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Stephanie Behrens, Gail B Rattinger, Sarah Schwartz, Joshua Matyi, Chelsea Sanders, M Scott DeBerard, Constantine G Lyketsos, JoAnn T Tschanz
BACKGROUND: The use of FDA approved medications for Alzheimer's disease [AD; FDAAMAD; (cholinesterase inhibitors and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists)] has been associated with symptomatic benefit with a reduction in formal (paid services) and total costs of care (formal and informal costs). We examined the use of these medications and their association with informal costs in persons with dementia. METHOD: Two hundred eighty participants (53% female, 72% AD) from the longitudinal, population-based Dementia Progression Study in Cache County, Utah (USA) were followed up to ten years...
March 21, 2018: International Psychogeriatrics
Joseph Asante, David K Kreamer
In the Basin and Range Province of the Southwestern U.S.A., deep carbonate groundwater has been suggested as a significant source to many overlying basin-fill alluvial aquifer systems. Notwithstanding, testing this hypothesis is limited by obtaining data from such considerable depths and complex geology. This study uses δ2 H and δ18 O data from springs, rivers, and wells tapping shallow basin-fill groundwater to test the hydrochemical interpretation of deep regional carbonate groundwater flow into the basin-fill aquifers...
March 20, 2018: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Jeffrey B Mason, Kate C Parkinson, Tracy L Habermehl
Ovarian transplantation was first conducted at Utah State University in 1963. In more recent work, heterochronic transplantation of mammalian ovaries is being used to investigate the health-protective effects of young ovaries in young females. The current procedures employ an orthotopic transplantation method, where allogenic ovaries are transplanted back to their original position in the ovarian bursa. This is in contrast to the more commonly used heterotopic transplantation of ovaries/ovarian tissue subcutaneously or under the kidney capsule...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Jiemin Ma, Rebecca L Siegel, Eric J Jacobs, Ahmedin Jemal
INTRODUCTION: Contemporary state-specific estimates of mortality caused by cigarette smoking are important for tobacco control advocacy and healthcare planning in the U.S., but are currently lacking. METHODS: The population-attributable fraction (i.e., proportion of deaths in the population caused by smoking), number of deaths, and number of years of potential life lost because of active cigarette smoking were estimated for each state based on state-specific smoking prevalence data from the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, recently updated relative risks of smoking, and numbers of deaths from smoking-attributable diseases...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Jennifer M Clifton
Compared with adults, sexually active adolescents are at higher risk of acquiring chlamydia and gonorrhea (CT/GC). Additionally, sex trafficking and sexual violence are serious public health problems. Before this project, no data on the sexual behaviors of adolescents within Utah's Juvenile Justice System had been gathered in a systematic manner that provided a population-based perspective. From July 1, 2015, through December 30, 2016, nurses and staff in 18 Utah Juvenile Justice facilities screened all youth admitted to their facilities...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Health Care
Ross E Anderson, Heidi A Hanson, Diana Thai, Chong Zhang, Angela P Presson, Kenneth I Aston, Douglas T Carrell, Ken R Smith, James M Hotaling
PURPOSE: To study the role of individual semen parameters on the offspring birth weight and body mass index (BMI) from a population of men evaluated in an assisted reproduction technology (ART) clinic compared to fertile controls. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study using a cohort with fertile, age-matched controls of men evaluated with semen analysis at the University of Utah Andrology Clinic from 1996 to 2011 and Intermountain Healthcare from 2002 to 2011...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
Joseph P Herbert, Sidish S Venkataraman, Ali H Turkmani, Liang Zhu, Marcia L Kerr, Rajan P Patel, Irma T Ugalde, Stephen A Fletcher, David I Sandberg, Charles S Cox, Ryan S Kitagawa, Arthur L Day, Manish N Shah
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to assess the incidence, diagnosis, and treatment of pediatric blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) at a busy Level 1 trauma center and to develop a tool for accurately predicting pediatric BCVI and the need for diagnostic testing. METHODS This is a retrospective cohort study of a prospectively collected database of pediatric patients who had sustained blunt trauma (patient age range 0-15 years) and were treated at a Level 1 trauma center between 2005 and 2015. Digital subtraction angiography, MR angiography, or CT angiography was used to confirm BCVI...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Mia Hashibe, Anne C Kirchhoff, Deanna Kepka, Jaewhan Kim, Morgan Millar, Carol Sweeney, Kimberley Herget, Marcus Monroe, N Lynn Henry, Ana-Maria Lopez, Kathi Mooney
Cancer disparities in rural and frontier communities are an important issue in Utah because much of Utah is sparsely populated. The aims of this study were to investigate whether there are differences in the cancer incidence and 5-year survival rates in Utah by metropolitan/rural residence and to investigate disparities in distributions of cancer risk factors. We used cancer registry records to identify patients diagnosed with a first primary cancer in Utah between 2004 and 2008. We estimated 5-year survival and incidence rates...
March 13, 2018: Cancer Medicine
Jason Nguyen, Liliana Werner, Jason Ludlow, Joah Aliancy, Larry Ha, Bryan Masino, Sean Enright, Ray K Alley, Ruth Sahler
PURPOSE: To evaluate intraocular lens (IOL) power, modulation transfer function (MTF), light transmission, and light scattering of a blue light-filtering IOL before and after power adjustment by a femtosecond laser obtained through increased hydrophilicity of targeted areas within the optic, creating the ability to build a refractive-index-shaping lens within an existing IOL. SETTING: John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. DESIGN: Experimental study...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
Samuel R Donnenfeld
The nineteenth century Mormon Prophet, Brigham Young, has long been lauded as progressive for sending dozens of Mormon women from the Utah territory to receive a formal medical education at The Women's Medical College of Pennsylvania. This manuscript comes to a contrary conclusion through close reading of diaries and journals created by these same women and the public speeches of the Prophet himself. These texts have historically been held up as evidence of Prophet Young's encouragement of women as physicians...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
Swati Almeida-Dalmet, Carol D Litchfield, Patrick Gillevet, Bonnie K Baxter
The authors wish to make the following changes to their paper [1].[...].
March 7, 2018: Genes
Junjie Ma, James Kuzman, Abhijit Ray, Benjamin O Lawson, Brian Khong, Si Xuan, Andrew W Hahn, Hung T Khong
Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio is a strong predictor for overall survival and disease free survival in many cancers. Our study is the first investigation aiming to determine the predictive value of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio on prognosis of patients with stage III melanoma. This retrospective study utilized a cohort of 107 patients with stage III melanoma treated at Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah, from May 2002 to March 2016. The optimal cutoff of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio was determined by the significance of log-rank tests...
March 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
Logan E Mitchell, John C Lin, David R Bowling, Diane E Pataki, Courtenay Strong, Andrew J Schauer, Ryan Bares, Susan E Bush, Britton B Stephens, Daniel Mendoza, Derek Mallia, Lacey Holland, Kevin R Gurney, James R Ehleringer
Cities are concentrated areas of CO2 emissions and have become the foci of policies for mitigation actions. However, atmospheric measurement networks suitable for evaluating urban emissions over time are scarce. Here we present a unique long-term (decadal) record of CO2 mole fractions from five sites across Utah's metropolitan Salt Lake Valley. We examine "excess" CO2 above background conditions resulting from local emissions and meteorological conditions. We ascribe CO2 trends to changes in emissions, since we did not find long-term trends in atmospheric mixing proxies...
March 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Diem-Trang Tran, Tian Zhang, Ryan Stutsman, Matthew Might, Umesh R Desai, Balagurunathan Kuberan
Availability: The application is accessible at, source codes deposited on GitHub. Contact: Supplementary information: Supplementary materials are available at Bioinformatics online.
March 1, 2018: Bioinformatics
Konstantinos T Tsaousis, David F Chang, Liliana Werner, Jesus Paulo Perez, Jia J Guan, Nicholas Reiter, He J Li, Nick Mamalis
PURPOSE: To assess the ultrastructural morphologic changes in the surface's micro-roughness for single-use and multiple-use phaco tips after multiple phacoemulsification cycles in an ex vivo animal model. SETTING: John A. Moran Eye Center and Utah Nanofab, College of Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. DESIGN: Experimental study. METHODS: Eight types of phaco tips were studied using an identical experimental protocol...
January 2018: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
S-M Wang, W-X Zeng, W-S Wu, L-L Sun, D Yan
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Thymidylate synthase (TYMS) is an important target for methotrexate (MTX). Genetic variations in the TYMS gene contribute to the differences in treatment responses to MTX. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of a microRNA (miRNA) binding site polymorphism (rs2790 A > G) in the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of TYMS and its association with MTX concentration and haematological toxicity in Chinese paediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL)...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
Emily B Krueger, Dennis L Eggett, Nathan Stokes
OBJECTIVE: Identify differences in teacher perceptions of benefits, challenges, and preferences to different School Breakfast Program (SBP) service models. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study design was used and an electronic survey was distributed to teachers throughout the state of Utah. SETTING: Kindergarten through 12th-grade schools throughout Utah. PARTICIPANTS: A convenience sample of 369 kindergarten through 12th-grade teachers in Utah...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
Douglas Grossman, James M Farnham, John Hyngstrom, Marki E Klapperich, Aaron M Secrest, Sarah Empey, Glen M Bowen, David Wada, Robert H I Andtbacka, Kenneth Grossmann, Tawnya L Bowles, Lisa A Cannon-Albright
BACKGROUND: Survival data are mixed comparing patients with multiple primary melanomas (MPM) to those with single primary melanomas (SPM). OBJECTIVES: To compare MPM vs. SPM patient survival, using a matching method that avoids potential biases associated with other analytic approaches. METHODS: Records of 14,138 individuals obtained from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results registry of all melanomas diagnosed or treated in Utah from 1973-2011 were reviewed...
February 27, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Bryan M Kluever, Eric M Gese, Steven J Dempsey
Anthropogenic manipulation of finite resources on the landscape to benefit individual species or communities is commonly employed by conservation and management agencies. One such action in arid regions is the construction and maintenance of water developments (i.e., wildlife guzzlers) adding free water on the landscape to buttress local populations, influence animal movements, or affect distributions of certain species of interest. Despite their prevalence, the utility of wildlife guzzlers remains largely untested...
April 2017: Current Zoology
Cassie Bennett, Malaroviyam Samikkannu, Farrah Mohammed, W Dalton Dietrich, Suhrud M Rajguru, Abhishek Prasad
Chronically implanted microelectrodes in the neural tissue elicit inflammatory responses that are time varying and have been shown to depend on multiple factors. Among these factors, blood brain barrier (BBB)-disruption has been hypothesized as one of the dominant factors resulting in electrode failure. A series of events that includes BBB and cell-membrane disruption occurs during electrode implantation that triggers multiple biochemical cascades responsible for microglial and astroglial activation, hemorrhage, edema, and release of pro-inflammatory neurotoxic cytokines that causes neuronal degeneration and dysfunction...
February 20, 2018: Biomaterials
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