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Marlene behrmann

Tina T Liu, Marlene Behrmann
Understanding the nature and extent of neural plasticity in humans remains a key challenge for neuroscience. Importantly, however, a precise characterization of plasticity and its underlying mechanism has the potential to enable new approaches for enhancing reorganization of cortical function. Investigations of the impairment and subsequent recovery of cognitive and perceptual functions following early-onset cortical lesions in humans provide a unique opportunity to elucidate how the brain changes, adapts, and reorganizes...
June 29, 2017: Neuropsychologia
Yafit Gabay, Eva Dundas, David Plaut, Marlene Behrmann
Developmental Dyslexia (DD) is often attributed to phonological processing deficits. Recent evidence, however, indicates the need for a more general explanatory framework to account for DD's range of deficits. The current study examined the specificity versus domain generality of DD by comparing the recognition and discrimination of three visual categories (faces and words with cars as control stimuli) in typical and dyslexic readers. Relative to controls, not only did dyslexic individuals perform more poorly on word recognition, but they also matched faces more slowly, especially when the faces differed in viewpoint, and discriminated between similar faces (but not cars) more poorly...
June 15, 2017: Brain and Language
Amanda K Robinson, David C Plaut, Marlene Behrmann
Words and faces have vastly different visual properties, but increasing evidence suggests that word and face processing engage overlapping distributed networks. For instance, fMRI studies have shown overlapping activity for face and word processing in the fusiform gyrus despite well-characterized lateralization of these objects to the left and right hemispheres, respectively. To investigate whether face and word perception influences perception of the other stimulus class and elucidate the mechanisms underlying such interactions, we presented images using rapid serial visual presentations...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Elliot Collins, Joonkoo Park, Marlene Behrmann
Certain numerical abilities appear to be relatively ubiquitous in the animal kingdom, including the ability to recognize and differentiate relative quantities. This skill is present in human adults and children, as well as in nonhuman primates and, perhaps surprisingly, is also demonstrated by lower species such as mosquitofish and spiders, despite the absence of cortical computation available to primates. This ubiquity of numerical competence suggests that representations that connect to numerical tasks are likely subserved by evolutionarily conserved regions of the nervous system...
April 4, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Ariel Rokem, Hiromasa Takemura, Andrew S Bock, K Suzanne Scherf, Marlene Behrmann, Brian A Wandell, Ione Fine, Holly Bridge, Franco Pestilli
Visual neuroscience has traditionally focused much of its attention on understanding the response properties of single neurons or neuronal ensembles. The visual white matter and the long-range neuronal connections it supports are fundamental in establishing such neuronal response properties and visual function. This review article provides an introduction to measurements and methods to study the human visual white matter using diffusion MRI. These methods allow us to measure the microstructural and macrostructural properties of the white matter in living human individuals; they allow us to trace long-range connections between neurons in different parts of the visual system and to measure the biophysical properties of these connections...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Mark D Vida, Adrian Nestor, David C Plaut, Marlene Behrmann
Humans' remarkable ability to quickly and accurately discriminate among thousands of highly similar complex objects demands rapid and precise neural computations. To elucidate the process by which this is achieved, we used magnetoencephalography to measure spatiotemporal patterns of neural activity with high temporal resolution during visual discrimination among a large and carefully controlled set of faces. We also compared these neural data to lower level "image-based" and higher level "identity-based" model-based representations of our stimuli and to behavioral similarity judgments of our stimuli...
January 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
David J Heeger, Marlene Behrmann, Ilan Dinstein
When neural circuits develop abnormally due to different genetic deficits and/or environmental insults, neural computations and the behaviors that rely on them are altered. Computational theories that relate neural circuits with specific quantifiable behavioral and physiological phenomena, therefore, serve as extremely useful tools for elucidating the neuropathological mechanisms that underlie different disorders. The visual system is particularly well suited for characterizing differences in neural computations; computational theories of vision are well established, and empirical protocols for measuring the parameters of those theories are well developed...
May 15, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
Hila Harris, David Israeli, Nancy J Minshew, Yoram S Bonneh, David J Heeger, Marlene Behrmann, Dov Sagi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Erez Freud, David C Plaut, Marlene Behrmann
The cortical visual system is almost universally thought to be segregated into two anatomically and functionally distinct pathways: a ventral occipitotemporal pathway that subserves object perception, and a dorsal occipitoparietal pathway that subserves object localization and visually guided action. Accumulating evidence from both human and non-human primate studies, however, challenges this binary distinction and suggests that regions in the dorsal pathway contain object representations that are independent of those in ventral cortex and that play a functional role in object perception...
October 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Fatma Uyar, Sarah Shomstein, Adam S Greenberg, Marlene Behrmann
Until recently, the general consensus with respect to the organization of ventral visual cortex is that early, retinotopic regions are sensitive to the spatial position of the input stimuli whereas later, higher-order regions are sensitive to the category of the input stimuli. Growing recognition of the bidirectional connectivity of the visual system has challenged this view and recent empirical evidence suggests a more interactive and graded system. Here, based on findings from functional MRI in adult observers, in which meridians and category selective regions are localized and their activation sampled, we support this latter perspective by showing that category effects are present in retinotopic cortical areas and spatial position effects are present in higher-order regions...
November 2016: Neuropsychologia
Marlene Behrmann, K Suzanne Scherf, Galia Avidan
Face perception is probably the most developed visual perceptual skill in humans, most likely as a result of its unique evolutionary and social significance. Much recent research has converged to identify a host of relevant psychological mechanisms that support face recognition. In parallel, there has been substantial progress in uncovering the neural mechanisms that mediate rapid and accurate face perception, with specific emphasis on a broadly distributed neural circuit, comprised of multiple nodes whose joint activity supports face perception...
July 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Sarah M Haigh, Akshat Gupta, Scott M Barb, Summer A F Glass, Nancy J Minshew, Ilan Dinstein, David J Heeger, Shaun M Eack, Marlene Behrmann
Autism and schizophrenia share multiple phenotypic and genotypic markers, and there is ongoing debate regarding the relationship of these two disorders. To examine whether cortical dynamics are similar across these disorders, we directly compared fMRI responses to visual, somatosensory and auditory stimuli in adults with autism (N=15), with schizophrenia (N=15), and matched controls (N=15). All participants completed a one-back letter detection task presented at fixation (to control attention) while task-irrelevant sensory stimulation was delivered to the different modalities...
August 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Sarah M Haigh, David J Heeger, Laurie M Heller, Akshat Gupta, Ilan Dinstein, Nancy J Minshew, Marlene Behrmann
Autism has been associated with abnormalities in sensory and attentional processing. Here, we assessed these processes independently in the visual and auditory domains using a visual contrast-discrimination task and an auditory modulation-depth discrimination task. To evaluate changes in sensory function by attention, we measured behavioral performance (discrimination accuracy) when subjects were cued to attend and respond to the same stimulus (frequent valid cue) or cued to attend to one stimulus and respond to the non-cued stimulus (infrequent invalid cue)...
April 2016: Vision Research
Adrian Nestor, David C Plaut, Marlene Behrmann
The reconstruction of images from neural data can provide a unique window into the content of human perceptual representations. Although recent efforts have established the viability of this enterprise using functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patterns, these efforts have relied on a variety of prespecified image features. Here, we take on the twofold task of deriving features directly from empirical data and of using these features for facial image reconstruction. First, we use a method akin to reverse correlation to derive visual features from functional MRI patterns elicited by a large set of homogeneous face exemplars...
January 12, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Yafit Gabay, Shai Gabay, Avishai Henik, Rachel Schiff, Marlene Behrmann
Observers exhibit larger leftward bias when bisecting words compared with lines. According to the Attentional Scaling Hypothesis, attempting to access lexical entries involves focusing attention on the initial letters of words to establish a cohort of potential matches with entries in the mental lexicon. We test this account by examining two predictions: (1) greater leftward bias for words should be evident in English readers in which the word beginning is on the left but not in Hebrew readers. (2) Dyslexics who have lexical impairments should show greater bias...
November 2015: Brain and Language
Hila Harris, David Israeli, Nancy Minshew, Yoram Bonneh, David J Heeger, Marlene Behrmann, Dov Sagi
Inflexible behavior is a core characteristic of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but its underlying cause is unknown. Using a perceptual learning protocol, we observed initially efficient learning in ASD that was followed by anomalously poor learning when the location of the target was changed (over-specificity). Reducing stimulus repetition eliminated over-specificity. Our results indicate that inflexible behavior may be evident ubiquitously in ASD, even in sensory learning, but can be circumvented by specifically designed stimulation protocols...
November 2015: Nature Neuroscience
Jiye G Kim, Elissa M Aminoff, Sabine Kastner, Marlene Behrmann
UNLABELLED: Developmental topographic disorientation (DTD) is a life-long condition in which affected individuals are severely impaired in navigating around their environment. Individuals with DTD have no apparent structural brain damage on conventional imaging and the neural mechanisms underlying DTD are currently unknown. Using functional and diffusion tensor imaging, we present a comprehensive neuroimaging study of an individual, J.N., with well defined DTD. J.N. has intact scene-selective responses in the parahippocampal place area (PPA), transverse occipital sulcus, and retrosplenial cortex (RSC), key regions associated with scene perception and navigation...
September 16, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Valentinos Zachariou, Christine V Nikas, Zaid N Safiullah, Marlene Behrmann, Roberta Klatzky, Leslie G Ungerleider
Everyday objects are often composed of multiple parts, each with a unique surface texture. The neural substrates mediating the integration of surface features on different object parts are not fully understood, and potential contributions by both the ventral and dorsal visual pathways are possible. To explore these substrates, we collected fMRI data while human participants performed a difference detection task on two objects with textured parts. The objects could either differ in the assignment of the same texture to different object parts ("texture-location") or the types of texture ("texture-type")...
December 2015: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Marlene Behrmann
Reverse engineering involves disassembling a complex device and analyzing its components and workings in detail with the goal of understanding how the device works in its intact state. To elucidate the neural components implicated in normal face perception, we investigate the disrupted components in individuals with congenital prosopagnosia, an apparently lifelong impairment in face processing, despite normal vision and other cognitive skills. Structural and functional MRI data reveal compromised connectivity between more posterior face-selective cortical patches and more anterior regions that respond to face stimuli...
2015: Journal of Vision
Elisabeth Whyte, Daniel Elbich, Marlene Behrmann, Nancy Minshew, K Suzanne Scherf
Atypicalities in the development of regions within the core and extended face-processing network have been implicated in the development of social symptoms for individuals with autism (Schultz, 2005; Scherf et al., 2014). As a result, the functional organization among these regions may also be impacted. Uddin, Supekar, & Menon (2013) proposed a developmental model, suggesting that adolescence may be a time of functional under-connectivity in neural networks of individuals with autism. To investigate whether the face-processing network exhibits such functional under-connectivity in autism, the current study examined functional connectivity within the face processing networks of 14 adolescents with high functioning autism (HFA) and 14 typically developing (TD) adolescents (13 to 18 years)...
2015: Journal of Vision
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