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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812580/lactate-dehydrogenase-activity-drives-hair-follicle-stem-cell-activation
#1
Aimee Flores, John Schell, Abigail S Krall, David Jelinek, Matilde Miranda, Melina Grigorian, Daniel Braas, Andrew C White, Jessica L Zhou, Nicholas A Graham, Thomas Graeber, Pankaj Seth, Denis Evseenko, Hilary A Coller, Jared Rutter, Heather R Christofk, William E Lowry
Although normally dormant, hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) quickly become activated to divide during a new hair cycle. The quiescence of HFSCs is known to be regulated by a number of intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms. Here we provide several lines of evidence to demonstrate that HFSCs utilize glycolytic metabolism and produce significantly more lactate than other cells in the epidermis. Furthermore, lactate generation appears to be critical for the activation of HFSCs as deletion of lactate dehydrogenase (Ldha) prevented their activation...
August 14, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811056/measurements-of-ionic-concentrations-along-with-endocochlear-potential-in-wild-type-and-claudin-14-knockout-mice
#2
Yuka Shiraiwa, Eriko Daikoku, Masahisa Saito, Yui Yamashita, Takaya Abe, Fumihito Ono, Takahiro Kubota
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the changes in endolymphatic ion concentrations were involved in hair cells degeneration in claudin-14 knockout (KO) mice (Cldn14(-/-)), we measured the endocochlear potential (EP) along with concentrations of K(+), Na(+), H(+), or Ca(2+) ([K]e, [Na]e, pHe, [Ca]e) in Cldn14(-/-), in which hair cells were selectively damaged, and compared with measurements in wild type mice (Wt). METHODS: We used the Cldn14(-/-) from 3 weeks of age, in which the auditory brain responses (ABR) was severely diminished...
August 12, 2017: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809777/pigmented-epithelioid-melanocytoma-pem-animal-type-melanoma-atm-quest-for-an-origin-report-of-one-unusual-case-indicating-follicular-origin-and-another-arising-in-an-intradermal-nevus
#3
Ashley Tarasen, J Andrew Carlson, M Kathryn Leonard, Glenn Merlino, David Kaetzel, Andrzej T Slominski
Pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma (PEM) is a tumor encompassing epithelioid blue nevus of Carney complex (EBN of CNC) and was previously termed animal-type melanoma. Histologically PEMs are heavily pigmented spindled and epithelioid dermal melanocytic tumors with infiltrative borders, however, their origin remains unclear. Stem cells for the epidermis and hair follicle are located in the bulge area of the hair follicle with the potential to differentiate into multiple lineages. Multiple cutaneous carcinomas, including follicular cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (FSCC), are thought to arise from stem cells in the follicular bulge...
August 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809062/carbon-nitrogen-and-sulphur-isotopic-fractionation-in-captive-juvenile-hooded-seal-cystophora-cristata-application-for-diet-analysis
#4
Marianna Pinzone, Mario Acquarone, Loreen Huyghebaert, Nicolas Sturaro, Loïc N Michel, Ursula Siebert, Krishna Das
RATIONALE: Intrinsic biogeochemical markers, such as stable isotope ratios of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur are increasingly used to trace the trophic ecology of marine top predators. However, insufficient knowledge of fractionation processes in tissues continues to hamper the use of these markers. METHODS: We performed a controlled feeding experiment with eight juvenile hooded seals (Cystophora cristata) that were held on a herring-based diet (Clupea harengus) for two years...
August 15, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807144/regulation-of-l-type-cav1-3-channel-activity-and-insulin-secretion-by-the-cgmp-pkg-signaling-pathway
#5
Alejandro Sandoval, Paz Duran, María A Gandini, Arturo Andrade, Angélica Almanza, Simon Kaja, Ricardo Felix
cGMP is a second messenger widely used in the nervous system and other tissues. One of the major effectors for cGMP is the serine/threonine protein kinase, cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG), which catalyzes the phosphorylation of a variety of proteins including ion channels. Previously, it has been shown that the cGMP-PKG signaling pathway inhibits Ca(2+) currents in rat vestibular hair cells and chromaffin cells. This current allegedly flow through voltage-gated CaV1.3L-type Ca(2+) channels, and is important for controlling vestibular hair cell sensory function and catecholamine secretion, respectively...
September 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806331/cochlear-implants-meet-regenerative-biology-state-of-the-science-and-future-research-directions
#6
Alain Dabdoub, Koji Nishimura
: The cochlear implant, the first device to restore a human sense, is an electronic substitute for lost mechanosensory hair cells. It has been successful at providing hearing to people with severe to profound hearing loss and as of 2012, an estimated 324,000 patients worldwide have received cochlear implants. Users of cochlear implants however, suffer from difficulties in processing complex sounds such as music and in discriminating sounds in noisy environments. Recent advances in regenerative biology and medicine are opening new avenues for enhancing the efficacy of cochlear implants by improving the neural interface in the future and offer the possibility of an entirely biological solution for hearing loss in the long term...
September 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806329/physiological-mechanisms-in-combined-electric-acoustic-stimulation
#7
Mika Sato, Peter Baumhoff, Jochen Tillein, Andrej Kral
OBJECTIVE: Electrical stimulation is normally performed on ears that have no hearing function, i.e., lack functional hair cells. The properties of electrically-evoked responses in these cochleae were investigated in several previous studies. Recent clinical developments have introduced cochlear implantation (CI) in residually-hearing ears to improve speech understanding in noise. The present study documents the known physiological differences between electrical stimulation of hair cells and of spiral ganglion cells, respectively, and reviews the mechanisms of combined electric and acoustic stimulation in the hearing ears...
September 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801732/evaluation-of-the-relationship-between-alopecia-areata-and-viral-antigen-exposure
#8
Christopher T Richardson, Matthew S Hayden, Elaine S Gilmore, Brian Poligone
BACKGROUND: Alopecia areata (AA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by non-scarring alopecia with T-cell infiltration at the affected hair follicle. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to study the potential link between hepatitis B virus (HBV) antigen exposure and AA. METHODS: Two pediatric patients with AA following hepatitis B vaccination were identified in a general dermatology clinic. A bioinformatics analysis and an electronic medical record (EMR) database query were performed at the University of Rochester Medical Center to identify patients with AA, coexisting viral infections, vaccinations, or interferon (IFN) therapy in order to determine if the presence of AA and these conditions was higher than in AA patients without these associated conditions or therapy...
August 11, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798725/isolation-and-characterization-of-a-phosphorus-solubilizing-bacterium-from-rhizosphere-soils-and-its-colonization-of-chinese-cabbage-brassica-campestris-ssp-chinensis
#9
Zhen Wang, Guoyi Xu, Pengda Ma, Yanbing Lin, Xiangna Yang, Cuiling Cao
Phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) can promote the dissolution of insoluble phosphorus (P) in soil, enhancing the availability of soluble P. Thus, their application can reduce the consumption of fertilizer and aid in sustainable agricultural development. From the rhizosphere of Chinese cabbage plants grown in Yangling, we isolated a strain of PSB (YL6) with a strong ability to dissolve P and showed that this strain promoted the growth of these plants under field conditions. However, systematic research on the colonization of bacteria in the plant rhizosphere remains deficient...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798660/human-summating-potential-using-continuous-loop-averaging-deconvolution-response-amplitudes-vary-with-tone-burst-repetition-rate-and-duration
#10
Alana E Kennedy, Wafaa A Kaf, John A Ferraro, Rafael E Delgado, Jeffery T Lichtenhan
Electrocochleography (ECochG) to high repetition rate tone bursts may have advantages over ECochG to clicks with standard slow rates. Tone burst stimuli presented at a high repetition rate may enhance summating potential (SP) measurements by reducing neural contributions resulting from neural adaptation to high stimulus repetition rates. To allow for the analysis of the complex ECochG responses to high rates, we deconvolved responses using the Continuous Loop Averaging Deconvolution (CLAD) technique. We examined the effect of high stimulus repetition rate and stimulus duration on SP amplitude measurements made with extratympanic ECochG to tone bursts in 20 adult females with normal hearing...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798321/crispr-cas9-mediated-deletion-of-foxn1-in-nod-scid-il2rg-mice-results-in-severe-immunodeficiency
#11
Xinru Wei, Yunxin Lai, Baiheng Li, Le Qin, Youdi Xu, Simiao Lin, Suna Wang, Qiting Wu, Qiubin Liang, Guohua Huang, Qiuhua Deng, Pentao Liu, Donghai Wu, Liangxue Lai, Yao Yao, Peng Li
Immunodeficient mice engrafted with either normal or cancerous human cells are widely used in basic and translational research. In particular, NOD/SCID/IL2rg(-/-) mice can support the growth of various types of human cancer cells. However, the hairs of these mice interfere with the observation and imaging of engrafted tissues. Therefore, novel hairless strains exhibiting comparable immunodeficiency would be beneficial. Recently, the CRISPR/Cas9 system has been used for efficient multiplexed genome editing. In the present study, we generated a novel strain of nude NOD/SCID/IL2rg(-/-) (NSIN) mice by knocking out Foxn1 from NOD/SCID/IL2rg(-/-) (NSI) mice using the CRISPR/Cas9 system...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798065/self-organization-process-in-newborn-skin-organoid-formation-inspires-strategy-to-restore-hair-regeneration-of-adult-cells
#12
Mingxing Lei, Linus J Schumacher, Yung-Chih Lai, Wen-Tau Juan, Chao-Yuan Yeh, Ping Wu, Ting-Xin Jiang, Ruth E Baker, Randall Bruce Widelitz, Li Yang, Cheng-Ming Chuong
Organoids made from dissociated progenitor cells undergo tissue-like organization. This in vitro self-organization process is not identical to embryonic organ formation, but it achieves a similar phenotype in vivo. This implies genetic codes do not specify morphology directly; instead, complex tissue architectures may be achieved through several intermediate layers of cross talk between genetic information and biophysical processes. Here we use newborn and adult skin organoids for analyses. Dissociated cells from newborn mouse skin form hair primordia-bearing organoids that grow hairs robustly in vivo after transplantation to nude mice...
August 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796092/oral-administration-of-clinical-stage-drug-candidate-sens-401-effectively-reduces-cisplatin-induced-hearing-loss-in-rats
#13
Mathieu Petremann, Christophe Tran Van Ba, Audrey Broussy, Charlotte Romanet, Jonas Dyhrfjeld-Johnsen
HYPOTHESIS: SENS-401, an oral clinical-stage drug, may reduce cisplatin-induced hearing loss and cochlear damage in an in vivo model. BACKGROUND: Cisplatin is commonly associated with hearing loss, causing significant learning and behavioral difficulties in the pediatric cancer population, and for which there are currently no clinical solutions. SENS-401 has previously been shown to improve acoustic trauma-induced hearing loss in vivo. METHODS: The effect of SENS-401 (R-azasetron besylate) on cisplatin IC50 values was evaluated in a panel of cisplatin-sensitive cell lines (NIH:OVCAR-3, SK-N-AS, NCI-H460, FaDu)...
August 8, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793332/stromal-cell-markers-are-differentially-expressed-in-the-synovial-tissue-of-patients-with-early-arthritis
#14
Ivy Y Choi, Olga N Karpus, Jason D Turner, Debbie Hardie, Jennifer L Marshall, Maria J H de Hair, Karen I Maijer, Paul P Tak, Karim Raza, Jörg Hamann, Christopher D Buckley, Danielle M Gerlag, Andrew Filer
INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have shown increased expression of stromal markers in synovial tissue (ST) of patients with established rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Here, ST expression of stromal markers in early arthritis in relationship to diagnosis and prognostic outcome was studied. METHODS: ST from 56 patients included in two different early arthritis cohorts and 7 non-inflammatory controls was analysed using immunofluorescence to detect stromal markers CD55, CD248, fibroblast activation protein (FAP) and podoplanin...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791733/incontinentia-pigmenti-in-a-male-xy-infant-with-long-term-follow-up-over-8-years
#15
Yasushi Matsuzaki, Akiko Rokunohe, Satoko Minakawa, Kazuo Nomura, Hajime Nakano, Etsuro Ito, Daisuke Sawamura
Incontinentia pigmenti (IP) is an X-linked genodermatosis affecting the skin and other sites, including the teeth, nails, hair, eyes and nervous system defects in female patients. Generally lethal in males, there are only a few known cases of males surviving this condition. Nuclear factor (NF)-κB essential modulator (NEMO), also known as inhibitor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B cells, kinase gamma (IKBKG), constitutes an essential activator of NF-κB. Over 80% of female patients with IP carry a common deletion mutation involving exons 4-10 of the IKBKG/NEMO gene...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791605/laser-and-light-treatments-for-hair-reduction-in-fitzpatrick-skin-types-iv-vi-a-comprehensive-review-of-the-literature
#16
REVIEW
Rachel A Fayne, Marina Perper, Ariel E Eber, Adam S Aldahan, Keyvan Nouri
Unwanted facial and body hair presents as a common finding in many patients, such as females with hirsutism. With advances in laser and light technology, a clinically significant reduction in hair can be achieved in patients with light skin. However, in patients with darker skin, Fitzpatrick skin types (FST) IV-VI, the higher melanin content of the skin interferes with the proposed mechanism of laser-induced selective photothermolysis, which is to target the melanin in the hair follicle to cause permanent destruction of hair bulge stem cells...
August 8, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790026/dominant-b-cell-receptor-clones-in-peripheral-blood-predict-onset-of-arthritis-in-individuals-at-risk-for-rheumatoid-arthritis
#17
Paul P Tak, Marieke E Doorenspleet, Maria J H de Hair, Paul L Klarenbeek, Marian H van Beers-Tas, Antoine H C van Kampen, Dirkjan van Schaardenburg, Danielle M Gerlag, Frank Baas, Niek de Vries
BACKGROUND: The onset of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is preceded by the presence of specific autoantibodies in the absence of synovial inflammation. Only a subset of these at-risk individuals will develop clinical disease. This impedes efforts to implement early interventions that may prevent onset of clinically manifest disease. Here we analyse whether clonal changes in the B cell receptor (BCR) repertoire can reliably predict onset of signs and symptoms. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study in 21 individuals at risk for RA based on the presence of autoantibodies, the BCR repertoire of paired peripheral blood and synovial tissue samples was analysed using next-generation BCR sequencing...
August 8, 2017: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782844/long-term-management-with-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-conventional-treatment-in-a-dog-with-hepatocutaneous-syndrome
#18
A Nam, S-M Han, D-M Go, D-Y Kim, K-W Seo, H-Y Youn
Hepatocutaneous syndrome (HS) is an uncommon skin disorder that occurs in conjunction with liver disease and is diagnosed based on decreased plasma concentrations of amino acids and the histopathology of skin lesions. The survival period generally is <6 months. A 10-year-old castrated male Maltese dog was presented for evaluation of lethargy, polyuria, polydipsia, and skin lesions including alopecia, erythema, and crusts. Based on increased liver enzyme activity, low plasma amino acid concentrations, and findings from liver cytology and skin biopsy, the dog was diagnosed with HS...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781845/the-association-of-a-lip-commissure-to-eyelid-transposition-flap-with-a-frontal-transposition-flap-for-reconstructive-eyelid-surgery-following-squamous-cell-carcinoma-resection-in-a-european-short-haired-cat
#19
Anne-Sophie Poinsard, Iona Mathieson, Thomas Dulaurent, Pierre-François Isard, Olivier Balland
The surgical resection of a squamous cell carcinoma in a cat was performed on both the palpebral and nasal aspects of the OD medial canthus. A two-stage surgical technique was employed, involving two different transposition flaps, taking care to maintain eyelid function and estheticism, with a long follow-up.
August 2017: Clinical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781154/oral-administration-of-geranylgeranylacetone-to-protect-vestibular-hair-cells
#20
Shinpei Nagato, Kazuma Sugahara, Yoshinobu Hirose, Yousuke Takemoto, Makoto Hashimoto, Hironori Fujii, Hiroshi Yamashita
OBJECTIVE: We recently reported that the heat shock response played a major role in the protection of hair cells against stress. Oral administration of the heat shock inducer, geranylgeranylacetone (GGA) protected hair cells against intense noise. In our present study, we investigated the effect of GGA on vestibular hair cell death induced by an aminoglycoside. METHODS: We used CBA/N mice aged 4-6 weeks. The mice were divided into two groups, GGA and control. Mice in the GGA group were fed a diet containing GGA (0...
August 3, 2017: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
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