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Cochlear nerve

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051546/energy-efficient-waveform-for-electrical-stimulation-of-the-cochlear-nerve
#1
Marcus Yip, Peter Bowers, Victor Noel, Anantha Chandrakasan, Konstantina M Stankovic
The cochlear implant (CI) is the most successful neural prosthesis, restoring the sensation of sound in people with severe-to-profound hearing loss by electrically stimulating the cochlear nerve. Existing CIs have an external, visible unit, and an internal, surgically-placed unit. There are significant challenges associated with the external unit, as it has limited utility and CI users often report a social stigma associated with prosthesis visibility. A fully-implantable CI (FICI) would address these issues...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036751/-diagnosis-and-management-of-vestibular-schwannomas-an-interdisciplinary-challenge
#2
Steffen Rosahl, Christopher Bohr, Michael Lell, Klaus Hamm, Heinrich Iro
Vestibular schwannomas expand slowly in the internal auditory canal, in the cerebellopontine angle, inside the cochlear and the labyrinth. Larger tumors can displace and compress the brainstem. With an annual incidence of 1:100 000 vestibular schwannoma represent 6-7% of all intracranial tumors. In the cerebellopontine angle they are by far the most neoplasm with 90% of all lesions located in this region. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), audiometry, and vestibular diagnostics are the mainstays of the clinical workup for patients harboring tumors...
April 2017: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970782/putative-auditory-evoked-neurophonic-measurements-using-a-novel-signal-processing-technique-a-pilot-case-study
#3
Alison M Cook, Ashleigh J Allsop, Greg A O'Beirne
With changes to cochlear implant candidacy and improvements in surgical technique, there is a need for accurate intraoperative assessment of low-frequency hearing thresholds during cochlear implantation. In electrocochleography, onset compound action potentials (CAPs) typically allow estimation of auditory threshold for frequencies above 1 kHz, but they are less accurate at lower frequencies. Auditory nerve neurophonic (ANN) waveforms, on the other hand, may overcome this limitation by allowing phase-locked neural activity to be tracked during a prolonged low-frequency stimulus rather than just at its onset (Henry, 1995)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968281/the-electrically-evoked-auditory-change-complex-evoked-by-temporal-gaps-using-cochlear-implants-or-auditory-brainstem-implants-in-children-with-cochlear-nerve-deficiency
#4
Shuman He, Tyler C McFayden, Bahar S Shahsavarani, Holly F B Teagle, Matthew Ewend, Lillian Henderson, Craig A Buchman
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to (1) establish the feasibility of measuring the electrically evoked auditory change complex (eACC) in response to temporal gaps in children with cochlear nerve deficiency (CND) who are using cochlear implants (CIs) and/or auditory brainstem implants (ABIs); and (2) explore the association between neural encoding of, and perceptual sensitivity to, temporal gaps in these patients. DESIGN: Study participants included 5 children (S1 to S5) ranging in age from 3...
September 29, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953606/an-analysis-of-safety-and-adverse-events-following-cochlear-implantation-in-children-under-12-months-of-age
#5
Yesul Kim, Vijay A Patel, Huseyin Isildak, Michele M Carr
OBJECTIVE: To determine perioperative morbidity of children ≤12 months undergoing cochlear implantation (CI). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis using the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Pediatric Database (ACS-NSQIP-P). SETTING: General acute care children's hospitals, children's hospitals within larger hospitals, specialty children's hospitals, and general acute care hospitals with a pediatric wing...
September 26, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947499/a-circuit-for-detection-of-interaural-time-differences-in-the-nucleus-laminaris-of-turtles
#6
Katie L Willis, Catherine E Carr
The physiological hearing range of turtles is about 50-1,000 Hz, as determined by cochlear microphonics (Wever and Vernon, 1956a). These low frequencies can constrain sound localization, particularly in Red-eared Slider Turtles, which are freshwater turtles with small heads and isolated middle ears. To determine if these turtles were sensitive to interaural time differences (ITDs), we investigated the connections and physiology of their auditory brainstem nuclei. Tract tracing experiments showed that the VIII nerve bifurcated to terminate in the first order nucleus magnocellularis and nucleus angularis, and the nucleus magnocellularis projected bilaterally to nucleus laminaris...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947082/facilitation-and-refractoriness-of-the-electrically-evoked-compound-action-potential
#7
Matthias Hey, Joachim Müller-Deile, Horst Hessel, Matthijs Killian
In this study we aim to resolve the contributions of facilitation and refractoriness at very short pulse intervals. Measurements of the refractory properties of the electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP) of the auditory nerve in cochlear implant (CI) users at inter pulse intervals below 300 μs are influenced by facilitation and recovery effects. ECAPs were recorded using masker pulses with a wide range of current levels relative to the probe pulse levels, for three suprathreshold probe levels and pulse intervals from 13 to 200 μs...
September 11, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924861/role-of-bdnf-and-neurotrophic-receptors-in-human-inner-ear-development
#8
L Johnson Chacko, M J F Blumer, E Pechriggl, H Rask-Andersen, W Dietl, A Haim, H Fritsch, R Glueckert, J Dudas, A Schrott-Fischer
The expression patterns of the neurotrophin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, BDNF, and the neurotrophic receptors-p75NTR and Trk receptors-in the developing human fetal inner ear between the gestational weeks (GW) 9 to 12 are examined via in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. BDNF mRNA expression was highest in the cochlea at GW 9 but declined in the course of development. In contrast to embryonic murine specimens, a decline in BDNF expression from the apical to the basal turn of the cochlea could not be observed...
September 19, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919848/hidden-hearing-loss-no-effect-of-common-recreational-noise-exposure-on-cochlear-nerve-response-amplitude-in-humans
#9
Sarah K Grinn, Kathryn B Wiseman, Jason A Baker, Colleen G Le Prell
This study tested hypothesized relationships between noise exposure and auditory deficits. Both retrospective assessment of potential associations between noise exposure history and performance on an audiologic test battery and prospective assessment of potential changes in performance after new recreational noise exposure were completed. Methods: 32 participants (13M, 19F) with normal hearing (25-dB HL or better, 0.25-8 kHz) were asked to participate in 3 pre- and post-exposure sessions including: otoscopy, tympanometry, distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) (f2 frequencies 1-8 kHz), pure-tone audiometry (0...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902803/cochlear-implantation-in-otosclerosis-surgical-and-auditory-outcomes-with-a-brief-on-facial-nerve-stimulation
#10
Ashish Vashishth, Andrea Fulcheri, Gianluca Rossi, Sampath Chandra Prasad, Antonio Caruso, Mario Sanna
OBJECTIVES: 1) To review the surgical and auditory outcomes in patients of cochlear implantation in otosclerosis. 2) To review complications and postimplantation facial nerve stimulation (FNS). 3) To compare the auditory outcomes between patients displaying cochlear ossification to the nonossified ones. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Quaternary Otology and Skull base surgery center. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Charts of 36 patients (38 ears) with otosclerosis undergoing cochlear implantation were reviewed from the cochlear implant database...
October 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885938/hidden-hearing-injury-the-emerging-science-and-military-relevance-of-cochlear-synaptopathy
#11
Victoria Tepe, Christopher Smalt, Jeremy Nelson, Thomas Quatieri, Kenneth Pitts
INTRODUCTION: The phenomenon recently described as "hidden hearing loss" was the subject of a meeting co-hosted by the Department of Defense Hearing Center of Excellence and MIT Lincoln Laboratory to consider the potential relevance of noise-related synaptopathic injury to military settings and performance, service-related injury scenarios, and military medical priorities. Participants included approximately 50 researchers and subject matter experts from academic, federal, and military laboratories...
September 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885234/assessing-the-relationship-between-the-electrically-evoked-compound-action-potential-and-speech-recognition-abilities-in-bilateral-cochlear-implant-recipients
#12
Kara C Schvartz-Leyzac, Bryan E Pfingst
OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of the present study was to examine the relationship between suprathreshold electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP) measures and speech recognition abilities in bilateral cochlear implant listeners. We tested the hypothesis that the magnitude of ear differences in ECAP measures within a subject (right-left) could predict the difference in speech recognition performance abilities between that subject's ears (right-left). DESIGN: To better control for across-subject variables that contribute to speech understanding, the present study used a within-subject design...
September 6, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878303/typewriter-tinnitus-revisited-the-typical-symptoms-and-the-initial-response-to-carbamazepine-are-the-most-reliable-diagnostic-clues
#13
Woongsang Sunwoo, Yung Jin Jeon, Yun Jung Bae, Jeong Hun Jang, Ja-Won Koo, Jae-Jin Song
Although neurovascular compression of the cochlear nerve (NVC-C) presenting as typewriter tinnitus is a discrete disease category, verified diagnostic criteria are lacking. We sought to refine the diagnostic criteria for NVC-C by reference to a relatively large case series. The medical records of 22 NVC-C patients were retrospectively reviewed. Psychoacoustic characteristics, the results of diagnostic work-up (including audiovestibular neurophysiological tests and radiological evaluations), and the initial treatment response to carbamazepine were investigated...
September 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874607/no-sensitive-guanylate-cyclase-isoforms-no-gc1-and-no-gc2-contribute-to-noise-induced-inner-hair-cell-synaptopathy
#14
Dorit Möhrle, Katrin Reimann, Steffen Wolter, Markus Wolters, Ksenya Varakina, Evanthia Mergia, Nicole Eichert, Hyun-Soon Geisler, Peter Sandner, Peter Ruth, Andreas Friebe, Robert Feil, Ulrike Zimmermann, Doris Koesling, Marlies Knipper, Lukas Rüttiger
Nitric oxide (NO) activates the NO-sensitive soluble guanylate cyclase (NO-GC, sGC) and triggers intracellular signaling pathways involving cGMP. For survival of cochlear hair cells and preservation of hearing, NO-mediated cascades have both protective and detrimental potential. Here we examine the cochlear function of mice lacking one of the two NO-sensitive guanylate cyclase isoforms [NO-GC1 knockout (KO) or NO-GC2 KO]. The deletion of NO-GC1 or NO-GC2 did not influence electromechanical outer hair cell (OHC) properties, as measured by distortion product otoacoustic emissions, neither before nor after noise exposure, nor were click- or noise-burst-evoked auditory brainstem response thresholds different from controls...
October 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867348/cellular-computations-underlying-detection-of-gaps-in-sounds-and-lateralizing-sound-sources
#15
REVIEW
Donata Oertel, Xiao-Jie Cao, James R Ison, Paul D Allen
In mammals, acoustic information arises in the cochlea and is transmitted to the ventral cochlear nuclei (VCN). Three groups of VCN neurons extract different features from the firing of auditory nerve fibers and convey that information along separate pathways through the brainstem. Two of these pathways process temporal information: octopus cells detect coincident firing among auditory nerve fibers and transmit signals along monaural pathways, and bushy cells sharpen the encoding of fine structure and feed binaural pathways...
October 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862006/-30-years-of-the-cochlear-implantations-in-the-czech-republic
#16
Jan Bouček, Jan Kluh, Zdeněk Čada, Jan Vokřál, Libor Černý, Tomáš Tichý, Jiří Skřivan, Jan Betka, Jan Plzák
Cochlear implant is the unique sensory neuroprosthesis and still the only one used in clinical praxis. The function of the inner ear is replaced with direct electrical stimulation of the cochlear nerve. It is 30 years since the first cochlear implantation has been performed with the Czech single-channel cochlear neuroprosthesis. There are more than one thousand users of cochlear implants in the Czech Republic nowadays. Cochlear implants have become a standard of care of patients with severe hearing loss. It allows user inclusion to the society with only a minimum of obstacles...
2017: Casopís Lékar̆ů C̆eských
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840850/classification-and-current-management-of-inner-ear-malformations
#17
Levent Sennaroğlu, Münir Demir Bajin
Morphologically congenital sensorineural hearing loss can be investigated under two categories. The majority of congenital hearing loss causes (80%) are membranous malformations. Here, the pathology involves inner ear hair cells. There is no gross bony abnormality and, therefore, in these cases high-resolution computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the temporal bone reveal normal findings. The remaining 20% have various malformations involving the bony labyrinth and, therefore, can be radiologically demonstrated by computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging...
September 29, 2017: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840488/towards-a-complete-in-silico-assessment-of-the-outcome-of-cochlear-implantation-surgery
#18
Nerea Mangado, Mario Ceresa, Heval Benav, Pavel Mistrik, Gemma Piella, Miguel A González Ballester
Cochlear implantation (CI) surgery is a very successful technique, performed on more than 300,000 people worldwide. However, since the challenge resides in obtaining an accurate surgical planning, computational models are considered to provide such accurate tools. They allow us to plan and simulate beforehand surgical procedures in order to maximally optimize surgery outcomes, and consequently provide valuable information to guide pre-operative decisions. The aim of this work is to develop and validate computational tools to completely assess the patient-specific functional outcome of the CI surgery...
August 24, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834748/serotonergic-modulation-of-sensory-representation-in-a-central-multisensory-circuit-is-pathway-specific
#19
Zheng-Quan Tang, Laurence O Trussell
Many studies have explored how neuromodulators affect synaptic function, yet little is known about how they modify computations at the microcircuit level. In the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), a region that integrates auditory and multisensory inputs from two distinct pathways, serotonin (5-HT) enhances excitability of principal cells, predicting a generalized reduction in sensory thresholds. Surprisingly, we found that when looked at from the circuit level, 5-HT enhances signaling only from the multisensory input, while decreasing input from auditory fibers...
August 22, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832600/hpn-07-a-free-radical-spin-trapping-agent-protects-against-functional-cellular-and-electrophysiological-changes-in-the-cochlea-induced-by-acute-acoustic-trauma
#20
Donald Ewert, Ning Hu, Xiaoping Du, Wei Li, Matthew B West, Chul-Hee Choi, Robert Floyd, Richard D Kopke
Oxidative stress is considered a major cause of the structural and functional changes associated with auditory pathologies induced by exposure to acute acoustic trauma AAT). In the present study, we examined the otoprotective effects of 2,4-disulfophenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (HPN-07), a nitrone-based free radical trap, on the physiological and cellular changes in the auditory system of chinchilla following a six-hour exposure to 4 kHz octave band noise at 105 dB SPL. HPN-07 has been shown to suppress oxidative stress in biological models of a variety of disorders...
2017: PloS One
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