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Andrea B Agarwal, Cheng-Yuan Feng, Amy L Altick, David R Quilici, Dan Wen, L Alan Johnson, Christopher S von Bartheld
Purpose: To determine whether structural protein composition and expression of key regulatory genes are altered in strabismic human extraocular muscles. Methods: Samples from strabismic horizontal extraocular muscles were obtained during strabismus surgery and compared with normal muscles from organ donors. We used proteomics, standard and customized PCR arrays, and microarrays to identify changes in major structural proteins and changes in gene expression. We focused on muscle and connective tissue and its control by enzymes, growth factors, and cytokines...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Christiane Al-Haddad, Maamoun Abdul Fattah, Karine Ismail, Ziad Bashshur
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To detect changes in the choroidal layer at the macular area in amblyopic eyes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 50 amblyopic patients (20 strabismic and 30 anisometropic) and 50 controls was done. Cross-sectional images using enhanced depth optical coherence tomography (OCT) were taken. Thicknesses were measured subfoveally and at 1,500 µm nasally, temporally, inferiorly, and superiorly. Submacular corresponding choroidal areas were also computed...
October 1, 2016: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
Cindy X Guo, Raiju J Babu, Joanna M Black, William R Bobier, Carly S Y Lam, Shuan Dai, Tina Y Gao, Robert F Hess, Michelle Jenkins, Yannan Jiang, Lionel Kowal, Varsha Parag, Jayshree South, Sandra Elfride Staffieri, Natalie Walker, Angela Wadham, Benjamin Thompson
BACKGROUND: Amblyopia is a common neurodevelopmental disorder of vision that is characterised by visual impairment in one eye and compromised binocular visual function. Existing evidence-based treatments for children include patching the nonamblyopic eye to encourage use of the amblyopic eye. Currently there are no widely accepted treatments available for adults with amblyopia. The aim of this trial is to assess the efficacy of a new binocular, videogame-based treatment for amblyopia in older children and adults...
October 18, 2016: Trials
Gail D E Maconachie, Shegufta Farooq, Glen Bush, Julie Kempton, Frank A Proudlock, Irene Gottlob
Importance: Occlusion dose monitors have helped establish that better adherence to occlusion is associated with improved visual outcomes in patients undergoing amblyopia treatment. However, the role of adherence to glasses wearing is unknown. Objectives: To establish the feasibility and reliability of objectively monitoring adherence to glasses wearing using age-based norms, establish the association between adherence to glasses wearing and improvement in visual acuity (VA) after optical treatment and occlusion therapy, and analyze the effect of age, sex, refractive errors, type of amblyopia, and adherence to glasses wearing on improvement in VA...
October 13, 2016: JAMA Ophthalmology
Alexandre Reynaud, Robert F Hess
Purpose: Amblyopic patients have a deficit in visual acuity and contrast sensitivity in their amblyopic eye as well as suppression of the amblyopic eye input under binocular viewing conditions. In this study we wanted to assess the origin of the amblyopic suppression by studying the contrast perception of the amblyopic eye at suprathreshold levels under binocular and monocular viewing. Methods: Using a suprathreshold contrast matching task in which the reference and target stimuli were presented to different eyes either simultaneously or successively, we measured interocular contrast matching in 10 controls and 11 amblyopes (mean age 35 ± 15; 5 strabismics; 3 anisometropes; 3 mixed)...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Zhale Rajavi, Hamideh Sabbaghi
Congenital cataract is a leading cause of visual deprivation which can damage the developing visual system of a child; therefore early diagnosis, management and long-term follow-up are essential. It is recommended that all neonates be screened by red reflex examination at birth and suspected cases be referred to ophthalmic centers. Early surgery (<6 weeks of age, based on general neonatal health) is important for achieving the best visual outcome particularly in unilateral cases. In bilateral cases, surgery is highly recommended before appearance of strabismus or nystagmus (<10 weeks of age) with no longer than a one-week interval between the fellow eyes...
July 2016: Journal of Ophthalmic & Vision Research
Ann L Webber, Joanne M Wood, Benjamin Thompson
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether reduced fine motor skills in children with amblyopia improve after binocular treatment and whether improvements are sustained once treatment has ceased. METHODS: Fine motor skills (FMS [Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency]), visual acuity (VA [Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study chart]) and level of binocular function (BF [Randot preschool stereoacuity and Worth 4 Dot]) were measured in children with amblyopia (n = 20; age: 8...
September 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
John R Economides, Daniel L Adams, Jonathan C Horton
The superior colliculus is a major brainstem structure for the production of saccadic eye movements. Electrical stimulation at any given point in the motor map generates saccades of defined amplitude and direction. It is unknown how this saccade map is affected by strabismus. Three macaques were raised with exotropia, an outwards ocular deviation, by detaching the medial rectus tendon in each eye at age one month. The animals were able to make saccades to targets with either eye and appeared to alternate fixation freely...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Akash S Chima, Monika A Formankiewicz, Sarah J Waugh
In binocular viewing, images presented to the amblyopic eye are suppressed in the cortex to prevent confusion or diplopia. The present study measures depth and extent of interocular suppression across the central circular 24° visual field in observers with strabismus and microstrabismus. Visual stimuli were concentric rings of alternating polarity, each divided into sectors. Rings were defined by luminance (L), luminance-modulated noise (LM), or contrast-modulated noise (CM). They were viewed binocularly except for the tested ring, which was viewed dichoptically, so that the modulation of one sector presented to the weaker or amblyopic eye was adjusted to perceptually match the surrounding ring presented to the preferred eye...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
Maciej Perdziak, Dagmara K Witkowska, Wojciech Gryncewicz, Jan K Ober
Amblyopia is a developmental disorder of vision usually associated with the presence of strabismus and/or anisometropia during early childhood. Subject literature has shown that both the amblyopic and fellow eyes (especially in strabismic subjects) may manifest a variety of perceptual and oculomotor deficits. Previous studies using simple saccadic responses (pro-saccades) showed an increased saccadic latency only for the amblyopic eye viewing conditions. So far, there have appeared no saccadic latency studies in strabismic amblyopia for more complex volitional saccades...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
Vijay Tailor, Manuela Bossi, John A Greenwood, Annegret Dahlmann-Noor
INTRODUCTION OR BACKGROUND: With a prevalence of 2-5%, amblyopia is the most common vision deficit in children in the UK and the second most common cause of functional low vision in children in low-income countries. SOURCES OF DATA: Pubmed, Cochrane library and clinical trial registries (, ISRCTN, UKCRN portfolio database). AREAS OF AGREEMENT: Screening and treatment at the age of 4-5 years are cost efficient and clinically effective...
September 2016: British Medical Bulletin
Ahmet Murad Hondur, Mehmet Özgür Çubuk, Zühal Özen Tunay, Hatice Tuba Atalay, Özdemir Özdemir, İkbal Seza Petriçli, İhsan Gökhan Gürelik
BACKGROUND/AIM: To evaluate refractive and strabismic results and the efficacy of intravitreal bevacizumab in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) ineligible for laser therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-nine eyes of 20 consecutive infants with high-risk prethreshold ROP (11 infants with Zone I and 9 infants with Zone II disease) who were ineligible for laser therapy due to systemic and/or ocular conditions were treated with intravitreal bevacizumab. Recurrent retinopathy was treated with laser ablation...
2016: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
Marianne E F Piano, Peter J Bex, Anita J Simmers
PURPOSE: To establish the point prevalence of perceived visual distortions (PVDs) in amblyopic children; the association between severity of PVDs and clinical parameters of amblyopia; and the relationship between PVDs and amblyopia treatment outcomes. METHODS: Perceived visual distortions were measured using a 16-point dichoptic alignment paradigm in 148 visually normal children (aged, 9.18 ± 2.51 years), and 82 amblyopic children (aged, 6.33 ± 1.48 years) receiving or following amblyopia treatment...
August 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
AbbasAli Yekta, Hassan Hashemi, Hadi Ostadimoghaddam, Batool Haghighi, Hava Shafiee, Shiva Mehravaran, Payam Nabovati, Amir Asharlous, Mehdi Khabazkhoob
PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of strabismus and amblyopia, and the distribution of the near point of convergence (NPC), in a population of children aged 4 to 6 years. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, preschoolers in Mashhad were sampled using a random multistage cluster sampling approach. Examinations were done after obtaining parental consent. All participants had measurements of uncorrected visual acuity, corrected visual acuity, and non-cycloplegic refraction, and they had near and far cover tests to determine tropia and phoria...
September 2016: Strabismus
Cathy O'Boyle, Sean I Chen, Julie-Anne Little
AIMS: Clinically, picture acuity tests are thought to overestimate visual acuity (VA) compared with letter tests, but this has not been systematically investigated in children with amblyopia. This study compared VA measurements with the LogMAR Crowded Kay Picture test to the LogMAR Crowded Keeler Letter acuity test in a group of young children with amblyopia. METHODS: 58 children (34 male) with amblyopia (22 anisometropic, 18 strabismic and 18 with both strabismic/anisometropic amblyopia) aged 4-6 years (mean=68...
July 7, 2016: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Jérome Fleuriet, Mark M G Walton, Seiji Ono, Michael J Mustari
PURPOSE: Visually guided saccades are disconjugate in human and nonhuman strabismic primates. The superior colliculus (SC) is a region of the brain topographically organized in visual and motor maps where the saccade goal is spatially coded. The present study was designed to investigate if a site of stimulation on the topographic motor map was evoking similar or different saccade vectors for each eye. METHODS: We used microelectrical stimulation (MS) of the SC in two strabismic (one esotrope and one exotrope) and two control macaques under binocular and monocular viewing conditions...
June 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Stephan Kehrein, Thomas Kohnen, Maria Fronius
PURPOSE: Interocular suppression is assumed to be the mechanism leading to impaired visual acuity, especially in strabismic amblyopia. Little is known about the dynamics of suppression during treatment. The aim of our study was to assess the development of the depth of suppression and its relation to changes in visual acuity during electronically monitored occlusion treatment. METHODS: In a prospective pilot study, 15 amblyopes (8 with and 7 without strabismus) aged 5 to 16 years (mean 10...
June 2016: Strabismus
Mehmet Talay Koylu, Gokhan Ozge, Murat Kucukevcilioglu, Fatih Mehmet Mutlu, Osman Melih Ceylan, Dorukcan Akıncıoglu, Onder Ayyıldız
PURPOSE: To determine differences in macular sensitivity and fixation patterns in different subtypes of severe amblyopia. METHODS: This case-control study enrolled a total of 73 male adults, including 18 with pure strabismic severe amblyopia, 19 with pure anisometropic severe amblyopia, 18 with mixed (strabismic plus anizometropic) severe amblyopia, and 18 healthy controls. MP-1 microperimetry was used to evaluate macular sensitivity, location of fixation, and stability of fixation...
May 18, 2016: Seminars in Ophthalmology
Abdul Hameed Siddiqui, Syed Akhtar Raza, Arifa Ghazipura, Muhammad Azhar Hussain, Sarwat Iqbal, Kamran Ahsan, Adnan Nadeem
OBJECTIVE: To analyse the frequency of different types of amblyopia and its association with gender. METHODS: The cross-sectional study was conducted from March 2014 to October 2014 at the Department of Ophthalmology of a tertiary care hospital inKarachi. The patients were classified into different types of amblyopia like anisometropic, strabismic, sensory deprivation and meridional amblyopia. Stratification was done according to age, gender and type of amblyopia by using SPSS version 21...
May 2016: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Dora H AlHarkan, Fatemah T Al-Shamlan, Deepak P Edward, Arif O Khan
PURPOSE: To compare intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements by rebound tonometry (Icare PRO; Icare Finland Oy, Helsinki, Finland) to measurements by indentation tonometry (Pneumotonometer Model 30 classic and Tono-Pen XL; Reichert, Buffalo, NY, USA) in supine sedated children with glaucoma. METHODS: Prospective comparative observational study of Saudi Arabian children with glaucoma undergoing chloral hydrate sedation for ophthalmic examination (February 2012 - February 2013)...
April 2016: Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology
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