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Ribbon synapse

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790889/the-calcineurin-binding-activity-dependent-splice-variant-dynamin1xb-is-highly-enriched-in-synapses-in-various-regions-of-the-central-nervous-system
#1
Marie-Lisa Eich, Ekta Dembla, Silke Wahl, Mayur Dembla, Karin Schwarz, Frank Schmitz
In the present study, we generated and characterized a splice site-specific monoclonal antibody that selectively detects the calcineurin-binding dynamin1 splice variant dynamin1xb. Calcineurin is a Ca(2+)-regulated phosphatase that enhances dynamin1 activity and is an important Ca(2+)-sensing mediator of homeostatic synaptic plasticity in neurons. Using this dynamin1xb-specific antibody, we found dynamin1xb highly enriched in synapses of all analyzed brain regions. In photoreceptor ribbon synapses, dynamin1xb was enriched in close vicinity to the synaptic ribbon in a manner indicative of a peri-active zone immunolabeling...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744553/brag2a-a-guanine-nucleotide-exchange-factor-for-arf6-is-a-component-of-the-dystrophin-associated-glycoprotein-complex-at-the-photoreceptor-terminal
#2
Hiroyuki Sakagami, Osamu Katsumata, Yoshinobu Hara, Toshikuni Sasaoka, Masahiro Fukaya
Purpose: Mutations in genes encoding the dystrophin-associated glycoprotein complex (DGC) can cause muscular dystrophy and disturb synaptic transmission in the photoreceptor ribbon synapse. However, the molecular composition and specific functions of the photoreceptor DGC remain unknown. Brefeldin A-resistant Arf-GEF 2 (BRAG2), also known as IQSEC1, is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6), a critical GTPase that regulates endosomal trafficking and actin cytoskeleton remodeling...
July 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703809/epigallocatechin-3-gallate-a-prototypic-chemopreventative-agent-for-protection-against-cisplatin-based-ototoxicity
#3
Vikrant Borse, Raheem F H Al Aameri, Kelly Sheehan, Sandeep Sheth, Tejbeer Kaur, Debashree Mukherjea, Srinivasan Tupal, Michelle Lowy, Sumana Ghosh, Asmita Dhukhwa, Puspanjali Bhatta, Leonard P Rybak, Vickram Ramkumar
Cisplatin-induced ototoxicity is one of the major factors limiting cisplatin chemotherapy. Ototoxicity results from damage to outer hair cells (OHCs) and other regions of the cochlea. At the cellular level, cisplatin increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to cochlear inflammation and apoptosis. Thus, ideal otoprotective drugs should target oxidative stress and inflammatory mechanisms without interfering with cisplatin's chemotherapeutic efficacy. In this study, we show that epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is a prototypic agent exhibiting these properties of an effect otoprotective agent...
July 13, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701482/analysis-of-rim-expression-and-function-at-mouse-photoreceptor-ribbon-synapses
#4
Martina Löhner, Norbert Babai, Tanja Müller, Kaspar Gierke, Jenny Atorf, Anneka Joachimsthaler, Angela Peukert, Henrik Martens, Andreas Feigenspan, Jan Kremers, Susanne Schoch, Johann Helmut Brandstätter, Hanna Regus-Leidig
RIM (RAB3A-interacting molecule) proteins are important regulators of transmitter release from active zones. At conventional chemical synapses, RIMs contribute substantially to vesicle priming and docking, and their loss reduces the readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles by up to 75 %. The priming function of RIMs is mediated via the formation of a tripartite complex with Munc13 and RAB3A, which brings synaptic vesicles in close proximity to Ca(2+) channels and the fusion site, and activates Munc13. We reported previously that at mouse photoreceptor ribbon synapses vesicle priming is Munc13-independent...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642685/rab-interacting-molecules-2-and-3-directly-interact-with-the-pore-forming-cav1-3-ca-2-channel-subunit-and-promote-its-membrane-expression
#5
Maria M Picher, Ana-Maria Oprişoreanu, SangYong Jung, Katrin Michel, Susanne Schoch, Tobias Moser
Rab interacting molecules (RIMs) are multi-domain proteins that positively regulate the number of Ca(2+) channels at the presynaptic active zone (AZ). Several molecular mechanisms have been demonstrated for RIM-binding to components of the presynaptic Ca(2+) channel complex, the key signaling element at the AZ. Here, we report an interaction of the C2B domain of RIM2α and RIM3γ with the C-terminus of the pore-forming α-subunit of CaV1.3 channels (CaV1.3α1), which mediate stimulus-secretion coupling at the ribbon synapses of cochlear inner hair cells (IHCs)...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641988/wavy-multistratified-amacrine-cells-in-the-monkey-retina-contain-immunoreactive-secretoneurin
#6
Andrea S Bordt, Ye Long, Nobuo Kouyama, Elizabeth S Yamada, Jens Hannibal, David W Marshak
The goals of this study were to describe the morphology, neurotransmitter content and synaptic connections of neurons in primate retinas that contain the neuropeptide secretoneurin. Amacrine cells were labeled with antibodies to secretoneurin in macaque and baboon retinas. Their processes formed three distinct plexuses in the inner plexiform layer: one in the outermost stratum, one in the center and one in the innermost stratum. In light microscopic double immunolabeling experiments, GABA was colocalized with secretoneurin in these cells, but glycine transporter 1 and Substance P were not...
August 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612046/shaping-of-signal-transmission-at-the-photoreceptor-synapse-by-eaat2-glutamate-transporters
#7
Stephanie Niklaus, Lucia Cadetti, Colette M Vom Berg-Maurer, André Lehnherr, Adriana L Hotz, Ian C Forster, Matthias Gesemann, Stephan C F Neuhauss
Photoreceptor ribbon synapses tonically release glutamate. To ensure efficient signal transmission and prevent glutamate toxicity, a highly efficient glutamate removal system provided by members of the SLC1 gene family is required. By using a combination of biophysical and in vivo studies, we elucidate the role of excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2) proteins in synaptic glutamate homeostasis at the zebrafish photoreceptor synapse. The main glutamate sink is provided by the glial EAAT2a, reflected by reduced electroretinographic responses in EAAT2a-depleted larvae...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576729/afferent-synaptogenesis-between-ectopic-hair-cell-like-cells-and-neurites-of-spiral-ganglion-induced-by-atoh1-in-mammals-in-vitro
#8
Wen-Wei Luo, Rui Ma, Xiang Cheng, Xiao-Yu Yang, Zhao Han, Dong-Dong Ren, Ping Chen, Fang-Lu Chi, Juan-Mei Yang
Newly formed ectopic hair-cell-like cells (EHCLCs) induced by overexpression of atonal homolog 1 (Atoh1) in vitro were found to possess features of endogenous hair cells (HCs) in previous reports and in the present study. However, limited information is available regarding whether EHCLCs and native spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) form afferent synapses, which are important for the restoration of hearing. In the current study, we focused on the afferent synaptogenesis between EHCLCs and SGN-derived dendrites...
May 31, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546313/enlargement-of-ribbons-in-zebrafish-hair-cells-increases-calcium-currents-but-disrupts-afferent-spontaneous-activity-and-timing-of-stimulus-onset
#9
Lavinia Sheets, Xinyi J He, Jennifer Olt, Mary Schreck, Ronald S Petralia, Ya-Xian Wang, Qiuxiang Zhang, Alisha Beirl, Teresa Nicolson, Walter Marcotti, Josef G Trapani, Katie S Kindt
In sensory hair cells of auditory and vestibular organs, the ribbon synapse is required for the precise encoding of a wide range of complex stimuli. Hair cells have a unique presynaptic structure, the synaptic ribbon, which organizes both synaptic vesicles and calcium channels at the active zone. Previous work has shown that hair-cell ribbon size is correlated with differences in postsynaptic activity. However, additional variability in postsynapse size presents a challenge to determining the specific role of ribbon size in sensory encoding...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539424/ca-2-permeable-ampars-mediate-glutamatergic-transmission-and-excitotoxic-damage-at-the-hair-cell-ribbon-synapse
#10
Joy Y Sebe, Soyoun Cho, Lavinia Sheets, Mark A Rutherford, Henrique von Gersdorff, David W Raible
We report functional and structural evidence for GluA2-lacking Ca(2+)-permeable AMPARs (CP-AMPARs) at the mature hair cell ribbon synapse. By using the methodological advantages of three species (of either sex), we demonstrate that CP-AMPARs are present at the hair cell synapse in an evolutionarily conserved manner. Via a combination of in vivo electrophysiological and Ca(2+) imaging approaches in the larval zebrafish, we show that hair cell stimulation leads to robust Ca(2+) influx into afferent terminals...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438658/antioxidants-reduce-neurodegeneration-and-accumulation-of-pathologic-tau-proteins-in-the-auditory-system-after-blast-exposure
#11
Xiaoping Du, Matthew B West, Qunfeng Cai, Weihua Cheng, Donald L Ewert, Wei Li, Robert A Floyd, Richard D Kopke
Cochlear neurodegeneration commonly accompanies hair cell loss resulting from aging, ototoxicity, or exposures to intense noise or blast overpressures. However, the precise pathophysiological mechanisms that drive this degenerative response have not been fully elucidated. Our laboratory previously demonstrated that non-transgenic rats exposed to blast overpressures exhibited marked somatic accumulation of neurotoxic variants of the microtubule-associated protein, Tau, in the hippocampus. In the present study, we extended these analyses to examine neurodegeneration and pathologic Tau accumulation in the auditory system in response to blast exposure and evaluated the potential therapeutic efficacy of antioxidants on short-circuiting this pathological process...
April 22, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378516/how-do-horizontal-cells-talk-to-cone-photoreceptors-different-levels-of-complexity-at-the-cone-horizontal-cell-synapse
#12
Camille A Chapot, Thomas Euler, Timm Schubert
The first synapse of the retina plays a fundamental role in the visual system. Due to its importance, it is critical that it encodes information from the outside world with the greatest accuracy and precision possible. Cone photoreceptor axon terminals contain many individual synaptic sites, each represented by a presynaptic structure called a 'ribbon'. These synapses are both highly sophisticated and conserved. Each ribbon relays the light signal to one ON cone bipolar cell and several OFF cone bipolar cells, while two dendritic processes from a GABAergic interneuron, the horizontal cell, modulate the cone output via parallel feedback mechanisms...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363980/a-presynaptic-group-iii-mglur-recruits-g%C3%AE-%C3%AE-snare-interactions-to-inhibit-synaptic-transmission-by-cone-photoreceptors-in-the-vertebrate-retina
#13
Matthew J Van Hook, Norbert Babai, Zack Zurawski, Yun Young Yim, Heidi E Hamm, Wallace B Thoreson
G-protein βγ subunits (Gβγ) interact with presynaptic proteins and regulate neurotransmitter release downstream of Ca(2+) influx. To accomplish their roles in sensory signaling, photoreceptor synapses use specialized presynaptic proteins that support neurotransmission at active zone structures known as ribbons. While several G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) influence synaptic transmission at ribbon synapses of cones and other retinal neurons, it is unknown whether Gβγ contributes to these effects. We tested whether activation of one particular GPCR, a metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR), can reduce cone synaptic transmission via Gβγ in tiger salamander retinas...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346141/insights-into-electrosensory-organ-development-physiology-and-evolution-from-a-lateral-line-enriched-transcriptome
#14
Melinda S Modrell, Mike Lyne, Adrian R Carr, Harold H Zakon, David Buckley, Alexander S Campbell, Marcus C Davis, Gos Micklem, Clare Vh Baker
The anamniote lateral line system, comprising mechanosensory neuromasts and electrosensory ampullary organs, is a useful model for investigating the developmental and evolutionary diversification of different organs and cell types. Zebrafish neuromast development is increasingly well understood, but neither zebrafish nor Xenopus is electroreceptive and our molecular understanding of ampullary organ development is rudimentary. We have used RNA-seq to generate a lateral line-enriched gene-set from late-larval paddlefish (Polyodon spathula)...
March 27, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334377/lrit3-differentially-affects-connectivity-and-synaptic-transmission-of-cones-to-on-and-off-bipolar-cells
#15
Marion Neuillé, Yan Cao, Romain Caplette, Debbie Guerrero-Given, Connon Thomas, Naomi Kamasawa, José-Alain Sahel, Christian P Hamel, Isabelle Audo, Serge Picaud, Kirill A Martemyanov, Christina Zeitz
Purpose: Mutations in LRIT3 lead to complete congenital stationary night blindness (cCSNB). Using a cCSNB mouse model lacking Lrit3 (nob6), we recently have shown that LRIT3 has a role in the correct localization of TRPM1 (transient receptor potential melastatin 1) to the dendritic tips of ON-bipolar cells (BCs), contacting both rod and cone photoreceptors. Furthermore, postsynaptic clustering of other mGluR6 cascade components is selectively eliminated at the dendritic tips of cone ON-BCs...
March 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332931/unitary-ototoxic-gentamicin-exposure-may-not-disrupt-the-function-of-cochlear-outer-hair-cells-in-mice
#16
Ning Zhao, XuHui Tai, LiJie Zhai, Lin Shi, DaiShi Chen, Bo Yang, Fei Ji, Kun Hou, ShiMing Yang, ShuSheng Gong, Ke Liu
BACKGROUND: Previous study showed that mild ototoxic exposure could induce a reversible hearing impairment, and the loss and secondary incomplete recovery of cochlear ribbon synapses could be responsible for the hearing loss. However, it remains unclear whether cochlear outer hair cells' (OHCs) functions are affected. OBJECTIVE: To verify whether the function of OHCs are also affected significantly after the ototoxic exposure. METHODS: Mice were injected intraperitoneally with 100 mg/kg concentration of gentamicin daily for 14 days...
March 23, 2017: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322827/structural-divergence-of-essential-triad-ribbon-synapse-proteins-among-placental-mammals-implications-for-preclinical-trials-in-photoreceptor-transplantation-therapy
#17
Christopher R J Laver, Joanne A Matsubara
As photoreceptor transplantation rapidly moves closer to the clinic, verifying graft efficacy in animal models may have unforeseen xenogeneic barriers. Although photoreceptor transplants have most convincingly exhibited functional synaptogenesis in conspecific studies, such evidence (while ruling out false-positives due to: viral graft labeling, fusion/cytosolic transfer, or neuroprotection) has not yet been shown for discordant xenografts. From this, a fundamental question should be raised: is useful xenosynaptogenesis likely between human photoreceptors and mouse retina? The triad ribbon synapse (TRS) that would normally form is unique and contains trans-synaptic proteins essential to its formation and function...
June 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298303/ampa-receptor-mediated-rapid-epscs-in-vestibular-calyx-afferents
#18
Matthew E Kirk, Frances L Meredith, Timothy A Benke, Katherine J Rennie
In the vestibular periphery neurotransmission between hair cells and primary afferent nerves occurs via specialized ribbon synapses. Type I vestibular hair cells (HCIs) make synaptic contacts with calyx terminals, which enclose most of the HCI basolateral surface. To probe synaptic transmission, whole cell patch-clamp recordings were made from calyx afferent terminals isolated together with their mature HCIs from gerbil crista. Neurotransmitter release was measured as excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in voltage clamp...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262416/the-auxiliary-calcium-channel-subunit-%C3%AE-2%C3%AE-4-is-required-for-axonal-elaboration-synaptic-transmission-and-wiring-of-rod-photoreceptors
#19
Yuchen Wang, Katherine E Fehlhaber, Ignacio Sarria, Yan Cao, Norianne T Ingram, Debbie Guerrero-Given, Ben Throesch, Kristin Baldwin, Naomi Kamasawa, Toshihisa Ohtsuka, Alapakkam P Sampath, Kirill A Martemyanov
Neural circuit wiring relies on selective synapse formation whereby a presynaptic release apparatus is matched with its cognate postsynaptic machinery. At metabotropic synapses, the molecular mechanisms underlying this process are poorly understood. In the mammalian retina, rod photoreceptors form selective contacts with rod ON-bipolar cells by aligning the presynaptic voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel directing glutamate release (CaV1.4) with postsynaptic mGluR6 receptors. We show this coordination requires an extracellular protein, α2δ4, which complexes with CaV1...
March 22, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228581/spaceflight-induced-synaptic-modifications-within-hair-cells-of-the-mammalian-utricle
#20
David R Sultemeier, Kristel R Choy, Felix E Schweizer, Larry F Hoffman
Exposure to the microgravity conditions of spaceflight alleviates the load normally imposed by the Earth's gravitational field on the inner ear utricular epithelia. Previous ultrastructural investigations have shown that spaceflight induces an increase in synapse density within hair cells of the rat utricle. However, the utricle exhibits broad physiological heterogeneity across different epithelial regions, and it is unknown whether capabilities for synaptic plasticity generalize to hair cells across its topography...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
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