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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448871/immunomodulatory-effects-of-stem-cells-therapeutic-option-for-neurodegenerative-disorders
#1
REVIEW
Martin Caprnda, Peter Kubatka, Katarina Gazdikova, Iveta Gasparova, Vanda Valentova, Nadezda Stollarova, Giampiero La Rocca, Nazarii Kobyliak, Jozef Dragasek, Ioana Mozos, Robert Prosecky, Dario Siniscalco, Dietrich Büsselberg, Luis Rodrigo, Peter Kruzliak
Stem cells have the capability of self-renewal and can differentiate into different cell types that might be used in regenerative medicine. Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), multiple sclerosis (MS), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) currently lack effective treatments. Although stem cell therapy is still on the way from bench to bedside, we consider that it might provide new hope for patients suffering with neurodegenerative diseases. In this article, we will give an overview of recent studies on the potential therapeutic use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), neural stem cells (NSCs), embryonic stem cells (ESCs), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and perinatal stem cells to neurodegenerative disorders and we will describe their immunomodulatory mechanisms of action in specific therapeutic modalities...
April 24, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448247/oleuropein-isolated-from-fraxinus-rhynchophylla-inhibits-glutamate-induced-neuronal-cell-death-by-attenuating-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#2
Mi Hye Kim, Ju-Sik Min, Joon Yeop Lee, Unbin Chae, Eun-Ju Yang, Kyung-Sik Song, Hyun-Shik Lee, Hong Jun Lee, Sang-Rae Lee, Dong-Seok Lee
Glutamate-induced neurotoxicity is related to excessive oxidative stress accumulation and results in the increase of neuronal cell death. In addition, glutamate has been reported to lead to neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases.It is well known that Fraxinus rhynchophylla contains a significant level of oleuropein (Ole), which exerts various pharmacological effects. However, the mechanism of neuroprotective effects of Ole is still poorly defined. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether Ole prevents glutamate-induced toxicity in HT-22 hippocampal neuronal cells...
April 27, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447995/rapid-and-refined-cd11b-magnetic-isolation-of-primary-microglia-with-enhanced-purity-and-versatility
#3
Souvarish Sarkar, Emir Malovic, Brandon Plante, Gary Zenitsky, Huajun Jin, Vellareddy Anantharam, Arthi Kanthasamy, Anumantha G Kanthasamy
Microglia are the primary responders to central nervous system insults; however, much remains unknown about their role in regulating neuroinflammation. Microglia are mesodermal cells that function similarly to macrophages in surveying inflammatory stress. The classical (M1-type) and alternative (M2-type) activations of macrophages have also been extended to microglia in an effort to better understand the underlying interplay these phenotypes have in neuroinflammatory conditions such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, and Huntington's Diseases...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447571/neuroprotective-effects-of-betulin-in-pharmacological-and-transgenic-c-elegans-models-of-parkinson-s-disease
#4
Chia-Wen Tsai, Rong-Tzong Tsai, Shih-Ping Liu, Chang-Shi Chen, Min-Chen Tsai, Shao-Hsuan Chien, Huey-Shan Hung, Shinn-Zong Lin, Woei-Cherng Shyu, Ru-Huei Fu
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common degenerative disorder of the central nervous system in the elderly.It is characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta, as well as by motor dysfunction. Although the causes of PD are not well understood, aggregation of α-synuclein (α-syn) in neurons contributes to this disease. Currently, therapeutics for PD provide satisfactory symptom relief, but not a cure. Treatment strategies include attempts to identify new drugs that will prevent or arrest the progressive course of PD by correcting disease-specific pathogenic process...
April 26, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447569/a-new-treatment-strategy-for-parkinson-s-disease-through-the-gut-brain-axis-the-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-pathway
#5
Dong Seok Kim, Ho-Il Choi, Yun Wang, Yu Luo, Barry J Hoffer, Nigel H Greig
Molecular communications in the gut-brain axis, between the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract, arecritical for maintaining healthy brain function particularly in aging. Epidemiological analyses indicate type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factor for neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's diseases (PD) for which aging shows a major correlative association. Common pathophysiological features exist between T2DM, AD and PD, including oxidative stress, inflammation, insulin resistance, abnormal protein processing and cognitive decline, and suggest that effective drugs for T2DM that positively impact the gut-brain axis could provide an effective treatment option for neurodegenerative diseases...
April 26, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446760/genetic-analysis-of-the-tmem230-gene-in-chinese-han-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#6
Chang-He Shi, Fang Li, Meng-Meng Shi, Zhi-Hua Yang, Cheng-Yuan Mao, Shu-Yu Zhang, Hui Wang, Yuan Cheng, Jing Yang, Jun Wu, Yu-Ming Xu
TMEM230 mutations have been recently reported to cause autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease (PD). However, there are limited studies from different ethnic populations to support the role of TMEM230 in sporadic PD. In this study, we performed a comprehensive TMEM230 mutation screening in 550 sporadic PD patients and 560 controls to elaborate the genetic contribution of TMEM230 to sporadic PD. Overall, we did not find any pathogenic mutations in the coding sequence, while we identified four variants (c.68 + 182G > A, c...
April 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446709/control-of-mitochondrial-biogenesis-and-function-by-the-ubiquitin-proteasome-system
#7
REVIEW
Piotr Bragoszewski, Michal Turek, Agnieszka Chacinska
Mitochondria are pivotal organelles in eukaryotic cells. The complex proteome of mitochondria comprises proteins that are encoded by nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. The biogenesis of mitochondrial proteins requires their transport in an unfolded state with a high risk of misfolding. The mislocalization of mitochondrial proteins is deleterious to the cell. The electron transport chain in mitochondria is a source of reactive oxygen species that damage proteins. Mitochondrial dysfunction is linked to many pathological conditions and, together with the loss of cellular protein homeostasis (proteostasis), are hallmarks of ageing and ageing-related degeneration diseases...
April 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446653/vagotomy-and-parkinson-disease-a-swedish-register-based-matched-cohort-study
#8
Bojing Liu, Fang Fang, Nancy L Pedersen, Annika Tillander, Jonas F Ludvigsson, Anders Ekbom, Per Svenningsson, Honglei Chen, Karin Wirdefeldt
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether vagotomy decreases the risk of Parkinson disease (PD). METHODS: Using data from nationwide Swedish registers, we conducted a matched-cohort study of 9,430 vagotomized patients (3,445 truncal and 5,978 selective) identified between 1970 and 2010 and 377,200 reference individuals from the general population individually matched to vagotomized patients by sex and year of birth with a 40:1 ratio. Participants were followed up from the date of vagotomy until PD diagnosis, death, emigration out of Sweden, or December 31, 2010, whichever occurred first...
April 26, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446646/randomized-controlled-trial-of-deutetrabenazine-for-tardive-dyskinesia-the-arm-td-study
#9
Hubert H Fernandez, Stewart A Factor, Robert A Hauser, Joohi Jimenez-Shahed, William G Ondo, L Fredrik Jarskog, Herbert Y Meltzer, Scott W Woods, Danny Bega, Mark S LeDoux, David R Shprecher, Charles Davis, Mat D Davis, David Stamler, Karen E Anderson
OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy and safety of deutetrabenazine as a treatment for tardive dyskinesia (TD). METHODS: One hundred seventeen patients with moderate to severe TD received deutetrabenazine or placebo in this randomized, double-blind, multicenter trial. Eligibility criteria included an Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) score of ≥6 assessed by blinded central video rating, stable psychiatric illness, and stable psychoactive medication treatment...
April 26, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446643/preventing-parkinson-disease-by-vagotomy-fact-or-fiction
#10
EDITORIAL
Per Borghammer, Clement Hamani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 26, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446566/induction-of-adaptive-immunity-leads-to-nigrostriatal-disease-progression-in-mptp-mouse-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#11
Goutam Chandra, Avik Roy, Suresh B Rangasamy, Kalipada Pahan
Although the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model is the most widely used animal model for Parkinson's disease (PD), it is known that nigrostriatal pathologies do not persist in the acute MPTP mouse model. This study highlights the importance of adaptive immunity in driving persistent and progressive disease in acute MPTP-intoxicated mice. Although marked infiltration of T cells into the nigra was found on 1 d of MPTP insult, T cell infiltration decreased afterward, becoming normal on 30 d of insult...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446034/free-radicals-impair-the-anti-oxidative-stress-activity-of-dj-1-through-the-formation-of-sds-resistant-dimer
#12
Tatsuki Yasuda, Takeshi Niki, Hiroyoshi Ariga, Sanae M M Iguchi-Ariga
DJ-1 is a causative gene for familial Parkinson's disease (PD). Loss-of-function of DJ-1 protein is suggested to contribute to the onset of PD, but the causes of DJ-1 dysfunction remain insufficiently elucidated. In this study, we found that the SDS-resistant irreversible dimer of DJ-1 protein was formed in human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, when the cells were exposed to massive superoxide inducers such as paraquat and diquat. The dimer was also formed in vitro by superoxide in PQ redox cycling system and hydroxyl radical produced in Fenton reaction...
April 26, 2017: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445961/azilsartan-ameliorates-apoptosis-of-dopaminergic%C3%A2-neurons-and-rescues-characteristic-parkinsonian-behaviors-in-a-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Qing Gao, Zhou Ou, Teng Jiang, You-Yong Tian, Jun-Shan Zhou, Liang Wu, Jian-Quan Shi, Ying-Dong Zhang
Loss of dopaminergic neurons within the substantia nigra (SN) is a pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD), which leads to the onset of motor symptoms. Previously, our in vitro studies revealed that Angiotensin II (Ang II) induced apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons through its type 1 receptor (AT1R), but these findings needed to be confirmed via animal experiments. Here, using a rotenone-induced rat model of PD, we observed an overactivation of Ang II/AT1R axis in the SN, since Ang II level and AT1R expression were markedly increased...
April 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445933/the-long-noncoding-rna-hotair-promotes-parkinson-s-disease-by-upregulating-lrrk2-expression
#14
Sheng Wang, Xuan Zhang, Yuanyuan Guo, Han Rong, Tiebang Liu
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged recently as a new class of genes that regulate cellular processes. HOTAIR (Hox transcript antisense intergenic RNA), an approximately 2.2 kb long noncoding RNA transcribed from the HOXC locus, is upregulated in various diseases. However, the role of HOTAIR in Parkinson's disease (PD) remains unclear. A mouse model of PD was developed by intraperitoneal injection of MPTP. The expression of HOTAIR and LRRK2 were detected in the PD mice and in human neuroblastoma cell lines SH-SY5Y pretreated with MPP+...
April 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445854/balance-training-in-individuals-with-parkinson-s-disease-therapist-supervised-vs-home-based-exercise-programme
#15
Elizabeth Maria Atterbury, Karen Estelle Welman
BACKGROUND: Poor locomotion and balance in Parkinson's disease (PD) often diminishes independence. Accordingly, gait is considered one of the most relevant rehabilitation outcomes, and home-based balance exercises might be a viable mode of exercise delivery for individuals with PD. However, research on PD interventions rarely indicate best practices to deliver exercises. Therefore, this study endeavoured to compare the efficacy of a home-based and therapist-supervised balance programme on gait parameters, dynamic balance, balance confidence and motivation in individuals diagnosed with PD...
April 4, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445716/trumping-neurodegeneration-targeting-common-pathways-regulated-by-autosomal-recessive-parkinson-s-disease-genes
#16
REVIEW
Laura Scott, Valina L Dawson, Ted M Dawson
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative movement disorder characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons. Most PD cases are sporadic; however, rare familial forms have been identified. Autosomal recessive PD (ARPD) results from mutations in Parkin, PINK1, DJ-1, and ATP13A2, while rare, atypical juvenile ARPD result from mutations in FBXO7, DNAJC6, SYNJ1, and PLA2G6. Studying these genes and their function has revealed mitochondrial quality control, protein degradation processes, and oxidative stress responses as common pathways underlying PD pathogenesis...
April 23, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445715/altered-somatosensory-cortex-neuronal-activity-in-a-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-and-levodopa-induced-dyskinesias
#17
Mesbah Alam, Regina Rumpel, Xingxing Jin, Christof von Wrangel, Sarah Tschirner, Joachim K Krauss, Claudia Grothe, Andreas Ratzka, Kerstin Schwabe
Several findings support the concept that sensorimotor integration is disturbed in Parkinson's disease (PD) and in levodopa-induced dyskinesias. In this study, we explored the neuronal firing activity of excitatory pyramidal cells and inhibitory interneurons in the forelimb region of the primary somatosensory cortex (S1FL-Ctx), along with its interaction with oscillatory activity of the primary motor cortex (MCtx) in 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned hemiparkinsonian (HP) and levodopa-primed dyskinetic (HP-LID) rats as compared to controls under urethane (1...
April 23, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445713/deregulation-of-%C3%AE-synuclein-in-parkinson-s-disease-insight-from-epigenetic-structure-and-transcriptional-regulation-of-snca
#18
REVIEW
Subhrangshu Guhathakurta, Eugene Bok, Baggio A Evangelista, Yoon-Seong Kim
Understanding regulation of α-synuclein has long been a central focus for Parkinson's disease (PD) researchers. Accumulation of this protein in the Lewy body or neurites, mutations in the coding region of the gene and strong association of α-synuclein encoding gene multiplication (duplication/triplication) with familial form of PD have indicated the importance of this molecule in pathogenesis of the disease. Several years of research identified many potential faulty pathways associated with accumulation of α-synuclein inside dopaminergic neurons and its transmission to neighboring ones...
April 23, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445525/correction-lower-levels-of-uric-acid-and-striatal-dopamine-in-non-tremor-dominant-parkinson-s-disease-subtype
#19
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0174644.].
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444834/direct-and-indirect-effects-of-attention-and-visual-function-on-gait-impairment-in-parkinson-s-disease-influence-of-task-and-turning
#20
Samuel Stuart, Brook Galna, Louise S Delicato, Sue Lord, Lynn Rochester
Gait impairment is a core feature of Parkinson's disease (PD) which has been linked to cognitive and visual deficits, but interactions between these features are poorly understood. Monitoring saccades allows investigation of real-time cognitive and visual processes and their impact on gait when walking. This study explored; 1) saccade frequency when walking under different attentional manipulations of turning and dual-task; and 2) direct and indirect relationships between saccades, gait impairment, vision and attention...
April 26, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
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