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Marlene behrmann

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884424/vision-as-a-beachhead
#1
REVIEW
David J Heeger, Marlene Behrmann, Ilan Dinstein
When neural circuits develop abnormally due to different genetic deficits and/or environmental insults, neural computations and the behaviors that rely on them are altered. Computational theories that relate neural circuits with specific quantifiable behavioral and physiological phenomena, therefore, serve as extremely useful tools for elucidating the neuropathological mechanisms that underlie different disorders. The visual system is particularly well suited for characterizing differences in neural computations; computational theories of vision are well established, and empirical protocols for measuring the parameters of those theories are well developed...
September 29, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881955/response-commentary-perceptual-learning-in-autism-over-specificity-and-possible-remedies
#2
COMMENT
Hila Harris, David Israeli, Nancy J Minshew, Yoram S Bonneh, David J Heeger, Marlene Behrmann, Dov Sagi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27615805/-what-is-happening-in-the-dorsal-visual-pathway
#3
REVIEW
Erez Freud, David C Plaut, Marlene Behrmann
The cortical visual system is almost universally thought to be segregated into two anatomically and functionally distinct pathways: a ventral occipitotemporal pathway that subserves object perception, and a dorsal occipitoparietal pathway that subserves object localization and visually guided action. Accumulating evidence from both human and non-human primate studies, however, challenges this binary distinction and suggests that regions in the dorsal pathway contain object representations that are independent of those in ventral cortex and that play a functional role in object perception...
October 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27241486/retinotopic-information-interacts-with-category-selectivity-in-human-ventral-cortex
#4
Fatma Uyar, Sarah Shomstein, Adam S Greenberg, Marlene Behrmann
Until recently, the general consensus with respect to the organization of ventral visual cortex is that early, retinotopic regions are sensitive to the spatial position of the input stimuli whereas later, higher-order regions are sensitive to the category of the input stimuli. Growing recognition of the bidirectional connectivity of the visual system has challenged this view and recent empirical evidence suggests a more interactive and graded system. Here, based on findings from functional MRI in adult observers, in which meridians and category selective regions are localized and their activation sampled, we support this latter perspective by showing that category effects are present in retinotopic cortical areas and spatial position effects are present in higher-order regions...
May 27, 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27196333/neural-mechanisms-of-face-perception-their-emergence-over-development-and-their-breakdown
#5
REVIEW
Marlene Behrmann, K Suzanne Scherf, Galia Avidan
Face perception is probably the most developed visual perceptual skill in humans, most likely as a result of its unique evolutionary and social significance. Much recent research has converged to identify a host of relevant psychological mechanisms that support face recognition. In parallel, there has been substantial progress in uncovering the neural mechanisms that mediate rapid and accurate face perception, with specific emphasis on a broadly distributed neural circuit, comprised of multiple nodes whose joint activity supports face perception...
July 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27083780/differential-sensory-fmri-signatures-in-autism-and-schizophrenia-analysis-of-amplitude-and-trial-to-trial-variability
#6
Sarah M Haigh, Akshat Gupta, Scott M Barb, Summer A F Glass, Nancy J Minshew, Ilan Dinstein, David J Heeger, Shaun M Eack, Marlene Behrmann
Autism and schizophrenia share multiple phenotypic and genotypic markers, and there is ongoing debate regarding the relationship of these two disorders. To examine whether cortical dynamics are similar across these disorders, we directly compared fMRI responses to visual, somatosensory and auditory stimuli in adults with autism (N=15), with schizophrenia (N=15), and matched controls (N=15). All participants completed a one-back letter detection task presented at fixation (to control attention) while task-irrelevant sensory stimulation was delivered to the different modalities...
August 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26940029/no-difference-in-cross-modal-attention-or-sensory-discrimination-thresholds-in-autism-and-matched-controls
#7
Sarah M Haigh, David J Heeger, Laurie M Heller, Akshat Gupta, Ilan Dinstein, Nancy J Minshew, Marlene Behrmann
Autism has been associated with abnormalities in sensory and attentional processing. Here, we assessed these processes independently in the visual and auditory domains using a visual contrast-discrimination task and an auditory modulation-depth discrimination task. To evaluate changes in sensory function by attention, we measured behavioral performance (discrimination accuracy) when subjects were cued to attend and respond to the same stimulus (frequent valid cue) or cued to attend to one stimulus and respond to the non-cued stimulus (infrequent invalid cue)...
April 2016: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26711997/feature-based-face-representations-and-image-reconstruction-from-behavioral-and-neural-data
#8
Adrian Nestor, David C Plaut, Marlene Behrmann
The reconstruction of images from neural data can provide a unique window into the content of human perceptual representations. Although recent efforts have established the viability of this enterprise using functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patterns, these efforts have relied on a variety of prespecified image features. Here, we take on the twofold task of deriving features directly from empirical data and of using these features for facial image reconstruction. First, we use a method akin to reverse correlation to derive visual features from functional MRI patterns elicited by a large set of homogeneous face exemplars...
January 12, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26457923/word-and-line-bisection-in-typical-and-impaired-readers-and-a-cross-language-comparison
#9
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Yafit Gabay, Shai Gabay, Avishai Henik, Rachel Schiff, Marlene Behrmann
Observers exhibit larger leftward bias when bisecting words compared with lines. According to the Attentional Scaling Hypothesis, attempting to access lexical entries involves focusing attention on the initial letters of words to establish a cohort of potential matches with entries in the mental lexicon. We test this account by examining two predictions: (1) greater leftward bias for words should be evident in English readers in which the word beginning is on the left but not in Hebrew readers. (2) Dyslexics who have lexical impairments should show greater bias...
November 2015: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26436903/perceptual-learning-in-autism-over-specificity-and-possible-remedies
#10
Hila Harris, David Israeli, Nancy Minshew, Yoram Bonneh, David J Heeger, Marlene Behrmann, Dov Sagi
Inflexible behavior is a core characteristic of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but its underlying cause is unknown. Using a perceptual learning protocol, we observed initially efficient learning in ASD that was followed by anomalously poor learning when the location of the target was changed (over-specificity). Reducing stimulus repetition eliminated over-specificity. Our results indicate that inflexible behavior may be evident ubiquitously in ASD, even in sensory learning, but can be circumvented by specifically designed stimulation protocols...
November 2015: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26377479/a-neural-basis-for-developmental-topographic-disorientation
#11
Jiye G Kim, Elissa M Aminoff, Sabine Kastner, Marlene Behrmann
UNLABELLED: Developmental topographic disorientation (DTD) is a life-long condition in which affected individuals are severely impaired in navigating around their environment. Individuals with DTD have no apparent structural brain damage on conventional imaging and the neural mechanisms underlying DTD are currently unknown. Using functional and diffusion tensor imaging, we present a comprehensive neuroimaging study of an individual, J.N., with well defined DTD. J.N. has intact scene-selective responses in the parahippocampal place area (PPA), transverse occipital sulcus, and retrosplenial cortex (RSC), key regions associated with scene perception and navigation...
September 16, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26359538/common-dorsal-stream-substrates-for-the-mapping-of-surface-texture-to-object-parts-and-visual-spatial-processing
#12
Valentinos Zachariou, Christine V Nikas, Zaid N Safiullah, Marlene Behrmann, Roberta Klatzky, Leslie G Ungerleider
Everyday objects are often composed of multiple parts, each with a unique surface texture. The neural substrates mediating the integration of surface features on different object parts are not fully understood, and potential contributions by both the ventral and dorsal visual pathways are possible. To explore these substrates, we collected fMRI data while human participants performed a difference detection task on two objects with textured parts. The objects could either differ in the assignment of the same texture to different object parts ("texture-location") or the types of texture ("texture-type")...
December 2015: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26327097/reverse-engineering-the-face-perception-system-insights-from-congenital-prosopagnosia
#13
Marlene Behrmann
Reverse engineering involves disassembling a complex device and analyzing its components and workings in detail with the goal of understanding how the device works in its intact state. To elucidate the neural components implicated in normal face perception, we investigate the disrupted components in individuals with congenital prosopagnosia, an apparently lifelong impairment in face processing, despite normal vision and other cognitive skills. Structural and functional MRI data reveal compromised connectivity between more posterior face-selective cortical patches and more anterior regions that respond to face stimuli...
2015: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26326897/altered-functional-connectivity-in-the-core-and-extended-face-processing-network-in-adolescents-with-autism
#14
Elisabeth Whyte, Daniel Elbich, Marlene Behrmann, Nancy Minshew, K Suzanne Scherf
Atypicalities in the development of regions within the core and extended face-processing network have been implicated in the development of social symptoms for individuals with autism (Schultz, 2005; Scherf et al., 2014). As a result, the functional organization among these regions may also be impacted. Uddin, Supekar, & Menon (2013) proposed a developmental model, suggesting that adolescence may be a time of functional under-connectivity in neural networks of individuals with autism. To investigate whether the face-processing network exhibits such functional under-connectivity in autism, the current study examined functional connectivity within the face processing networks of 14 adolescents with high functioning autism (HFA) and 14 typically developing (TD) adolescents (13 to 18 years)...
2015: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26326787/intact-implicit-representation-of-object-3d-structure-in-object-agnosia
#15
Erez Freud, Tzvi Ganel, Galia Avidan, Marlene Behrmann
The representation of object 3D structure in the human brain is fundamental for the recognition and visuomotor control of objects. Accordingly, multiple cortical regions along the dorsal and ventral visual streams have been shown to exhibit sensitivity to object structure. To examine the contribution of regions in the ventral stream to processing object 3D structure, we tested five patients with focal damage in the right ventral visual cortex. In a series of behavioral experiments, in which spatially possible and impossible objects were presented, the patients exhibited reduced explicit classifications of 3D structure compared to matched healthy and brain-damaged controls...
2015: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26326327/axial-diffusivity-in-the-ilf-and-ifof-is-related-to-autism-symptom-severity
#16
K Suzanne Scherf, Jennifer Legault, Indira Turney, Daniel Elbich, Nancy Minshew, Marlene Behrmann
Atypical neural activation within the face-processing network is widely reported in adults and adolescents with autism; and, individual differences in symptom severity predict the magnitude of these atypical responses, particularly within posterior core regions of this network (Scherf et al., 2015). Also, recent evidence suggests that the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), a fiber tract that connects posterior core regions with more anterior extended regions, is developmentally disrupted in autism (Koldewyn et al...
2015: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26326122/the-reorganization-of-extrastriate-cortex-in-patients-with-lobectomy
#17
Tina Liu, Adrian Nestor, Christina Patterson, Marlene Behrmann
The recovery of perceptual functions that occur following cortical damage can offer key insights into the nature and plasticity of brain organization. In this respect, studies of individuals post-lobectomy/hemispherectomy offer a unique window into the nature and extent of cortical plasticity. First, in contrast with more common lesions, the extent of the damage in such patients can be extreme (i.e. an entire hemisphere in some cases) yet, at the same time, very well controlled - both cortical and subcortical structures of the remaining hemisphere are typically intact...
2015: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26325889/visualizing-the-spatiotemporal-dynamics-of-neural-representations-of-individual-face-identities
#18
Mark Vida, Marlene Behrmann
Individual face identities are represented in the human brain by spatially distributed patterns of neural activity (e.g., Nestor et al., 2011). We investigated the spatiotemporal dynamics of this representation. An adult human viewed well-controlled color photographs of 91 male face identities (two expressions and 104 trials per identity), while brain activity was recorded with magnetoencephalography (MEG). For 47 time points 10-470 ms after stimulus onset, and two regions-of-interest (ROIs) commonly implicated in face processing (right and left posterior fusiform gyrus [pFG]), we used linear SVM classification to measure neural discrimination of all possible face pairs, across facial expression...
2015: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26271235/agnosias
#19
Marlene Behrmann, Mayu Nishimura
The neuropsychological disorder, known as visual agnosia, refers to the impairment in deriving the meaning of a visually presented stimulus, in spite of the affected individual having intact sensory and low-level vision, and normal language and semantic function. This type of disorder is intriguing both clinically and scientifically, and vision scientists have studied visual agnosia as a means of shedding light on how the normal visual system functions. Considerable progress has been made in this domain, in parallel with detailed behavioral and neural investigations of the visual system of neurologically intact individuals and of nonhuman primates...
March 2010: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26199998/a-vision-of-graded-hemispheric-specialization
#20
REVIEW
Marlene Behrmann, David C Plaut
Understanding the process by which the cerebral hemispheres reach their mature functional organization remains challenging. We propose a theoretical account in which, in the domain of vision, faces and words come to be represented adjacent to retinotopic cortex by virtue of the need to discriminate among homogeneous exemplars. Orthographic representations are further constrained to be proximal to typically left-lateralized language-related information to minimize connectivity length between visual and language areas...
November 2015: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
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