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Marlene behrmann

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026099/subcortical-facilitation-of-behavioral-responses-to-threat
#1
Mark D Vida, Marlene Behrmann
Behavioral responses to threat are critical to survival. Several cortical and subcortical brain regions respond selectively to threat. However, the relation of these neural responses and their underlying representations to behavior is unclear. We examined the contribution of lower-order subcortical representations to behavioral responses to threat in adult humans. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants viewed pairs of images presented to the same eye or to different eyes. We observed a monocular advantage, which indicates subcortical facilitation, for ancestral threats (snakes, spiders), but not for modern threats, positive images, or neutral images...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980938/the-large-scale-organization-of-shape-processing-in-the-ventral-and-dorsal-pathways
#2
Erez Freud, Jody C Culham, David C Plaut, Marlene Behrmann
Although shape perception is considered a function of the ventral visual pathway, evidence suggests that the dorsal pathway also derives shape-based representations. In two psychophysics and neuroimaging experiments, we characterized the response properties, topographical organization and perceptual relevance of these representations. In both pathways, shape sensitivity increased from early visual cortex to extrastriate cortex but then decreased in anterior regions. Moreover, the lateral aspect of the ventral pathway and posterior regions of the dorsal pathway were sensitive to the availability of fundamental shape properties, even for unrecognizable images...
October 5, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887520/the-life-span-trajectory-of-visual-perception-of-3d-objects
#3
Erez Freud, Marlene Behrmann
Deriving a 3D structural representation of an object from its 2D input is one of the great challenges for the visual system and yet, this type of representation is critical for the successful recognition of and interaction with objects. Perhaps reflecting the importance of this computation, infants have some sensitivity to 3D structural information, and this sensitivity is, at least, partially preserved in the elderly population. To map precisely the life-span trajectory of this key visual computation, in a series of experiments, we compared the performance of observers from ages 4 to 86 years on displays of objects that either obey or violate possible 3D structure...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825896/altered-topology-of-neural-circuits-in-congenital-prosopagnosia
#4
Gideon Rosenthal, Michal Tanzer, Erez Simony, Uri Hasson, Marlene Behrmann, Galia Avidan
Using a novel, fMRI-based inter-subject functional correlation (ISFC) approach, which isolates stimulus-locked inter-regional correlation patterns, we compared the cortical topology of the neural circuit for face processing in participants with an impairment in face recognition, congenital prosopagnosia (CP), and matched controls. Whereas the anterior temporal lobe served as the major network hub for face processing in controls, this was not the case for the CPs. Instead, this group evinced hyper-connectivity in posterior regions of the visual cortex, mostly associated with the lateral occipital and the inferior temporal cortices...
August 21, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668576/functional-outcomes-following-lesions-in-visual-cortex-implications-for-plasticity-of-high-level-vision
#5
REVIEW
Tina T Liu, Marlene Behrmann
Understanding the nature and extent of neural plasticity in humans remains a key challenge for neuroscience. Importantly, however, a precise characterization of plasticity and its underlying mechanism has the potential to enable new approaches for enhancing reorganization of cortical function. Investigations of the impairment and subsequent recovery of cognitive and perceptual functions following early-onset cortical lesions in humans provide a unique opportunity to elucidate how the brain changes, adapts, and reorganizes...
June 29, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624595/atypical-perceptual-processing-of-faces-in-developmental-dyslexia
#6
Yafit Gabay, Eva Dundas, David Plaut, Marlene Behrmann
Developmental Dyslexia (DD) is often attributed to phonological processing deficits. Recent evidence, however, indicates the need for a more general explanatory framework to account for DD's range of deficits. The current study examined the specificity versus domain generality of DD by comparing the recognition and discrimination of three visual categories (faces and words with cars as control stimuli) in typical and dyslexic readers. Relative to controls, not only did dyslexic individuals perform more poorly on word recognition, but they also matched faces more slowly, especially when the faces differed in viewpoint, and discriminated between similar faces (but not cars) more poorly...
June 15, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368200/word-and-face-processing-engage-overlapping-distributed-networks-evidence-from-rsvp-and-eeg-investigations
#7
Amanda K Robinson, David C Plaut, Marlene Behrmann
Words and faces have vastly different visual properties, but increasing evidence suggests that word and face processing engage overlapping distributed networks. For instance, fMRI studies have shown overlapping activity for face and word processing in the fusiform gyrus despite well-characterized lateralization of these objects to the left and right hemispheres, respectively. To investigate whether face and word perception influences perception of the other stimulus class and elucidate the mechanisms underlying such interactions, we presented images using rapid serial visual presentations...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320968/numerosity-representation-is-encoded-in-human-subcortex
#8
Elliot Collins, Joonkoo Park, Marlene Behrmann
Certain numerical abilities appear to be relatively ubiquitous in the animal kingdom, including the ability to recognize and differentiate relative quantities. This skill is present in human adults and children, as well as in nonhuman primates and, perhaps surprisingly, is also demonstrated by lower species such as mosquitofish and spiders, despite the absence of cortical computation available to primates. This ubiquity of numerical competence suggests that representations that connect to numerical tasks are likely subserved by evolutionarily conserved regions of the nervous system...
April 4, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196374/the-visual-white-matter-the-application-of-diffusion-mri-and-fiber-tractography-to-vision-science
#9
REVIEW
Ariel Rokem, Hiromasa Takemura, Andrew S Bock, K Suzanne Scherf, Marlene Behrmann, Brian A Wandell, Ione Fine, Holly Bridge, Franco Pestilli
Visual neuroscience has traditionally focused much of its attention on understanding the response properties of single neurons or neuronal ensembles. The visual white matter and the long-range neuronal connections it supports are fundamental in establishing such neuronal response properties and visual function. This review article provides an introduction to measurements and methods to study the human visual white matter using diffusion MRI. These methods allow us to measure the microstructural and macrostructural properties of the white matter in living human individuals; they allow us to trace long-range connections between neurons in different parts of the visual system and to measure the biophysical properties of these connections...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028220/spatiotemporal-dynamics-of-similarity-based-neural-representations-of-facial-identity
#10
Mark D Vida, Adrian Nestor, David C Plaut, Marlene Behrmann
Humans' remarkable ability to quickly and accurately discriminate among thousands of highly similar complex objects demands rapid and precise neural computations. To elucidate the process by which this is achieved, we used magnetoencephalography to measure spatiotemporal patterns of neural activity with high temporal resolution during visual discrimination among a large and carefully controlled set of faces. We also compared these neural data to lower level "image-based" and higher level "identity-based" model-based representations of our stimuli and to behavioral similarity judgments of our stimuli...
January 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884424/vision-as-a-beachhead
#11
REVIEW
David J Heeger, Marlene Behrmann, Ilan Dinstein
When neural circuits develop abnormally due to different genetic deficits and/or environmental insults, neural computations and the behaviors that rely on them are altered. Computational theories that relate neural circuits with specific quantifiable behavioral and physiological phenomena, therefore, serve as extremely useful tools for elucidating the neuropathological mechanisms that underlie different disorders. The visual system is particularly well suited for characterizing differences in neural computations; computational theories of vision are well established, and empirical protocols for measuring the parameters of those theories are well developed...
May 15, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881955/response-commentary-perceptual-learning-in-autism-over-specificity-and-possible-remedies
#12
COMMENT
Hila Harris, David Israeli, Nancy J Minshew, Yoram S Bonneh, David J Heeger, Marlene Behrmann, Dov Sagi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27615805/-what-is-happening-in-the-dorsal-visual-pathway
#13
REVIEW
Erez Freud, David C Plaut, Marlene Behrmann
The cortical visual system is almost universally thought to be segregated into two anatomically and functionally distinct pathways: a ventral occipitotemporal pathway that subserves object perception, and a dorsal occipitoparietal pathway that subserves object localization and visually guided action. Accumulating evidence from both human and non-human primate studies, however, challenges this binary distinction and suggests that regions in the dorsal pathway contain object representations that are independent of those in ventral cortex and that play a functional role in object perception...
October 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27241486/retinotopic-information-interacts-with-category-selectivity-in-human-ventral-cortex
#14
Fatma Uyar, Sarah Shomstein, Adam S Greenberg, Marlene Behrmann
Until recently, the general consensus with respect to the organization of ventral visual cortex is that early, retinotopic regions are sensitive to the spatial position of the input stimuli whereas later, higher-order regions are sensitive to the category of the input stimuli. Growing recognition of the bidirectional connectivity of the visual system has challenged this view and recent empirical evidence suggests a more interactive and graded system. Here, based on findings from functional MRI in adult observers, in which meridians and category selective regions are localized and their activation sampled, we support this latter perspective by showing that category effects are present in retinotopic cortical areas and spatial position effects are present in higher-order regions...
November 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27196333/neural-mechanisms-of-face-perception-their-emergence-over-development-and-their-breakdown
#15
REVIEW
Marlene Behrmann, K Suzanne Scherf, Galia Avidan
Face perception is probably the most developed visual perceptual skill in humans, most likely as a result of its unique evolutionary and social significance. Much recent research has converged to identify a host of relevant psychological mechanisms that support face recognition. In parallel, there has been substantial progress in uncovering the neural mechanisms that mediate rapid and accurate face perception, with specific emphasis on a broadly distributed neural circuit, comprised of multiple nodes whose joint activity supports face perception...
July 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27083780/differential-sensory-fmri-signatures-in-autism-and-schizophrenia-analysis-of-amplitude-and-trial-to-trial-variability
#16
Sarah M Haigh, Akshat Gupta, Scott M Barb, Summer A F Glass, Nancy J Minshew, Ilan Dinstein, David J Heeger, Shaun M Eack, Marlene Behrmann
Autism and schizophrenia share multiple phenotypic and genotypic markers, and there is ongoing debate regarding the relationship of these two disorders. To examine whether cortical dynamics are similar across these disorders, we directly compared fMRI responses to visual, somatosensory and auditory stimuli in adults with autism (N=15), with schizophrenia (N=15), and matched controls (N=15). All participants completed a one-back letter detection task presented at fixation (to control attention) while task-irrelevant sensory stimulation was delivered to the different modalities...
August 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26940029/no-difference-in-cross-modal-attention-or-sensory-discrimination-thresholds-in-autism-and-matched-controls
#17
Sarah M Haigh, David J Heeger, Laurie M Heller, Akshat Gupta, Ilan Dinstein, Nancy J Minshew, Marlene Behrmann
Autism has been associated with abnormalities in sensory and attentional processing. Here, we assessed these processes independently in the visual and auditory domains using a visual contrast-discrimination task and an auditory modulation-depth discrimination task. To evaluate changes in sensory function by attention, we measured behavioral performance (discrimination accuracy) when subjects were cued to attend and respond to the same stimulus (frequent valid cue) or cued to attend to one stimulus and respond to the non-cued stimulus (infrequent invalid cue)...
April 2016: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26711997/feature-based-face-representations-and-image-reconstruction-from-behavioral-and-neural-data
#18
Adrian Nestor, David C Plaut, Marlene Behrmann
The reconstruction of images from neural data can provide a unique window into the content of human perceptual representations. Although recent efforts have established the viability of this enterprise using functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patterns, these efforts have relied on a variety of prespecified image features. Here, we take on the twofold task of deriving features directly from empirical data and of using these features for facial image reconstruction. First, we use a method akin to reverse correlation to derive visual features from functional MRI patterns elicited by a large set of homogeneous face exemplars...
January 12, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26457923/word-and-line-bisection-in-typical-and-impaired-readers-and-a-cross-language-comparison
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Yafit Gabay, Shai Gabay, Avishai Henik, Rachel Schiff, Marlene Behrmann
Observers exhibit larger leftward bias when bisecting words compared with lines. According to the Attentional Scaling Hypothesis, attempting to access lexical entries involves focusing attention on the initial letters of words to establish a cohort of potential matches with entries in the mental lexicon. We test this account by examining two predictions: (1) greater leftward bias for words should be evident in English readers in which the word beginning is on the left but not in Hebrew readers. (2) Dyslexics who have lexical impairments should show greater bias...
November 2015: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26436903/perceptual-learning-in-autism-over-specificity-and-possible-remedies
#20
Hila Harris, David Israeli, Nancy Minshew, Yoram Bonneh, David J Heeger, Marlene Behrmann, Dov Sagi
Inflexible behavior is a core characteristic of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but its underlying cause is unknown. Using a perceptual learning protocol, we observed initially efficient learning in ASD that was followed by anomalously poor learning when the location of the target was changed (over-specificity). Reducing stimulus repetition eliminated over-specificity. Our results indicate that inflexible behavior may be evident ubiquitously in ASD, even in sensory learning, but can be circumvented by specifically designed stimulation protocols...
November 2015: Nature Neuroscience
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