucose detection. Herein, we have developed a combined self-assembly and calcination method to prepare nanoparticles-assembled Co3O4 nanosheets, which exhibit good sensing performances for glucose biosensing. The Co3O4 nanosheets were prepared by the following three steps: (i) the Co(2+) modified graphene oxide (GO) was prepared by the self-assembly of Co(2+) and GO in aqueous solution firstly, and then Co(2+) modified GO film was obtained by vacuum filtration method; (ii) after calcination of Co(2+) modified GO film in N2 atmosphere, Co3O4 nanoparticles modified reduced GO (RGO) was obtained; (iii) finally, nanoparticles-assembled Co3O4 nanosheets were obtained by calcination of Co3O4 modified RGO in air to remove RGO template...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Daysi Diaz-Diestra, Bibek Thapa, Juan Beltran-Huarac, Brad R Weiner, Gerardo Morell
Dopamine (DA) is one of the most important catecholamine neurotransmitters of the human central nervous system, and is involved in many behavioral responses and brain functions. Below normal DA levels in biological fluids can lead to different neurodegenerative conditions. For excess DA levels, a failure in energy metabolism is indicated. In this study, a facile room-temperature phosphorescence sensor is developed to detect DA based on l-cysteine capped Mn doped ZnS quantum dots (l-cys ZnS:Mn QDs). The QDs display a prominent orange emission band peaking at ~598nm, which is strongly quenched upon addition of DA in alkaline medium...
September 12, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Karen P Briski, Fahaad S H Alenazi, Manita Shakya, Paul W Sylvester
Estradiol (E) mitigates acute and postacute adverse effects of 12 hr-food deprivation (FD) on energy balance. Hindbrain 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulates hyperphagic and hypothalamic metabolic neuropeptide and norepinephrine responses to FD in an E-dependent manner. Energy-state information from AMPK-expressing hindbrain A2 noradrenergic neurons shapes neural responses to metabolic imbalance. Here we investigate the hypothesis that FD causes divergent changes in A2 AMPK activity in E- vs...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Julie A D Dela Cruz, Tricia Coke, Richard J Bodnar
This study uses cellular c-fos activation to assess effects of novel ingestion of fat and sugar on brain dopamine (DA) pathways in rats. Intakes of sugars and fats are mediated by their innate attractions as well as learned preferences. Brain dopamine, especially meso-limbic and meso-cortical projections from the ventral tegmental area (VTA), has been implicated in both of these unlearned and learned responses. The concept of distributed brain networks, wherein several sites and transmitter/peptide systems interact, has been proposed to mediate palatable food intake, but there is limited evidence empirically demonstrating such actions...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Erik Mille, Johannes Levin, Matthias Brendel, Christian Zach, Henryk Barthel, Osama Sabri, Kai Bötzel, Peter Bartenstein, Adrian Danek, Axel Rominger
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The corticobasal syndrome (CBS) is a clinical diagnosis that comprises a group of rare neurodegenerative diseases manifesting in movement disorder and cognitive impairment. While diagnosis is based upon clinical criteria, there have been a number of molecular imaging studies, albeit in rather small cohorts. Therefore, we investigated the pattern of cerebral glucose metabolism, as well as dopamine transporter (DAT) availability in a large and clinically well-defined cohort...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
Chao-Wei Huang, Tzu-Wen Hong, Ying-Jing Wang, Ko-Chien Chen, Ju-Chun Pei, Tai-Yuan Chuang, Wen-Sung Lai, Sheng-Hong Tsai, Richard Chu, Wei-Cheng Chen, Lee-Yan Sheen, Satoru Takahashi, Shih-Torng Ding, Tang-Long Shen
BACKGROUND: A newly defined Cordyceps species, Ophiocordyceps formosana (O. formosana) has been implicated in multitudinous bioactivities, including lowering glucose and cholesterol levels and modulating the immune system. However, few literatures demonstrate sufficient evidence to support these proposed functions. Although the use of Cordyceps spp. has been previously addressed to improve insulin insensitivity and improve the detrimental symptoms of depression; its mechanistic nature remains unsettled...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Renata P Lerner, Zisis Bimpisidis, Stergiani Agorastos, Sandra Scherrer, Stephen L Dewey, M Angela Cenci, David Eidelberg
Dissociation of vasomotor and metabolic responses to levodopa has been observed in human subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD) studied with PET and in autoradiograms from 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rat. In both species, acute levodopa administration was associated with increases in basal ganglia cerebral blood flow (CBF) with concurrent reductions in cerebral metabolic rate (CMR) for glucose in the same brain regions. In this study, we used a novel dual-tracer microPET technique to measure CBF and CMR levodopa responses in the same animal...
August 17, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
Verena Schwetz, Rosaria Librizzi, Christian Trummer, Georg Theiler, Claudia Stiegler, Thomas R Pieber, Barbara Obermayer-Pietsch, Stefan Pilz
Previous studies suggest that hyperprolactinaemia might have adverse effects on lipid and glucose metabolism. We therefore aimed to evaluate whether dopamine agonist treatment with cabergoline has significant effects on blood lipids, fasting glucose and HbA1c levels in patients with micro- or macroprolactinoma. In this retrospective observational study the main outcome measures are changes in parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism compared at hyperprolactinaemia and after achievement of normoprolactinaemia by cabergoline treatment...
August 15, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
Siti Nur Akmar Mohd Yazid, Illyas Md Isa, Norhayati Hashim
This paper presents the fabrication of a highly sensitive and selective glucose sensor based on cuprous oxide/graphene nanocomposites-modified glassy carbon electrode (Cu2O/graphene/GCE). The Cu2O/graphene nanocomposites were synthesized based on a simple and straightforward chemical reduction process in alkaline aqueous solution using sodium carbonate as reductant. The size and shape of Cu2O nanoparticles on graphene sheets can be controlled by changing the amount of graphene oxide added during reaction. The electrochemical properties of Cu2O/graphene/GCE in 0...
November 1, 2016: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Brittany Caldwell, Alessandro Ustione, David W Piston
Insulin secretion defects are central to the development of type II diabetes mellitus. Glucose stimulation of insulin secretion has been extensively studied, but its regulation by other stimuli such as incretins and neurotransmitters is not as well understood. We investigated the mechanisms underlying the inhibition of insulin secretion by dopamine, which is synthesized in pancreatic β-cells from circulating L-dopa. Previous research has shown that this inhibition is mediated primarily by activation of the dopamine receptor D3 subtype (DRD3), even though both DRD2 and DRD3 are expressed in β-cells...
August 9, 2016: Biophysical Journal
Ryusaku Matsumoto, Masako Izawa, Hidenori Fukuoka, Genzo Iguchi, Yukiko Odake, Kenichi Yoshida, Hironori Bando, Kentaro Suda, Hitoshi Nishizawa, Michiko Takahashi, Naoko Inoshita, Shozo Yamada, Wataru Ogawa, Yutaka Takahashi
Most of acromegaly is caused by a sporadic somatotropinoma and a couple of novel gene mutations responsible for somatotropinoma have recently been reported. To determine the cause of sporadic somatotropinoma in Japanese patients, we analyzed 61 consecutive Japanese patients with somatotropinoma without apparent family history. Comprehensive genetic analysis revealed that 31 patients harbored guanine nucleotide-binding protein, alpha stimulating (GNAS) mutations (50.8%) and three patients harbored aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) mutations (4...
August 6, 2016: Endocrine Journal
Doaa S Ibrahim
The central nervous system is one of the most vulnerable organs affected by the oxidative stress associated with diabetes mellitus. Healthy food provides an important source for antioxidants. Therefore, the protective effect of Cucumis melo var. flexuosus (C. melo var. flexuosus) leaf extract on the brains of diabetic rats was investigated. Adult male albino rats divided into 5 groups of 6 rats each were assigned into a normal control group and four diabetic groups. Diabetes was induced in rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ; 60 mg/kg bw)...
August 3, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
Jacqueline A Bayliss, Moyra B Lemus, Vanessa V Santos, Minh Deo, Jeffrey S Davies, Bruce E Kemp, John D Elsworth, Zane B Andrews
Metformin is a widely prescribed drug used to treat type-2 diabetes, although recent studies show it has wide ranging effects to treat other diseases. Animal and retrospective human studies indicate that Metformin treatment is neuroprotective in Parkinson's Disease (PD), although the neuroprotective mechanism is unknown, numerous studies suggest the beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis may be through AMPK activation. In this study we tested whether or not AMPK activation in dopamine neurons was required for the neuroprotective effects of Metformin in PD...
2016: PloS One
Stanley S Schwartz, Farhad Zangeneh
OBJECTIVES: To provide an evidence-based practice overview on the clinical use of bromocriptine-quick release (QR) across the natural history of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: Articles for inclusion were selected after a comprehensive literature search of English-language PubMed articles and identification of other relevant references through other sources. Inclusion criteria were animal studies examining the mechanism of action and efficacy of bromocriptine, and clinical studies examining the safety and efficacy of bromocriptine-QR in patients with T2DM, without a time limitation...
July 22, 2016: Postgraduate Medicine
Giuseppe Perruolo, Davide Viggiano, Francesca Fiory, Angela Cassese, Cecilia Nigro, Antonietta Liotti, Claudia Miele, Francesco Beguinot, Pietro Formisano
Neurological abnormalities, such as Parkinson-like disorders (PlD), are often co-morbidities of Type 2 Diabetic (T2D) patients, although the epidemiological link between these two disorders remains controversial. The PED/PEA-15 protein represents a possible candidate linking T2D and PD, because it is increased in subjects with T2D and is highly expressed in the brain. To test this hypothesis, we have analyzed the neurological and neurochemical phenotype of transgenic mice overexpressing PED/PEA-15 (tgPED). These mice develop impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance, accompanied by neurological features resembling PlD: feet clasping, slow and delayed locomotor movements in different behavioral tests in absence of clear cognitive deficits, ataxia or anxiety...
2016: Scientific Reports
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