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A V Dolzhich, S E Avetisov
PURPOSE: to assess the neurophysiological effect and clinical effectiveness of transcranial direct current stimulation in combination with drug therapy in amblyopic children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study involved 32 healthy children in the age of 5-12 years and 97 patients of the same age with refractive strabismic amblyopia. All study subjects underwent standard examination including ophthalmological (visometry, refractometry in normal conditions and in cycloplegia, biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy, type of vision), neurophysiological methods (determination of retinal electric sensitivity threshold, electric lability of optic nerve, amplitude and latency period of visual evoked potentials, electroencephalogram wave amplitudes, localization of peak electrical activity area of the cerebral cortex), assessment of neuropsychic development and estimation of mental development coefficient with age tests...
2018: Vestnik Oftalmologii
Faustine Perrin Fievez, Cynthia Lions, Maria Pia Bucci
AIM: To evaluate differences in eye movements during reading in strabismic children and in non-strabismic age-matched children, and to evaluate the potential effect of strabismus surgery on eye movement performance. METHODS: The eye movements of nine strabismic children from 11 to 15 years old were recorded with an eye tracker as they were reading a text under three visual conditions before and six months after eye surgery. The results were compared with those obtained from control groups of non-strabismic age-matched children...
March 5, 2018: Strabismus
Shindy Je, Fergal A Ennis, J Margaret Woodhouse, Frank Sengpiel, Tony Redmond
Ricco's area (the largest area of visual space in which stimulus area and intensity are inversely proportional at threshold) has previously been hypothesised to be a result of centre/surround antagonism in retinal ganglion cell receptive fields, but recent evidence suggests a sizeable cortical contribution. Here, Ricco's area was measured in amblyopia, a condition in which retinal receptive fields are normal, to better understand its physiological basis. Spatial summation functions were determined at 12 visual field locations in both eyes of 14 amblyopic adults and 15 normal-sighted controls...
March 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Brian Allen, Melanie A Schmitt, Burton J Kushner, Bas Rokers
Purpose: Amblyopia is associated with a broad array of perceptual and neural abnormalities in the visual system, particularly in untreated or unsuccessfully treated populations. Traditionally, it has been believed that the neural abnormalities are confined to the visual cortex and subcortex (e.g., lateral geniculate nucleus). Here, we investigate the presence of neuroanatomical abnormalities earlier in the visual stream, in the optic nerves and tracts, of participants with two predominant forms of amblyopia...
February 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Lisa Asper, Kathleen Watt, Sieu Khuu
BACKGROUND: Despite evidence that amblyopia can often be treated by optical treatment alone, many practitioners still do not use an optical-correction-only phase in amblyopia treatment and some investigators omit this important step in their research. This paper aims to systematically review the evidence for the optical treatment of strabismic, refractive and combined-mechanism amblyopia and to quantify the evidence via a meta-analysis. METHODS: A search of online databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo, the Cochrane Library, and bibliographies of review papers, along with subsequent personal communication, resulted in 29 papers that met our inclusion criteria, with 20 providing sufficient data for the calculation of effect sizes...
February 2, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
Zahra Hussain, Andrew T Astle, Ben S Webb, Paul V McGraw
The misalignment of visual input in strabismus disrupts positional judgments. We measured positional accuracy in the extrafoveal visual field (1°-7° eccentricity) of a large group of strabismic subjects and a normal control group to identify positional distortions associated with the direction of strabismus. Subjects performed a free localization task in which targets were matched in opposite hemifields whilst fixating on a central cross. The constant horizontal error of each response was taken as a measure of accuracy, in addition to radial and angular error...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
Zhongyang Song, Xiaoguang Qin, Runjie Sun, Xuan Xu, Bowen Zhu, Yuchan Chen
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect difference between reinforcing-reducing manipulation and "guoyanre" manipulation for amblyopia in children. METHODS: A total of 68 children patients with amblyopia were assigned into an observation group and a control group by random number table, 34 cases (68 eyes) in each one. In the observation group, reinforcing-reducing manipulation was used at Yuyao (EX-HN 4), Taiyang (EX-HN 5), Tongziliao (GB 1), Jingming (BL 1), Cuanzhu (BL 2), and Chengqi (ST 1); twirling-reinforcing method was applied at Ganshu (BL 18), Shenshu (BL 23), and Guangming (GB 37);"guoyanre"manipulation was applied at bilateral Fengchi (GB 20)...
November 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
Michael D Richards, Herbert C Goltz, Agnes M F Wong
Purpose: Classically understood as a deficit in spatial vision, amblyopia is increasingly recognized to also impair audiovisual multisensory processing. Studies to date, however, have not determined whether the audiovisual abnormalities reflect a failure of multisensory integration, or an optimal strategy in the face of unisensory impairment. We use the ventriloquism effect and the maximum-likelihood estimation (MLE) model of optimal integration to investigate integration of audiovisual spatial information in amblyopia...
January 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Marcel P M Ten Tusscher, Anne Cees Houtman, Johan De Mey, Peter Van Schuerbeek
PURPOSE: Besides chiasmal hemidecussation, interhemispheric connections are likely important in human binocularity. The corpus callosum (CC) is the major fiber bundle in the mammalian brain which mostly connects homologous cortical areas in the two hemispheres. Visual interhemispheric connections were found abnormal in strabismic cats. No studies have investigated these pathways in humans with infantile strabismus. METHODS: Diffusion tensor imaging was used in four subjects with infantile esotropia (IE) and nine control subjects with normal binocularity, in order to study interhemispheric fibers in the CC connecting the right and left primary visual cortical areas...
December 26, 2017: Strabismus
Joseph L Demer
INTRODUCTION: A spherical globe is traditionally assumed, but this study employed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to demonstrate frequent occurrence of non-spherical staphylomata in strabismic patients. METHODS: High-resolution, surface coil MRI was obtained in multiple image planes in 21 highly myopic subjects (36 eyes) and compared with 17 normal controls (33 eyes). Images were analyzed for axial length, aspect ratio of eye shape, and deflection of muscle paths...
December 26, 2017: Strabismus
Lisa M Hamm, Zidong Chen, Jinrong Li, Shuan Dai, Joanna Black, Junpeng Yuan, Minbin Yu, Benjamin Thompson
BACKGROUND: Children with deprivation amblyopia due to childhood cataract have been excluded from much of the emerging research into amblyopia treatment. An investigation was conducted to determine whether contrast-balanced binocular treatment - a strategy currently being explored for children with anisometropic and strabismic amblyopia - may be effective in children with deprivation amblyopia. METHODS: An unmasked, case-series design intended to assess proof of principle was employed...
November 28, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
Lisa W Christian, Krithika Nandakumar, Patricia K Hrynchak, Elizabeth L Irving
PURPOSE: This descriptive study provides a summary of the binocular anomalies seen in elementary school children identified with reading problems. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of all children identified with reading problems and seen by the University of Waterloo, Optometry Clinic, from September 2012 to June 2013. RESULTS: Files of 121 children (mean age 8.6 years, range 6-14 years) were reviewed. No significant refractive error was found in 81% of children...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Optometry
Jameel Rizwana Hussaindeen, Archayeeta Rakshit, Neeraj Kumar Singh, Meenakshi Swaminathan, Ronnie George, Suman Kapur, Mitchell Scheiman, Krishna Kumar Ramani
PURPOSE: This study aims to report the minimum test battery needed to screen non-strabismic binocular vision anomalies (NSBVAs) in a community set-up. When large numbers are to be screened we aim to identify the most useful test battery when there is no opportunity for a more comprehensive and time-consuming clinical examination. METHODS: The prevalence estimates and normative data for binocular vision parameters were estimated from the Binocular Vision Anomalies and Normative Data (BAND) study, following which cut-off estimates and receiver operating characteristic curves to identify the minimum test battery have been plotted...
November 18, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
Mohammad Faghihi, Hassan Hashemi, Payam Nabovati, Mohammad Saatchi, Abbasali Yekta, Shokoofeh Rafati, Hadi Ostadimoghaddam, Mehdi Khabazkhoob
PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of amblyopia and its determinants in a population-based study in Mashhad County, Iran. METHODS: This cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted on the population of Mashhad County aged >1 year using randomized stratified cluster sampling. Examinations were performed after selection of the participants and their free transportation to the sampling site. The examinations included the measurement of uncorrected and corrected visual acuity, cycloplegic and non-cycloplegic refraction, cover testing, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, and ophthalmoscopy...
November 16, 2017: Strabismus
Tuncay Kusbeci, Omer Karti, Eyyup Karahan, Mustafa Oguztoreli
PURPOSE: To investigate whether macular anatomic structure and afferent visual system function differ among amblyopic eyes, non-amblyopic fellow eyes, and controls, using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), and pupil cycle time (PCT). METHODS: This observational, cross-sectional study included 30 patients with unilateral amblyopia and 30 healthy subjects. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and pupil cycle time (PCT) were used to evaluate patients with unilateral amblyopia and were compared with their non-amblyopic fellow eyes and age- and gender-matched healthy eyes (30 participants)...
November 9, 2017: Current Eye Research
Suraj Upadhyaya, Mythri Pullela, Santoshi Ramachandran, Samuel Adade, Anand C Joshi, Vallabh E Das
Purpose: To evaluate the contribution of fixational saccades toward fixation instability in strabismic monkeys. Methods: Binocular eye movements were measured as six experimental monkeys (five strabismic monkeys and one monkey with downbeat nystagmus) and one normal monkey fixated targets of two shapes (Optotype, Disk) and two sizes (0.5°, 2°) during monocular and binocular viewing. Fixational saccades were detected using an unsupervised clustering algorithm. Results: When compared with the normal monkey, amplitude and frequency of fixational saccades in both the viewing and nonviewing eye were greater in 3 of 5 strabismic monkeys (1-way ANOVA on ranks P < 0...
November 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Yvonne Norgett, John Siderov
Foveal vision in strabismic amblyopia can show increased levels of crowding, akin to typical peripheral vision. Target-flanker similarity and visual-acuity test configuration may cause the magnitude of crowding to vary in strabismic amblyopia. We used custom-designed visual acuity tests to investigate crowding in observers with strabismic amblyopia. LogMAR was measured monocularly in both eyes of 11 adults with strabismic or mixed strabismic/anisometropic amblyopia using custom-designed letter tests. The tests used single-letter and linear formats with either bar or letter flankers to introduce crowding...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Julia Dillmann, Claudia Freitag, Kerstin Holve, Silke Schweinfurth, Birgit Lorenz, Gudrun Schwarzer
Background Until now, many studies have investigated the link between motor development and visual-spatial abilities in infancy and childhood. Most of these studies found evidence that there is such a link in typically developing children or children with locomotor delay. Only a few studies have tested the consequences of this link in children with abnormal visual development because of infantile esotropia. Moreover, little is known about the effects of late surgery on motor development. Patients and Methods We assessed the motor abilities of 3- to 7-year old children with severe deficits in stereopsis due to infantile esotropia (angle ≥ 12°) and typically developing children prior to and 12 to 16 months after surgery...
October 2017: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
Krista R Kelly, Reed M Jost, Angie De La Cruz, Lori Dao, Cynthia L Beauchamp, David Stager, Eileen E Birch
BACKGROUND: Previous studies show slow reading in strabismic amblyopia. We recently identified amblyopia, not strabismus, as the key factor in slow reading in children. No studies have focused on reading in amblyopic children without strabismus. We examined reading in anisometropic children and evaluated whether slow reading was associated with ocular motor dysfunction in children with amblyopia. METHODS: Anisometropic children (7-12 years) with or without amblyopia were compared to age-similar normal controls...
December 2017: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
Sandra Guimaraes, Maria Vieira, Tatiana Queirós, Andreia Soares, Patrício Costa, Eduardo Silva
PURPOSE: To assess the role of risk factors for amblyopia, such as family history and neonatal background, for the prediction of either strabismic amblyopia or refractive amblyopia. METHODS: In this retrospective case-control model, the study population included all children born at the Hospital de Braga during 1997-2012 (3 to 18 years old) with ophthalmologic consultation in 2014. Data collection was performed from the clinical database and through telephone questionnaire surveys...
September 11, 2017: European Journal of Ophthalmology
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