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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821642/super-optimal-perceptual-integration-suggests-a-place-based-representation-of-pitch-at-high-frequencies
#1
Bonnie K Lau, Anahita H Mehta, Andrew J Oxenham
Pitch, the perceptual correlate of sound repetition rate or frequency, plays an important role in speech perception, music perception, and listening in complex acoustic environments. Despite its perceptual importance, the neural mechanisms underlying pitch remain poorly understood. Although cortical regions responsive to pitch have been identified, little is known about how pitch information is extracted from the inner ear itself. The two primary theories of peripheral pitch coding involve stimulus-driven spike timing, or phase locking, in the auditory nerve (time code), and the spatial distribution of responses along the length of the cochlear partition (place code)...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820756/telmesani-radiological-classification-of-the-location-of-the-vertical-segment-of-the-facial-nerve-impact-on-surgical-approach-in-cochlear-implant-surgery
#2
Laila Mohammed Telmesani, Mona Khalid Alrammah
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to establish a radiological classification of the location of the vertical segment of the facial nerve (VSFN) and to see if this has implications on the surgical technique needed to access the round window niche (RWN) in cochlear implant (CI) surgery. STUDY DESIGN: Observational case series study. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: One hundred twenty seven patients underwent CI surgery, and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of 140 temporal bones was studied...
August 17, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819872/-hearing-restoration-with-cochlear-implants-after-translabyrinthine-vestibular-schwannoma-resection
#3
C Bohr, S Müller, J Hornung, U Hoppe, H Iro
BACKGROUND: Hearing restoration after translabyrinthine vestibular schwannoma resection is a challenge. Because the cochlea can begin to ossify a few months after cochlear or labyrinthine injury, the time interval for cochlear implant surgery is limited. To avoid complete ossification and to prolong the time interval until cochlear implantation, it is possible to insert a placeholder (depth gauge) into the cochlea and perform the cochlear implant surgery at a later time point (two-stage approach)...
August 17, 2017: HNO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818455/adipose-derived-stromal-cells-enhance-auditory-neuron-survival-in-an-animal-model-of-sensory-hearing-loss
#4
Philipp Schendzielorz, Maike Vollmer, Kristen Rak, Armin Wiegner, Nashwa Nada, Katrin Radeloff, Rudolf Hagen, Andreas Radeloff
BACKGROUND: A cochlear implant (CI) is an electronic prosthesis that can partially restore speech perception capabilities. Optimum information transfer from the cochlea to the central auditory system requires a proper functioning auditory nerve (AN) that is electrically stimulated by the device. In deafness, the lack of neurotrophic support, normally provided by the sensory cells of the inner ear, however, leads to gradual degeneration of auditory neurons with undesirable consequences for CI performance...
August 14, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818271/the-vestibulocochlear-bases-for-wartime-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-manifestations
#5
T A Tigno, R A Armonda, R S Bell, M A Severson
Preliminary findings based on earlier retrospective studies of 229 wartime head injuries managed by the Walter Reed Army Medical Center (WRAMC)/National Naval Medical Center (NNMC) Neurosurgery Service during the period 2003-08 detected a threefold rise in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) manifestations (10.45%) among Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBI) having concomitant vestibulocochlear injuries compared to 3% for the TBI group without vestibulo-cochlear damage (VCD), prompting the authors to undertake a more focused study of the vestibulo-auditory pathway in explaining the development of posttraumatic stress disorder manifestations among the mostly Blast-exposed head-injured...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817653/perilymph-pharmacokinetics-of-marker-applied-through-a-cochlear-implant-in-guinea-pigs
#6
Alec Salt, Jared Hartsock, Ruth Gill, Daniel Smyth, Jonathon Kirk, Kristien Verhoeven
Patients undergoing cochlear implantation could benefit from a simultaneous application of drugs into the ear, helping preserve residual low-frequency hearing and afferent nerve fiber populations. One way to apply drugs is to incorporate a cannula into the implant, through which drug solution is driven. For such an approach, perilymph concentrations achieved and the distribution in the ear over time have not previously been documented. We used FITC-labeled dextran as a marker, delivering it into perilymph of guinea pigs at 10 or 100 nL/min though a cannula incorporated into a cochlear implant with the outlet in the mid basal turn...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816698/intralabyrinthine-vestibular-schwannoma-responsive-to-intratympanic-gentamicin-treatment
#7
Edoardo Covelli, Luigi Volpini, Chiara Filippi, Silvia Tarantini, Vania Marrone, Simonetta Monini, Maurizio Barbara
Intralabyrinthine schwannoma (ILS) is a rare benign tumor that affects the ends of cochlear and vestibular nerves. In a majority of the cases, it occurs with unilateral progressive sensorineural hearing loss. Less frequent symptoms include tinnitus, imbalance, vertigo, or fullness. The advent of magnetic resonance imaging allows early diagnosis and enables an appropriate therapeutic protocol. This report describes a case of intravestibular schwannoma, with fluctuating hearing loss and intractable vertigo, treated with intratympanic gentamicin...
August 2017: Journal of International Advanced Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806330/nanoci-nanotechnology-based-cochlear-implant-with-gapless-interface-to-auditory-neurons
#8
Pascal Senn, Marta Roccio, Stefan Hahnewald, Claudia Frick, Monika Kwiatkowska, Masaaki Ishikawa, Peter Bako, Hao Li, Fredrik Edin, Wei Liu, Helge Rask-Andersen, Ilmari Pyykkö, Jing Zou, Marika Mannerström, Herbert Keppner, Alexandra Homsy, Edith Laux, Miguel Llera, Jean-Paul Lellouche, Stella Ostrovsky, Ehud Banin, Aharon Gedanken, Nina Perkas, Ute Wank, Karl-Heinz Wiesmüller, Pavel Mistrík, Heval Benav, Carolyn Garnham, Claude Jolly, Filippo Gander, Peter Ulrich, Marcus Müller, Hubert Löwenheim
: Cochlear implants (CI) restore functional hearing in the majority of deaf patients. Despite the tremendous success of these devices, some limitations remain. The bottleneck for optimal electrical stimulation with CI is caused by the anatomical gap between the electrode array and the auditory neurons in the inner ear. As a consequence, current devices are limited through 1) low frequency resolution, hence sub-optimal sound quality and 2), large stimulation currents, hence high energy consumption (responsible for significant battery costs and for impeding the development of fully implantable systems)...
September 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794847/neuro-otological-and-peripheral-nerve-involvement-in-fabry-disease
#9
Sergio Carmona, Romina Weinschelbaum, Ana Pardal, Cintia Marchesoni, Paz Zuberbuhler, Patricia Acosta, Guillermo Cáceres, Isaac Kisinovsky, Luciana Bayón, Ricardo Reisin
Fabry disease (FD) is an X-linked lysosomal storage disease, with multisystemic glycosphingolipids deposits. Neuro-otological involvement leading to hearing loss and vestibular dysfunctions has been described, but there is limited information about the frequency, site of lesion, or the relationship with peripheral neuropathy. The aim was to evaluate the presence of auditory and vestibular symptoms, and assess neurophysiological involvement of the VIII cranial nerve, correlating these findings with clinical and neurophysiological features of peripheral neuropathy...
July 18, 2017: Audiology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777229/the-modified-rambo-transcanal-approach-for-cochlear-implantation-in-charge-syndrome
#10
Cameron C Wick, Amy M Moore, Daniel E Killeen, Brandon Isaacson
OBJECTIVE: CHARGE syndrome is associated with a variety of temporal bone anomalies and deafness. The lack of surgical landmarks and facial nerve irregularities make cochlear implantation in this population a challenging endeavor. This study aims to describe a safe and efficacious transcanal approach for cochlear implantation that obviates the need to perform a mastoidectomy and facial recess. PATIENTS: Three children with profound hearing loss secondary to CHARGE syndrome...
August 2, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776202/neurotrophin-gene-therapy-in-deafened-ears-with-cochlear-implants-long-term-effects-on-nerve-survival-and-functional-measures
#11
Bryan E Pfingst, Deborah J Colesa, Donald L Swiderski, Aaron P Hughes, Stefan B Strahl, Moaz Sinan, Yehoash Raphael
Because cochlear implants function by stimulating the auditory nerve, it is assumed that the condition of the nerve plays an important role in the efficacy of the prosthesis. Thus, considerable research has been devoted to methods of preserving the nerve following deafness. Neurotrophins have been identified as a potential contributor to neural health, but most of the research to date has been done in young animals and for short periods (less than 3 to 6 months) after the onset of treatment. The first objective of the current experiment was to examine the effects of a neurotrophin gene therapy delivery method on spiral ganglion neuron (SGN) preservation and function in the long term (5 to 14 months) in mature guinea pigs with cochlear implants...
August 3, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769768/developmental-shift-of-inhibitory-transmitter-content-at-a-central-auditory-synapse
#12
Jana Nerlich, Rudolf Rübsamen, Ivan Milenkovic
Synaptic inhibition in the CNS is mostly mediated by GABA or glycine. Generally, the use of the two transmitters is spatially segregated, but there are central synapses employing both, which allows for spatial and temporal variability of inhibitory mechanisms. Spherical bushy cells (SBCs) in the mammalian cochlear nucleus receive primary excitatory inputs through auditory nerve fibers arising from the organ of Corti and non-primary inhibition mediated by a dual glycine-GABA transmission. Slow kinetics IPSCs enable activity dependent tonic-like conductance build up, functioning as a gain control by filtering out small or temporally imprecise EPSPs...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769753/intraoperative-electrocochleographic-characteristics-of-auditory-neuropathy-spectrum-disorder-in-cochlear-implant-subjects
#13
William J Riggs, Joseph P Roche, Christopher K Giardina, Michael S Harris, Zachary J Bastian, Tatyana E Fontenot, Craig A Buchman, Kevin D Brown, Oliver F Adunka, Douglas C Fitzpatrick
Auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) is characterized by an apparent discrepancy between measures of cochlear and neural function based on auditory brainstem response (ABR) testing. Clinical indicators of ANSD are a present cochlear microphonic (CM) with small or absent wave V. Many identified ANSD patients have speech impairment severe enough that cochlear implantation (CI) is indicated. To better understand the cochleae identified with ANSD that lead to a CI, we performed intraoperative round window electrocochleography (ECochG) to tone bursts in children (n = 167) and adults (n = 163)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769744/the-auditory-nerve-overlapped-waveform-anow-detects-small-endolymphatic-manipulations-that-may-go-undetected-by-conventional-measurements
#14
Jeffery T Lichtenhan, Choongheon Lee, Farah Dubaybo, Kaitlyn A Wenrich, Uzma S Wilson
Electrocochleography (ECochG) has been used to assess Ménière's disease, a pathology associated with endolymphatic hydrops and low-frequency sensorineural hearing loss. However, the current ECochG techniques are limited for use at high-frequencies only (≥1 kHz) and cannot be used to assess and understand the low-frequency sensorineural hearing loss in ears with Ménière's disease. In the current study, we use a relatively new ECochG technique to make measurements that originate from afferent auditory nerve fibers in the apical half of the cochlear spiral to assess effects of endolymphatic hydrops in guinea pig ears...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766844/timing-of-cochlear-implantation-in-auditory-neuropathy-patients-with-otof-mutations-our-experience-with-10-patients
#15
C C Wu, C J Hsu, F L Huang, Y H Lin, Y H Lin, T C Liu, C M Wu
Auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) can be caused by a variety of pathologies ranging from inner hair cells, synapses, spiral ganglion neurons, the auditory nerve, to brainstem auditory nuclei.(1) For ANSD patients who derive limited benefit from hearing aids, cochlear implantation constitutes the treatment of last resort. However, corresponding to the heterogeneity in pathology, the outcomes with cochlear implants (CIs) vary significantly among ANSD patients.(1) This article is protected by copyright...
August 2, 2017: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761510/a-systematic-review-about-the-position-related-complications-of-acoustic-neuroma-surgery-via-suboccipital-retrosigmoid-approach-sitting-versus-lateral
#16
REVIEW
Mahdi Safdarian, Manouchehr Safdarian, Roger Chou, Seyed Mahmoud Ramak Hashemi, Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar
This systematic review wasdesigned to compare the complications of acoustic neuroma surgery via the suboccipital retrosigmoid approach in the sitting versus lateral positions. Searches for randomized trials and observational studies about the complications of acoustic neuroma surgery were performed in five medical databases (though October 2015) including PubMed, MEDLINE (In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations), EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and PsycINFO. Primary outcomes in this study were venous air emboli, neuropsychological defects, CSF leak, facial and abducens nerves palsy, postoperative deafness, hydrocephalus and mortality...
July 2017: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755914/cochlear-nerve-action-potential-monitoring-for-preserving-function-of-an-unseen-cochlear-nerve-in-vestibular-schwannoma-surgery
#17
Mami Ishikawa, Atsuhiro Kojima, Satoshi Terao, Mutsumi Nagai, Gen Kusaka, Heiji Naritaka
BACKGROUND: Intraoperative monitoring of cochlear nerve action potential (CNAP) has been used in patients with small vestibular schwannoma (<15 mm) to preserve cochlear nerve function. We performed surgery for a larger vestibular schwannoma under CNAP monitoring and preserved cochlear nerve function, as compared with that in 10 normal patients showing hemifacial spasm. CASE DESCRIPTION: We report the case of a patient with a 26-mm vestibular schwannoma and normal hearing function who underwent neurosurgery under electrophysiological monitoring of the facial and cochlear nerves...
July 26, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754643/probabilistic-tractography-of-the-cranial-nerves-in-vestibular-schwannoma
#18
Amir Zolal, Tareq A Juratli, Dino Podlesek, Bernhard Rieger, Hagen H Kitzler, Jennifer Linn, Gabriele Schackert, Stephan B Sobottka
OBJECTIVE: Multiple recent studies have reported on diffusion tensor-based fiber tracking of cranial nerves in vestibular schwannoma, with conflicting results as to the accuracy of the method and the occurrence of cochlear nerve depiction. Probabilistic non-tensor based tractography might offer advantages in terms of better extraction of directional information from the underlying data in cranial nerves, which are of sub-voxel size. METHODS: Twenty-one patients with large vestibular schwannomas were recruited...
July 25, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748487/predictions-of-speech-chimaera-intelligibility-using-auditory-nerve-mean-rate-and-spike-timing-neural-cues
#19
Michael R Wirtzfeld, Rasha A Ibrahim, Ian C Bruce
Perceptual studies of speech intelligibility have shown that slow variations of acoustic envelope (ENV) in a small set of frequency bands provides adequate information for good perceptual performance in quiet, whereas acoustic temporal fine-structure (TFS) cues play a supporting role in background noise. However, the implications for neural coding are prone to misinterpretation because the mean-rate neural representation can contain recovered ENV cues from cochlear filtering of TFS. We investigated ENV recovery and spike-time TFS coding using objective measures of simulated mean-rate and spike-timing neural representations of chimaeric speech, in which either the ENV or the TFS is replaced by another signal...
July 26, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743950/auditory-neuropathy-after-damage-to-cochlear-spiral-ganglion-neurons-in-mice-resulting-from-conditional-expression-of-diphtheria-toxin-receptors
#20
Haolai Pan, Qiang Song, Yanyan Huang, Jiping Wang, Renjie Chai, Shankai Yin, Jian Wang
Auditory neuropathy (AN) is a hearing disorder characterized by normal cochlear amplification to sound but poor temporal processing and auditory perception in noisy backgrounds. These deficits likely result from impairments in auditory neural synchrony; such dyssynchrony of the neural responses has been linked to demyelination of auditory nerve fibers. However, no appropriate animal models are currently available that mimic this pathology. In this study, Cre-inducible diphtheria toxin receptor (iDTR (+/+) ) mice were cross-mated with mice containing Cre (Bhlhb5-Cre (+/-) ) specific to spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs)...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
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