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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324846/novel-alk5-inhibitor-tp0427736-reduces-tgf-%C3%AE-%C3%A3-induced-growth-inhibition-in-human-outer-root-sheath-cells-and-elongates-anagen-phase-in-mouse-hair-follicles
#1
Takumi Naruse, Mari Aoki, Natsuko Fujimoto, Seiji Arase, Hajimu Oura, Yasuji Ueda, Akiko Ikeda
BACKGROUND: Androgenic alopecia (AGA) occurs as a result of the contraction of the anagen phase because of the action of androgens on hair follicles. TGF-β production from dermal papillae is enhanced by androgens, and growth inhibition of hair-follicle cells is induced by TGF-β, and the hair cycle progresses from the anagen phase to the catagen phase. We investigated both the in vitro and in vivo potency of the newly identified ALK5 inhibitor TP0427736 {6-[4-(4-methyl-1,3-thiazol-2-yl)-1H-imidazol-5-yl]-1,3-benzothiazole}...
January 25, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319079/permanent-diffuse-alopecia-after-haematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-in-childhood
#2
D Bresters, D C M Wanders, M Louwerens, L M Ball, M Fiocco, R van Doorn
Permanent alopecia after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is distressing and few studies have investigated this late effect. The aim of the study was to assess the percentage of patients with alopecia and investigate risk factors for alopecia. Patients who underwent allogeneic HSCT before age 19 years, from January 1990 to January 2013, who were at least 2 years after transplant and in follow-up in our clinic were included. Alopecia was defined as clinically apparent decreased hair density. Possible risk factors considered for alopecia after HSCT included: gender, age, diagnosis, donor type, conditioning regimen: cranial irradiation (TBI/cranial radiotherapy) and/or chemotherapy, which chemotherapeutic agents were used and acute/chronic GvHD...
March 20, 2017: Bone Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317529/repigmentation-through-melanocyte-regeneration-in-vitiligo
#3
REVIEW
Stanca A Birlea, Nathaniel B Goldstein, David A Norris
Repigmentation in vitiligo is the process that replaces, in the epidermal basal layer of vitiligo skin, the mature melanocytes that have been killed by cytotoxic T cells specific for melanocyte antigens. It consists of mobilization of melanocyte precursors in the hair follicle bulge and infundibulum to proliferate, migrate, and differentiate into mature melanocytes, moving from the hair follicle bulge to the interfollicular epidermis. The most common clinical presentation of repigmentation in vitiligo is the perifollicular pattern...
April 2017: Dermatologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316170/-advances-in-effects-of-integrin-linked-kinase-on-cutaneous-wound-healing-and-the-relative-mechanism
#4
R X Zhou, Y Y Li, W H Lin, G Li, J E Sun, W B Zhou
Previous studies have demonstrated that integrin-linked kinases (ILKs) are abundantly expressed in extracellular matrix (ECM) riche dermis, hair follicles, and basal cells of epidermis. ILKs are not only essential for the maintenance of skin structure, but also play important roles in wound healing. ILKs can promote the formation of granulation tissue by stimulating the proliferation of fibroblasts and secretion of ECM, accelerate wound contraction by inducing the differentiation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts, and boost reepithelization by promoting proliferation, migration, and differentiation of keratinocytes and follicle epidermal stem cells...
March 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314816/characterization-of-a-human-point-mutation-of-vglut3-p-a211v-in-the-rodent-brain-suggests-a-non-uniform-distribution-of-the-transporter-in-synaptic-vesicles
#5
Lauriane Ramet, Johannes Zimmermann, Tiphaine Bersot, Odile Poirel, Stéphanie De Gois, Katlin Silm, Diana Yae Sakae, Nina Mansouri-Guilani, Marie-Josée Bourque, Louis-Eric Trudeau, Nicolas Pietrancosta, Stéphanie Daumas, Véronique Bernard, Christian Rosenmund, Salah El Mestikawy
The atypical vesicular glutamate transporter type 3 (VGLUT3) is expressed by sub-populations of neurons using acetylcholine, GABA or serotonin as neurotransmitters. In addition, VGLUT3 is expressed in the inner hair cells of the auditory system. A mutation (p.A211V) in the gene that encodes VGLUT3 is responsible for progressive deafness in two unrelated families. In this study, we investigated the consequences of the p.A211V mutation in cell cultures and in the central nervous system (CNS) of a mutant mouse...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304136/zebrafish-models-of-non-canonical-wnt-planar-cell-polarity-signalling-fishing-for-valuable-insight-into-vertebrate-polarized-cell-behavior
#6
REVIEW
Maria Jussila, Brian Ciruna
Planar cell polarity (PCP) coordinates the uniform orientation, structure and movement of cells within the plane of a tissue or organ system. It is beautifully illustrated in the polarized arrangement of bristles and hairs that project from specialized cell surfaces of the insect abdomen and wings, and pioneering genetic studies using the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, have defined a core signalling network underlying PCP. This core PCP/non-canonical Wnt signalling pathway is evolutionarily conserved, and studies in zebrafish have helped transform our understanding of PCP from a peculiarity of polarized epithelia to a more universal cellular property that orchestrates a diverse suite of polarized cell behaviors that are required for normal vertebrate development...
March 17, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303511/macro-and-microelement-status-in-animal-and-human-hypertension-the-role-of-the-ace-gene-i-d-polymorphism
#7
Olena Pavlyushchik, Viktor Afonin, Svetlana Fatykhava, Polina Shabunya, Viktoryia Sarokina, Aliaksandr Khapaliuk
Genetic factors that predispose to hypertension may contribute to element disturbances observed in hypertensive patients. We tested the hypothesis that the deletion allele of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene is associated with element imbalances in hypertension. The concentrations of elements in genetically predisposed to hypertension rats (SHRs) and their controls (WKY rats) were also examined. ICP-MS was used for elemental analysis of human hair and animal fur. Genotyping was performed by PCR...
March 16, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303411/identifying-the-origin-of-effects-of-contralateral-noise-on-transient-evoked-otoacoustic-emissions-in-unanesthetized-mice
#8
Yingyue Xu, Mary Ann Cheatham, Jonathan H Siegel
Descending neural pathways in the mammalian auditory system are known to modulate the function of the peripheral auditory system. These pathways include the medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferent innervation to outer hair cells (OHCs) and the acoustic reflex pathways mediating middle ear muscle (MEM) contractions. Based on measurements in humans (Marks and Siegel, companion paper), we applied a sensitive method to attempt to differentiate MEM and MOC reflexes using contralateral acoustic stimulation in mice under different levels of anesthesia...
March 16, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302571/alpha-9-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-mediate-hypothermic-responses-elicited-by-provocative-motion-in-mice
#9
Longlong Tu, Lauren Poppi, John Rudd, Ethan T Cresswell, Doug W Smith, Alan Brichta, Eugene Nalivaiko
Hypothermic responses accompany motion sickness in humans and can be elicited by provocative motion in rats. We aimed to determine the potential role in these responses of the efferent cholinergic vestibular innervation. To this end, we used knockout (KO) mice lacking α9 cholinoreceptor subunit predominantly expressed in the vestibular hair cells and CBA strain as a wild-type (WT) control. In WT mice, circular horizontal motion (1Hz, 4cm radius, 20min) caused rapid and dramatic falls in core body temperature and surface head temperature associated with a transient rise in the tail temperature; these responses were substantially attenuated in KO mice; changes were (WT vs...
March 14, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299655/runx-family-genes-in-tissue-stem-cell-dynamics
#10
Chelsia Qiuxia Wang, Michelle Meng Huang Mok, Tomomasa Yokomizo, Vinay Tergaonkar, Motomi Osato
The Runx family genes play important roles in development and cancer, largely via their regulation of tissue stem cell behavior. Their involvement in two organs, blood and skin, is well documented. This review summarizes currently known Runx functions in the stem cells of these tissues. The fundamental core mechanism(s) mediated by Runx proteins has been sought; however, it appears that there does not exist one single common machinery that governs both tissue stem cells. Instead, Runx family genes employ multiple spatiotemporal mechanisms in regulating individual tissue stem cell populations...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298303/ampa-receptor-mediated-rapid-epscs-in-vestibular-calyx-afferents
#11
Matthew Edward Kirk, Frances L Meredith, Tim A Benke, Katherine J Rennie
In the vestibular periphery neurotransmission between hair cells and primary afferent nerves occurs via specialized ribbon synapses. Type I vestibular hair cells (HCI) make synaptic contacts with calyx terminals, which enclose most of the HCI basolateral surface. To probe synaptic transmission, whole cell patch clamp recordings were made from calyx afferent terminals isolated together with their mature HCI from gerbil crista. Neurotransmitter release was measured as excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in voltage clamp...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297140/foxn1-duplication-and-congenital-hypertrichosis
#12
Eimear Gilhooley, Siobhan Gormally, Alan Irvine, Sally Ann Lynch, Sinead Collins
We report a case of congenital hypertrichosis and FOXN1 duplication. FOXN1 is a member of the forkhead box gene family, located on chromosome 17. Its function includes differentiation of epithelial cells and regulation of keratinocytes, especially hair keratins. Loss of function of these transcription factors leads to a disruption in hair growth. As far as we are aware, this is the first case of FOXN1 duplication associated with congenital hypertrichosis to be reported in the literature.
March 2017: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292428/cell-cell-contact-area-affects-notch-signaling-and-notch-dependent-patterning
#13
Oren Shaya, Udi Binshtok, Micha Hersch, Dmitri Rivkin, Sheila Weinreb, Liat Amir-Zilberstein, Bassma Khamaisi, Olya Oppenheim, Ravi A Desai, Richard J Goodyear, Guy P Richardson, Christopher S Chen, David Sprinzak
During development, cells undergo dramatic changes in their morphology. By affecting contact geometry, these morphological changes could influence cellular communication. However, it has remained unclear whether and how signaling depends on contact geometry. This question is particularly relevant for Notch signaling, which coordinates neighboring cell fates through direct cell-cell signaling. Using micropatterning with a receptor trans-endocytosis assay, we show that signaling between pairs of cells correlates with their contact area...
March 13, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290603/fenofibrate-exerts-protective-effects-against-gentamicin-induced-toxicity-in-cochlear-hair-cells-by-activating-antioxidant-enzymes
#14
Channy Park, Hye-Min Ji, Se-Jin Kim, Sung-Hee Kil, Joon No Lee, Seongae Kwak, Seong-Kyu Choe, Raekil Park
Fenofibrate, an activator of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), has been shown to protect the kidneys and brain cells from oxidative stress; however, its role in preventing hearing loss has not been reported to date, at least to the best of our knowledge. In this study, we demonstrated the protective effects of fenofibrate against gentamicin (GM)-induced ototoxicity. We found that the auditory brainstem response threshold which was increased by GM was significantly reduced by pre-treatment with fenofibrate in rats...
March 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287404/mutations-in-%C3%AE-secretase-subunit-encoding-psenen-underlie-dowling-degos-disease-associated-with-acne-inversa
#15
Damian J Ralser, F Buket Ü Basmanav, Aylar Tafazzoli, Jade Wititsuwannakul, Sarah Delker, Sumita Danda, Holger Thiele, Sabrina Wolf, Michélle Busch, Susanne A Pulimood, Janine Altmüller, Peter Nürnberg, Didier Lacombe, Uwe Hillen, Jörg Wenzel, Jorge Frank, Benjamin Odermatt, Regina C Betz
Dowling-Degos disease (DDD) is an autosomal-dominant disorder of skin pigmentation associated with mutations in keratin 5 (KRT5), protein O-fucosyltransferase 1 (POFUT1), or protein O-glucosyltransferase 1 (POGLUT1). Here, we have identified 6 heterozygous truncating mutations in PSENEN, encoding presenilin enhancer protein 2, in 6 unrelated patients and families with DDD in whom mutations in KRT5, POFUT1, and POGLUT1 have been excluded. Further examination revealed that the histopathologic feature of follicular hyperkeratosis distinguished these 6 patients from previously studied individuals with DDD...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286514/ethylene-improves-root-system-development-under-cadmium-stress-by-modulating-superoxide-anion-concentration-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#16
Ann Abozeid, Zuojia Ying, Yingchao Lin, Jia Liu, Zhonghua Zhang, Zhonghua Tang
This work aims at identifying the effects of ethylene on the response of Arabidopsis thaliana root system to cadmium chloride (CdCl2) stress. Two ethylene-insensitive mutants, ein2-5 and ein3-1eil1-1, were subjected to (25, 50, 75, and 100 μM) CdCl2 concentrations, from which 75 μM concentration decreased root growth by 40% compared with wild type Col-0 as a control. Ethylene biosynthesis increased in response to CdCl2 treatment. The length of primary root and root tip in ein2-5 and ein3-1eil1-1 decreased compared with wild type after CdCl2 treatment, suggesting that ethylene play a role in root system response to Cd stress...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284878/differential-expression-of-krt83-regulated-by-the-transcript-factor-cap1-in-chinese-tan-sheep
#17
Yufang Liu, Xiaolong Kang, Wanjie Yang, Minggui Xie, Jibin Zhang, Meiying Fang
Keratin 83 (KRT83) is an important keratin protein in hair development. In this study, expression of KRT83 was compared among different tissues and between 1-month-old lambs and 48-month adult of Chinese Tan sheep, which showed different fleece phenotypes. The results showed that KRT83 was only expressed in skin, and KRT83 mRNA level in skin was significantly higher in Tan lambs than in adult sheep. To further understand the expression regulation of KRT83 by transcription factors in Tan sheep, amplified sequences coving different ranges of KRT83 promoter region were inserted into a pGL3-basic vector and then transfected into sheep primary fibroblast cells...
March 8, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284243/possible-chromosomal-and-germline-integration-of-human-herpesvirus-7
#18
Bhupesh K Prusty, Nitish Gulve, Santa Rasa, Modra Murovska, Pilar Collado Hernandez, Dharam V Ablashi
Human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) is a betaherpesvirus, and is phylogenetically related to both HHV-6A and HHV-6B. The presence of telomeric repeat sequences at both ends of its genome should make it equally likely to integrate into the human telomere as HHV-6. However, numerous studies have failed to detect germline integration of HHV-7, suggesting an important difference between the HHV-6A/-6B and HHV-7 genomes. In search of possible germline integrated HHV-7, we developed a sensitive and quantitative real-time PCR assay and discovered that primers designed against some parts of the HHV-7 genome can frequently miss HHV-7 positive clinical samples even though they work efficiently in cell-culture-derived HHV-7 positive materials...
February 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283078/distortion-product-otoacoustic-emissions-in-young-adult-and-geriatric-cats
#19
George M Strain, Kain A McGee
Recordings of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) were taken from 15 geriatric cats (mean age ± standard deviation, SD, 13.6 ± 2.7 years; range 10.2-19.4 years) and 12 young adult control cats (mean ± SD 4.6 ± 0.5 years; range 3.4-5 years) to identify frequency-specific age-related changes in cochlear responses. Recordings were performed for primary frequencies from 2 to 12 kHz in 2 kHz increments. Cats were considered to be geriatric > 11.9 ± 1.9 years of age...
March 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280462/the-role-of-glia-in-the-peripheral-and-central-auditory-system-following-noise-overexposure-contribution-of-tnf-%C3%AE-and-il-1%C3%AE-to-the-pathogenesis-of-hearing-loss
#20
Verónica Fuentes-Santamaría, Juan Carlos Alvarado, Pedro Melgar-Rojas, María C Gabaldón-Ull, Josef M Miller, José M Juiz
Repeated noise exposure induces inflammation and cellular adaptations in the peripheral and central auditory system resulting in pathophysiology of hearing loss. In this study, we analyzed the mechanisms by which noise-induced inflammatory-related events in the cochlea activate glial-mediated cellular responses in the cochlear nucleus (CN), the first relay station of the auditory pathway. The auditory function, glial activation, modifications in gene expression and protein levels of inflammatory mediators and ultrastructural changes in glial-neuronal interactions were assessed in rats exposed to broadband noise (0...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
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