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glucose and Dopamine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089444/pre-synaptic-regulation-of-leptin-in-a-defined-lateral-hypothalamus-ventral-tegmental-area-neurocircuitry-depends-on-energy-state
#1
Jing-Jing Liu, Nicholas T Bello, Zhiping P Pang
Synaptic transmission controls information flow in the brain and expression of all brain-related behaviors, including food intake. Leptin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, acts on neurons located in the lateral hypothalamus (LHA) to maintain energy homeostasis and regulate food intake behavior. The specific synaptic mechanisms, cell types and neural projections mediating this effect remain unclear. In male mice, using pathway-specific retrograde tracing, whole cell patch clamp recordings and posthoc cell type identification, we found that leptin reduces excitatory synaptic strength onto both melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and orexin-expressing neurons projecting from the LHA to the ventral tegmental area (VTA), which may affect dopamine signaling and motivation for feeding...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068793/use-of-fast-scan-cyclic-voltammetry-to-assess-phasic-dopamine-release-in-rat-models-of-early-postpartum-maternal-behavior-and-neglect
#2
Tatiana A Shnitko, Kyla D Mace, Kaitlin M Sullivan, W Kyle Martin, Elizabeth H Andersen, Sarah K Williams Avram, Josephine M Johns, Donita L Robinson
Maternal behavior (MB) is a complex response to infant cues, orchestrated by postpartum neurophysiology. Although mesolimbic dopamine contributes toward MB, little is known about real-time dopamine fluctuations during the postpartum period. Thus, we used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to measure individual dopamine transients in the nucleus accumbens of early postpartum rats and compared them with dopamine transients in virgins and in postpartum females exposed to cocaine during pregnancy, which is known to disrupt MB...
December 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066136/ability-of-higenamine-and-related-compounds-to-enhance-glucose-uptake-in-l6-cells
#3
Eisuke Kato, Shunsuke Kimura, Jun Kawabata
β2-Adrenergic receptor (β2AR) agonists are employed as bronchodilators to treat pulmonary disorders, but are attracting attention for their modulation of glucose handling and energy expenditure. Higenamine is a tetrahydroisoquinoline present in several plant species and has β2AR agonist activity, but the involvement of each functional groups in β2AR agonist activity and its effectiveness compared with endogenous catecholamines (dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine) has rarely been studied. Glucose uptake of muscle cells are known to be induced through β2AR activation...
October 14, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063718/glut1-mediated-venlafaxine-tds-glucose-conjugates-with-lock-in-function-for-cns-delivery
#4
Yi Zhao, Li Zhang, Yao Peng, Qiming Yue, Li Hai, Li Guo, Qiantao Wang, Yong Wu
Venlafaxine, a novel third generation antidepressant drug, has been described as a reference treatment for major depression in clinical, owing to its ability of inhibiting both noradrenalin and serotonin neuronal reuptake, and inhibiting dopamine reuptake slightly. However, its clinical application is hampered by a limited brain distribution. Glucosylation is an effective way to enhance the brain targeting ability of drugs, but the bidirectional transport of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1 ) might decrease the concentrations of venlafaxine-glucose (V-G) in brain before the release of parent drug venlafaxine...
October 24, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024103/functional-interleukin-6-receptor-%C3%AE-is-located-to-tanycytes-at-the-base-of-the-third-ventricle
#5
Fredrik Anesten, Cristiano Santos, Edwin Gidestrand, Erik Schéle, Vilborg Pálsdóttir, Teodor Swedung-Wettervik, Björn Meister, Karolina Patrycja Skibicka, John-Olov Jansson
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) (-) /(-) mice develop mature onset obesity, while intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of IL-6 decreases obesity in rodents. Moreover, levels of IL-6 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have been reported to be inversely correlated with obesity in humans. Tanycytes lining the base of the 3(rd) ventricle in the hypothalamus have recently been reported to be of importance for metabolism. In the present study, we investigated whether tanycytes could respond to IL-6 in the CSF. With immunohistochemistry using a well characterized antibody directed against the ligand binding receptor for IL-6, IL-6 receptor α (IL-6Rα), it was found that tanycytes, identified by the two markers vimentin and dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of 32 kDa (DARPP-32), contained IL-6Rα...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022695/high-activity-and-convenient-ratio-control-dna-directed-coimmobilization-of-multiple-enzymes-on-multifunctionalized-magnetic-nanoparticles
#6
Ye Yang, Ruiqi Zhang, Bingnan Zhou, Jiayi Song, Ping Su, Yi Yang
The development of new methods for fabricating artificial multienzyme systems has attracted much interest because of the potential applications and the urgent need for multienzyme catalysts. Controlling the enzyme ratio is critical for improving the cooperative enzymatic activity in multienzyme systems. Herein, we introduce a versatile strategy for fabricating a multienzyme system by coimmobilizing horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and glucose oxidase (GOx) on magnetic nanoparticles multifunctionalized with dopamine derivatives through DNA-directed immobilization...
October 12, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991432/one-pot-synthesis-of-reduced-graphene-oxide-metal-oxide-composites
#7
Xu Wu, Yuqian Xing, David Pierce, Julia Xiaojun Zhao
Graphene, one of the most attractive two-dimensional nanomaterials, has demonstrated a broad range of applications because of its excellent electronic, mechanical, optical, and chemical properties. In this work, a general, environmentally friendly, one-pot method for the fabrication of reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/metal (oxide) (e.g., RGO/Au, RGO/Cu2O, and RGO/Ag) composties was developed using glucose as the reducing agent and the stabilizer. The glucose not only reduced GO effectively to RGO but also reduced the metal precursors to form metal (oxide) nanoparticles on the surface of RGO...
October 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963041/mild-stress-induces-brain-region-specific-alterations-of-selective-er-stress-markers-mrna-expression-in-wfs1-deficient-mice
#8
A Altperery, S Raud, S Sütt, R Reimets, T Visnapuu, M Toots, E Vasar
In this work, the effect of mild stress (elevated plus maze test, EPM) on the expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers in different brain areas of wild type (WT) and Wfs1-deficient (Wfs1KO) mice was investigated. The following ER stress markers were studied: activating transcription factor 6α (Atf6α), protein kinase-like ER kinase (Perk), X-box binding protein 1 (Xbp1) and its spliced form (Xbp1s), 78-kilodalton glucose regulated protein (Grp78), 94-kilodalton glucose regulated protein (Grp94), C/EBP homologous protein (Chop)...
September 26, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948098/morning-surge-in-blood-pressure-and-sympathetic-activity-in-mongolians-and-han-chinese-a-multimodality-investigation-of-hypertension-and-dyssomnia
#9
Guanhua Huang, Xiaoming Yang, Jing Huang
BACKGROUND: Hypertension and dyssomnia are increasing significantly in Mongolians, and the related factors of ethnic differences in hypertension and dyssomnia between Mongolians and Han Chinese are unclear. This study examined the relationship of morning surge in blood pressure (MBP) with ethnicity, sleep situation, and sympathetic activity throughout the day. METHODS: Of 692 hypertensive patients screened, 202 subjects with dyssomnia were selected. They were then divided into Mongolian (n = 87) and Han (n = 115) groups...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945846/cold-induced-brown-adipose-tissue-activity-alters-plasma-fatty-acids-and-improves-glucose-metabolism-in-men
#10
K Alexander Iwen, Jenny Backhaus, Melanie Cassens, Maren Waltl, Oana C Hedesan, Martin Merkel, Joerg Heeren, Christian Sina, Leonie Rademacher, Anne Windjäger, Alexander R Haug, Florian W Kiefer, Hendrik Lehnert, Sebastian M Schmid
Context: Mounting evidence suggests beneficial effects of brown adipose tissue (BAT) activation on glucose and lipid metabolism in humans. It is unclear whether cold-induced BAT activation affects not only insulin sensitivity but also insulin secretion. Likewise, the role in clearing circulating fatty acids (FAs) has not been fully explored. Objective: Exploring the effects of cold-induced BAT activation on insulin sensitivity and secretion, as well as on plasma FA profiles...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944597/caloric-restriction-induced-decreases-in-dopamine-receptor-availability-are-associated-with-leptin-concentration
#11
Julia P Dunn, Naji N Abumrad, Robert M Kessler, Bruce W Patterson, Rui Li, Pamela Marks-Shulman, Robyn A Tamboli
OBJECTIVE: It has been previously reported that early after Roux-en-Y-gastric bypass, dopamine (DA) type 2 and 3 receptor (D2/3R) binding potential (BPND ) was decreased from preoperative levels. The current study aimed to determine whether calorie restriction without weight loss modifies D2/3R BPND and whether such changes are explained by neuroendocrine regulation. METHODS: Fifteen females with obesity (BMI = 39 ± 6 kg/m(2) ) were studied before and after ∼10 days of a very-low-calorie-diet (VLCD)...
November 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938220/metabolic-correlate-of-memory-deficit-awareness-in-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-implication-in-cortical-midline-structure
#12
Tomomichi Iizuka, Masashi Kameyama
The neural substrate of memory-deficit awareness has been studied in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, little is known about that in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). To determine the neural substrates of memory-deficit awareness in DLB, we investigated the relationship between awareness of memory-deficit and glucose metabolism in DLB. Thirty-four patients with DLB were assessed by (18)F-FDG-PET and dopamine transporter (DAT)-SPECT. The awareness was evaluated using an awareness index that represents the discrepancy between objective and subjective memory scores...
November 30, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934619/distinct-brain-metabolic-patterns-separately-associated-with-cognition-motor-function-and-aging-in-parkinson-s-disease-dementia
#13
Ji Hyun Ko, Audrey Katako, Maram Aljuaid, Andrew L Goertzen, Andrew Borys, Douglas E Hobson, Seok Min Kim, Chong Sik Lee
We explored whether patients with Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) show a distinct spatial metabolic pattern that characterizes cognitive deficits in addition to motor dysfunction. Eighteen patients with PDD underwent 3 separate positron emission tomography sessions with [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose (for glucose metabolism), fluorinated N-3-fluoropropyl-2-beta-carboxymethoxy-3-beta-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane (for dopamine transporter density) and Pittsburgh compound-B (for beta-amyloid load). We confirmed in PDD versus normal controls, overall hypometabolism in the posterior and prefrontal brain regions accompanied with hypermetabolism in subcortical structures and the cerebellar vermis...
December 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931543/the-effects-of-intravenous-low-dose-dopamine-infusion-on-glucose-regulation-during-prolonged-aerobic-exercise
#14
Blair D Johnson, Ana B Peinado, Sushant M Ranadive, Timothy B Curry, Michael J Joyner
The carotid body chemoreceptors are activated during hypoglycemia and contribute to glucoregulation during prolonged exercise in dogs. Low dose intravenous infusions of dopamine have been shown to blunt the activation of the carotid body chemoreceptors during hypoxia. Therefore, we tested the hypotheses that dopamine would blunt glucoregulatory responses and attenuate plasma glucose during prolonged aerobic exercise in healthy participants. Twelve healthy participants completed two randomized exercise sessions at 65% peak oxygen consumption for up to 120 minutes...
September 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892416/roman-high-and-low-avoidance-rats-differ-in-their-response-to-chronic-olanzapine-treatment-at-the-level-of-body-weight-regulation-glucose-homeostasis-and-cortico-mesolimbic-gene-expression
#15
Simon S Evers, Gretha J Boersma, Kellie Lk Tamashiro, Anton Jw Scheurink, Gertjan van Dijk
Olanzapine, an antipsychotic agent mainly used for treating schizophrenia, is frequently associated with body weight gain and diabetes mellitus. Nonetheless, studies have shown that not every individual is equally susceptible to olanzapine's weight-gaining effect. Therefore, Roman high and low avoidance rat strains were examined on their responsiveness to olanzapine treatment. The Roman high avoidance rat shares many behavioral and physiological characteristics with human schizophrenia, such as increased central dopaminergic sensitivity, whereas the Roman low avoidance rat has been shown to be prone to diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892404/mechanisms-underlying-metabolic-disturbances-associated-with-psychosis-and-antipsychotic-drug-treatment
#16
Gavin P Reynolds, Olga O McGowan
The increase in cardiovascular disease and reduced life expectancy in schizophrenia likely relate to an increased prevalence of metabolic disturbances. Such metabolic risk factors in schizophrenia may result from both symptom-related effects and aetiological factors. However, a major contributory factor is that of treatment with antipsychotic drugs. These drugs differ in effects on body weight; the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood and may vary between drugs, but may include actions at receptors associated with the hypothalamic control of food intake...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889722/effects-of-central-fibroblast-growth-factor-21-fgf21-in-energy-balance
#17
L Recinella, S Leone, C Ferrante, A Chiavaroli, C Di Nisio, S Martinotti, M Vacca, L Brunetti, G Orlando
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is known as a major metabolic regulator of glucose and lipid homeostasis. Continuous intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of FGF21 was found to modulate feeding and energy expenditure in rats with diet-induced obesity, suggesting a central effect by the peptide. In this context, in the present work, we studied the effects of a single central FGF21 administration (0.5-5 µg) on feeding and energy expenditure by evaluating locomotor activity, interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT) weight, gene expression of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1) in BAT and plasma norepinephrine (NE) levels in Sprague-Dawley fed rats...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889093/striatal-molecular-alterations-in-hd-gene-carriers-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-pet-studies
#18
REVIEW
Flavia Niccolini, Gennaro Pagano, Paolo Fusar-Poli, Andrew Wood, Ladislav Mrzljak, Cristina Sampaio, Marios Politis
BACKGROUND: Over the past years, positron emission tomography (PET) imaging studies have investigated striatal molecular changes in premanifest and manifest Huntington's disease (HD) gene expansion carriers (HDGECs), but they have yielded inconsistent results. OBJECTIVE: To systematically examine the evidence of striatal molecular alterations in manifest and premanifest HDGECs as measured by PET imaging studies. METHODS: MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane Library and Scopus databases were searched for articles published until 7 June 2017 that included PET studies in manifest and premanifest HDGECs...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885682/selective-targeting-of-m-type-potassium-kv-7-4-channels-demonstrates-their-key-role-in-the-regulation-of-dopaminergic-neuronal-excitability-and-depression-like-behaviour
#19
Li Li, Hui Sun, Jie Ding, Chenxu Niu, Min Su, Ludi Zhang, Yingmin Li, Chuan Wang, Nikita Gamper, Xiaona Du, Hailin Zhang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The mesolimbic dopamine system originating in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) is involved in the development of depression, and firing patterns of VTA dopaminergic neurons are key determinants in this process. Here, we describe a crucial role for the M-type Kv 7.4 channels in modulating excitability of VTA dopaminergic neurons and in the development of depressive behaviour in mice. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We used Kv 7.4 channel knockout mice and a social defeat model of depression in combination with electrophysiological techniques (patch clamp recording and in vivo single-unit recordings), immunohistochemistry, single-cell PCR and behavioural analyses (social interaction time and glucose preference tests) to investigate VTA circuits involved in the development of depression-like behaviour...
September 8, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860992/rewarding-effects-of-operant-dry-licking-behavior-on-neuronal-firing-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-core
#20
Enrico Patrono, Jumpei Matsumoto, Hiroshi Nishimaru, Yusaku Takamura, Ikhruud C Chinzorig, Taketoshi Ono, Hisao Nishijo
Certain eating behaviors are characterized by a trend of elevated food consumption. However, neural mechanisms mediating the motivation for food consumption are not fully understood. Food impacts the brain-rewarding-system via both oral-sensory and post-ingestive information. Recent studies have reported an important role of visceral gut information in mediating dopamine (DA) release in the brain rewarding system. This is independent of oral sensation, suggesting a role of the gut-brain-DA-axis in feeding behavior...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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