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Cochlear nerve

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429126/assessing-the-role-of-place-and-timing-cues-in-coding-frequency-and-amplitude-modulation-as-a-function-of-age
#1
Kelly L Whiteford, Heather A Kreft, Andrew J Oxenham
Natural sounds can be characterized by their fluctuations in amplitude and frequency. Ageing may affect sensitivity to some forms of fluctuations more than others. The present study used individual differences across a wide age range (20-79 years) to test the hypothesis that slow-rate, low-carrier frequency modulation (FM) is coded by phase-locked auditory-nerve responses to temporal fine structure (TFS), whereas fast-rate FM is coded via rate-place (tonotopic) cues, based on amplitude modulation (AM) of the temporal envelope after cochlear filtering...
April 20, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420960/contralateral-inhibition-of-click-and-chirp-evoked-human-compound-action-potentials
#2
Spencer B Smith, Jeffery T Lichtenhan, Barbara K Cone
Cochlear outer hair cells (OHC) receive direct efferent feedback from the caudal auditory brainstem via the medial olivocochlear (MOC) bundle. This circuit provides the neural substrate for the MOC reflex, which inhibits cochlear amplifier gain and is believed to play a role in listening in noise and protection from acoustic overexposure. The human MOC reflex has been studied extensively using otoacoustic emissions (OAE) paradigms; however, these measurements are insensitive to subsequent "downstream" efferent effects on the neural ensembles that mediate hearing...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413822/distinct-neural-properties-in-the-low-frequency-region-of-the-chicken-cochlear-nucleus-magnocellularis
#3
Xiaoyu Wang, Hui Hong, David H Brown, Jason Tait Sanchez, Yuan Wang
Topography in the avian cochlear nucleus magnocellularis (NM) is represented as gradually increasing characteristic frequency (CF) along the caudolateral-to-rostromedial axis. In this study, we characterized the organization and cell biophysics of the caudolateral NM (NMc) in chickens (Gallus gallus). Examination of cellular and dendritic architecture first revealed that NMc contains small neurons and extensive dendritic processes, in contrast to adendritic, large neurons located more rostromedially. Individual dye-filling study further demonstrated that NMc is divided into two subregions, with NMc2 neurons having larger and more complex dendritic fields than NMc1...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397107/the-number-and-distribution-of-ampa-receptor-channels-containing-fast-kinetic-glua3-and-glua4-subunits-at-auditory-nerve-synapses-depend-on-the-target-cells
#4
María E Rubio, Ko Matsui, Yugo Fukazawa, Naomi Kamasawa, Harumi Harada, Makoto Itakura, Elek Molnár, Manabu Abe, Kenji Sakimura, Ryuichi Shigemoto
The neurotransmitter receptor subtype, number, density, and distribution relative to the location of transmitter release sites are key determinants of signal transmission. AMPA-type ionotropic glutamate receptors (AMPARs) containing GluA3 and GluA4 subunits are prominently expressed in subsets of neurons capable of firing action potentials at high frequencies, such as auditory relay neurons. The auditory nerve (AN) forms glutamatergic synapses on two types of relay neurons, bushy cells (BCs) and fusiform cells (FCs) of the cochlear nucleus...
April 10, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395319/speech-rate-normalization-and-phonemic-boundary-perception-in-cochlear-implant-users
#5
Brittany N Jaekel, Rochelle S Newman, Matthew J Goupell
Purpose: Normal-hearing (NH) listeners rate normalize, temporarily remapping phonemic category boundaries to account for a talker's speech rate. It is unknown if adults who use auditory prostheses called cochlear implants (CI) can rate normalize, as CIs transmit degraded speech signals to the auditory nerve. Ineffective adjustment to rate information could explain some of the variability in this population's speech perception outcomes. Method: Phonemes with manipulated voice-onset-time (VOT) durations were embedded in sentences with different speech rates...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388854/auditory-adaptation-testing-as-a-tool-for-investigating-tinnitus-origin-two-patients-with-vestibular-schwannoma
#6
Carol A Silverman, Shlomo Silman, Michele B Emmer
OBJECTIVE: To enhance the understanding of tinnitus origin by disseminating two case studies of vestibular schwannoma (VS) involving behavioural auditory adaptation testing (AAT). DESIGN: Retrospective case study. STUDY SAMPLE: Two adults who presented with unilateral, non-pulsatile subjective tinnitus and bilateral normal-hearing sensitivity. At the initial evaluation, the otolaryngologic and audiologic findings were unremarkable, bilaterally...
April 7, 2017: International Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386212/characterizing-electrocochleography-in-cochlear-implant-recipients-with-residual-low-frequency-hearing
#7
Christofer W Bester, Luke Campbell, Adrian Dragovic, Aaron Collins, Stephen J O'Leary
Objective: Lay the groundwork for using electrocochleography (ECochG) as a measure of cochlear health, by characterizing typical patterns of the ECochG response observed across the electrode array in cochlear implant recipients with residual hearing. Methods: ECochG was measured immediately after electrode insertion in 45 cochlear implant recipients with residual hearing. The Cochlear Response Telemetry system was used to record ECochG across the electrode array, in response to 100- or 110-dB SPL pure tones at 0...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385885/the-role-of-mri-in-diagnosing-neurovascular-compression-of-the-cochlear-nerve-resulting-in-typewriter-tinnitus
#8
Y J Bae, Y J Jeon, B S Choi, J-W Koo, J-J Song
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Typewriter tinnitus, a symptom characterized by paroxysmal attacks of staccato sounds, has been thought to be caused by neurovascular compression of the cochlear nerve, but the correlation between radiologic evidence of neurovascular compression of the cochlear nerve and symptom presentation has not been thoroughly investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine whether radiologic evidence of neurovascular compression of the cochlear nerve is pathognomonic in typewriter tinnitus...
April 6, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384958/application-of-curved-mpr-algorithm-to-high-resolution-3-dimensional-t2-weighted-ciss-images-for-virtual-uncoiling-of-membranous-cochlea-as-an-aid-for-cochlear-morphometry
#9
Joish Upendra Kumar, Y Kavitha
INTRODUCTION: With the use of various surgical techniques, types of implants, the preoperative assessment of cochlear dimensions is becoming increasingly relevant prior to cochlear implantation. High resolution CISS protocol MRI gives a better assessment of membranous cochlea, cochlear nerve, and membranous labyrinth. Curved Multiplanar Reconstruction (MPR) algorithm provides better images that can be used for measuring dimensions of membranous cochlea. AIM: To ascertain the value of curved multiplanar reconstruction algorithm in high resolution 3-Dimensional T2 Weighted Gradient Echo Constructive Interference Steady State (3D T2W GRE CISS) imaging for accurate morphometry of membranous cochlea...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382742/mechanical-tuning-and-amplification-within-the-apex-of-the-guinea-pig-cochlea
#10
Alberto Recio-Spinoso, John S Oghalai
The popular notion of mammalian cochlear function is that auditory nerves are tuned to respond best to different sound frequencies because basilar membrane vibration is mechanically tuned to different frequencies along its length. However, this concept has only been demonstrated in regions of the cochlea tuned to frequencies >7 kHz, not in regions sensitive to lower frequencies where human speech is encoded. Here, we overcame historical technical limitations and non-invasively measured sound-induced vibrations at four locations distributed over the apical two turns of the guinea pig cochlea...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382577/morphological-correlates-of-sex-differences-in-acoustic-startle-response-and-prepulse-inhibition-through-projections-from-locus-coeruleus-to-cochlear-root-neurons
#11
Sebastian Hormigo, Ricardo Gómez-Nieto, Consuelo Sancho, Javier Herrero-Turrión, Juan Carro, Dolores E López, José de Anchieta de Castro E Horta-Júnior
The noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) plays an important role in the promotion and maintenance of arousal and alertness. Our group recently described coerulean projections to cochlear root neurons (CRNs), the first relay of the primary acoustic startle reflex (ASR) circuit. However, the role of the LC in the ASR and its modulation, prepulse inhibition (PPI), is not clear. In this study, we damaged LC neurons and fibers using a highly selective neurotoxin, DSP-4, and then assessed ASR and PPI in male and female rats...
April 5, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374626/cochlear-implantation-in-inner-ear-malformations-systematic-review-of-speech-perception-outcomes-and-intraoperative-findings
#12
Zachary Farhood, Shaun A Nguyen, Stephen C Miller, Meredith A Holcomb, Ted A Meyer, And Habib G Rizk
Objective (1) To analyze reported speech perception outcomes in patients with inner ear malformations who undergo cochlear implantation, (2) to review the surgical complications and findings, and (3) to compare the 2 classification systems of Jackler and Sennaroglu. Data Sources PubMed, Scopus (including Embase), Medline, and CINAHL Plus. Review Methods Fifty-nine articles were included that contained speech perception and/or intraoperative data. Cases were differentiated depending on whether the Jackler or Sennaroglu malformation classification was used...
March 1, 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373839/high-entrainment-constrains-synaptic-depression-levels-of-an-in-vivo-globular-bushy-cell-model
#13
Marek Rudnicki, Werner Hemmert
Globular bushy cells (GBCs) located in the ventral cochlear nucleus are an essential part of the sound localization pathway in the mammalian auditory system. They receive inputs directly from the auditory nerve and are particularly sensitive to temporal cues due to their synaptic and membrane specializations. GBCs act as coincidence detectors for incoming spikes through large synapses-endbulbs of Held-which connect to their soma. Since endbulbs of Held are an integral part of the auditory information conveying and processing pathway, they were extensively studied...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368665/assessment-of-the-cochlear-nerve-to-facial-nerve-size-ratio-using-mr-multiplanar-reconstruction-of-the-internal-auditory-canal-in-patients-presenting-with-acquired-longstanding-hearing-loss
#14
Nagy N N Naguib, Constanze Hey, Mohamed S Shaaban, Amr M Elabd, Heba Hassan, Tatjana Gruber-Rouh, Benjamin Kaltenbach, Marc Harth, Hanns Ackermann, Timo Stoever, Thomas J Vogl, Nour-Eldin A Nour-Eldin
OBJECTIVES: To test using the facial nerve as a reference for assessment of the cochlear nerve size in patients with acquired longstanding-sensorineural-hearing-loss (SNHL) using MRI multiplanar-reconstruction (MPR). METHODS: The study was retrospectively performed on 86 patients. Group 1 (study group, n=53) with bilateral longstanding-SNHL. Group 2 (control group, n=33) without hearing loss. Nerve size was measured by drawing region of interest around the cross-sectional circumference of the nerve in MPR images...
April 3, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366032/etiology-of-single-sided-deafness-and-asymmetrical-hearing-loss
#15
Shin-Ichi Usami, Ryosuke Kitoh, Hideaki Moteki, Shin-Ya Nishio, Tomohiro Kitano, Masafumi Kobayashi, Jun Shinagawa, Yoh Yokota, Kenjiro Sugiyama, Kizuki Watanabe
CONCLUSIONS: The present study revealed that various etiologies are involved in single-sided deafness (SSD), and that the cause of SSD and asymmetrical hearing loss (AHL) differed greatly between congenital/early-onset cases and adult cases. Clarification of the etiology is the first step toward providing appropriate intervention. OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to clarify the etiology of SSD and AHL patients. METHODS: The etiology of a total of 527 SSD or AHL patients who visited Shinshu University Hospital between 2006 and 2016 were analyzed by imaging as well as serological tests for mumps virus, and CMV DNA testing...
April 1, 2017: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357188/audiological-findings-from-an-adult-with-thin-cochlear-nerves
#16
Prashanth Prabhu, Jyothi Shivaswamy
Reported here are audiological findings from an adult with thin cochlear nerves. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed that he had a thinner cochlear nerve in the left ear than in the right ear. He had a higher degree of hearing loss in the left ear and poor speech recognition scores for both ears. He had normal middle ear and cochlear functioning. The auditory brainstem response and acoustic reflexes were absent, indicating a retrocochlear pathology. Long latency responses (LLR) revealed normal cortical functioning...
February 2017: Intractable & Rare Diseases Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353620/electrode-array-displacement-into-the-fallopian-canal-in-revisions-of-long-standing-cochlear-implants
#17
Jennifer Alyono, Garrett Locketz, Carleton Eduardo Corrales, Nikolas H Blevins
OBJECTIVE: To describe extracochlear extension of revision cochlear implant arrays into the Fallopian canal. PATIENTS: Two adult patients with extension of revision cochlear implant arrays into the Fallopian canal. INTERVENTIONS: Computed tomography (CT), selective deactivation of non-functional electrodes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Facial nerve function, facial nerve stimulation, cochlear implant electrode position, radiography, functional hearing...
March 28, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353079/biological-therapies-in-otology
#18
A Roemer, H Staecker, S Sasse, T Lenarz, A Warnecke
Hearing loss is present in millions of people worldwide. Current treatment for patients with severe to profound hearing loss consists of cochlear implantation. Providing the cochlear nerve is intact, patients generally benefit greatly from this intervention, frequently achieving significant improvements in speech comprehension. There are, however, some cases where current technology does not provide patients with adequate benefit. Ongoing research in cell transplantation and gene therapy promises to lead to new developments that will improve the function of cochlear implants...
March 28, 2017: HNO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349763/radiographic-evidence-of-occult-intracranial-hypertension-in-patients-with-m%C3%A3-ni%C3%A3-re-s-disease
#19
Kareem O Tawfik, Shawn M Stevens, David Mihal, Mark S Costello, Rebecca S Cornelius, Ravi N Samy, Myles L Pensak
Objectives (1) Describe the prevalence of radiographic signs of intracranial hypertension (ICH) in Ménière's disease (MD) and (2) compare the prevalence of radiographic signs of ICH in MD patients managed medically to those managed surgically. Study Design Case-control study. Setting Academic neurotologic practice. Subjects and Methods Adult MD patients (aged ≥17 years) treated from 2011 to 2015 were reviewed. Inclusion required magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head and follow-up >6 months. Patients with intracranial tumors, mass effect, trauma, previous intracranial surgery, and glaucoma were excluded...
March 1, 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346293/comparison-of-experts-and-residents-performing-a-complex-procedure-in-a-temporal-bone-surgery-simulator
#20
Ioanna Ioannou, Yun Zhou, Sudanthi Wijewickrema, Patorn Piromchai, Bridget Copson, Gregor Kennedy, Stephen O'Leary
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the use of automated metrics from a virtual reality (VR) temporal bone surgery simulator to determine how the performance of experts and trainees differs when performing a complex otological procedure (mastoidectomy with posterior tympanotomy and cochleostomy). STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study. METHODS: Using the University of Melbourne VR temporal bone surgery simulator, seven ENT consultants and seven ENT residents performed two trials of the surgical approach to cochlear implantation on a virtual temporal bone...
March 24, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
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