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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652892/the-effects-of-electrical-field-spatial-spread-and-some-cognitive-factors-on-speech-in-noise-performance-of-individual-cochlear-implant-users-a-computer-model-study
#1
Tim Jürgens, Volker Hohmann, Andreas Büchner, Waldo Nogueira
The relation of the individual speech-in-noise performance differences in cochlear implant (CI) users to underlying physiological factors is currently poorly understood. This study approached this research question by a step-wise individualization of a computer model of speech intelligibility mimicking the details of CI signal processing and some details of the physiology present in CI users. Two factors, the electrical field spatial spread and internal noise (as a coarse model of the individual cognitive performance) were incorporated...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652586/a-computational-account-of-the-role-of-cochlear-nucleus-and-inferior-colliculus-in-stabilizing-auditory-nerve-firing-for-auditory-category-learning
#2
Irina Higgins, Simon Stringer, Jan Schnupp
It is well known that auditory nerve (AN) fibers overcome bandwidth limitations through the volley principle, a form of multiplexing. What is less well known is that the volley principle introduces a degree of unpredictability into AN neural firing patterns that may be affecting even simple stimulus categorization learning. We use a physiologically grounded, unsupervised spiking neural network model of the auditory brain with spike time dependent plasticity learning to demonstrate that plastic auditory cortex is unable to learn even simple auditory object categories when exposed to the raw AN firing input without subcortical preprocessing...
April 13, 2018: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29598838/hidden-hearing-loss-and-endbulbs-of-held-evidence-for-central-pathology-before-detection-of-abr-threshold-increases
#3
Michael A Muniak, Femi E Ayeni, David K Ryugo
Reductions in sound-evoked activity in the auditory nerve due to hearing loss have been shown to cause pathological changes in central auditory structures. Hearing loss due strictly to the aging process are less well documented. In this study of CBA/CaH mice, we provide evidence for age-related pathology in the endbulb of Held, a large axosomatic ending arising from myelinated auditory nerve fibers. Endbulbs are known to be involved in the processing of temporal cues used for sound localization and speech comprehension...
March 20, 2018: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29598837/effects-of-cochlear-synaptopathy-on-middle-ear-muscle-reflexes-in-unanesthetized-mice
#4
Michelle D Valero, Kenneth E Hancock, Stéphane F Maison, M Charles Liberman
Cochlear synaptopathy, i.e. the loss of auditory-nerve connections with cochlear hair cells, is seen in aging, noise damage, and other types of acquired sensorineural hearing loss. Because the subset of auditory-nerve fibers with high thresholds and low spontaneous rates (SRs) is disproportionately affected, audiometric thresholds are relatively insensitive to this primary neural degeneration. Although suprathreshold amplitudes of wave I of the auditory brainstem response (ABR) are attenuated in synaptopathic mice, there is not yet a robust diagnostic in humans...
March 13, 2018: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593635/postoperative-tinnitus-after-vestibular-schwannoma-surgery-depends-on-preoperative-tinnitus-and-both-pre-and-postoperative-hearing-function
#5
Leonidas Trakolis, Florian H Ebner, Kathrin Machetanz, Joey Sandritter, Marcos Tatagiba, Georgios Naros
Objective: Tinnitus is one of the most common symptoms before and/or after the surgical removal of a vestibular schwannoma (VS) affecting almost half of the patients. Although there is increasing evidence for the association of hearing impairment and VS-associated tinnitus, the effect of hearing deterioration due to surgery and its relation to the postoperative tinnitus (postTN) is poorly investigated. This knowledge, however, might (i) enlighten the pathophysiology of VS-associated tinnitus (i...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593051/adaptation-to-noise-in-human-speech-recognition-unrelated-to-the-medial-olivocochlear-reflex
#6
Miriam I Marrufo-Pérez, Almudena Eustaquio-Martín, Enrique A Lopez-Poveda
Sensory systems constantly adapt their responses to the current environment. In hearing, adaptation may facilitate communication in noisy settings, a benefit frequently (but controversially) attributed to the medial olivocochlear reflex (MOCR) enhancing the neural representation of speech. Here, we show that human listeners ( N = 14; five male) recognize more words presented monaurally in ipsilateral, contralateral, and bilateral noise when they are given some time to adapt to the noise. This finding challenges models and theories that claim that speech intelligibility in noise is invariant over time...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577849/facial-nerve-stimulation-after-cochlear-implantation-our-experience-in-448-adult-patients
#7
Joana Sanches Pires, Ana Sofia Melo, Ricardo Caiado, Jorge Humberto Martins, João Elói Moura, Luís Filipe Silva
Facial nerve stimulation (FNS) after cochlear implant activation is a well-known side effect, with an incidence rate raging between 1% and 14.9%. Some causes of deafness have been associated with a higher incidence of this entity, however, there is still no consensus regarding its pathophysiological mechanisms. Although FNS can be solved with changes in speech processor programming, in some cases this can lead to a decrease in performance. The aim of this work was to review the epidemiologic, clinical aspects, and performance results in a group of FNS after cochlear implantation...
March 25, 2018: Cochlear Implants International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573425/cochlear-implantation-and-auditory-brainstem-implantation-in-neurofibromatosis-type-2
#8
Kevin A Peng, Mark B Lorenz, Steven R Otto, Derald E Brackmann, Eric P Wilkinson
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To report a series of patients with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2), where each patient underwent both cochlear implantation and auditory brainstem implantation for hearing rehabilitation, and to discuss factors influencing respective implant success. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: Ten NF2 patients with both cochlear implantations and auditory brainstem implantations were retrospectively reviewed. Speech testing for auditory brainstem implants (ABIs) and cochlear implants (CIs) was performed separately...
March 24, 2018: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570519/cystic-progression-of-a-cavernous-malformation-at-the-level-of-the-trigeminal-root-entry-zone-presenting-with-sudden-onset-of-trigeminal-neuralgia
#9
Carlo Giacobbo Scavo, Raffaelino Roperto, Guglielmo Cacciotti, Luciano Mastronardi
BACKGROUND: Cavernous malformations (CM) in the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) are rare, and most of them are solid and extend from the internal auditory canal into the CPA. In contrast, cystic CM arising in the CPA and not involving the internal auditory canal and dura of the skull base are extremely rare. The authors present an uncommon large cystic progression of a cavernous malformation at the level of the trigeminal root entry zone evolving to severe trigeminal neuralgia and brainstem compression...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564143/gastric-schwannoma-a-rare-benign-mimic-of-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumor
#10
Tagore Sunkara, Eric Omar Then, Madhavi Reddy, Vinaya Gaduputi
Schwannomas most commonly manifest as acoustic neuromas in the vestibulo-cochlear nerve (CN VIII). These may occur unilaterally as primary tumors, or bilaterally secondary to neurofibromatosis type 2. More rarely, they present in extra-cranial sites, including the gastrointestinal tract. Gastrointestinal schwannomas are believed to arise from Auerbach's plexus in the muscularis propria, and are classified as mesenchymal tumors. Here, we report a rare case of a 49-year-old woman who had surgical resection of a gastric mass which was eventually diagnosed as gastric schwannoma...
March 2018: Oxford Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560508/intralabyrinthine-schwannomas-a-new-surgical-treatment
#11
Daniele Marchioni, Stefano De Rossi, Davide Soloperto, Livio Presutti, Luca Sacchetto, Alessia Rubini
OBJECTIVE: To define a new surgical option, with lower morbidity, for the treatment of intralabyrinthine schwannomas. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case review. SETTING: Tertiary referral centers. PATIENTS: Eight patients affected by an intralabyrinthine schwannoma, with or without extension to the internal auditory canal, that underwent surgery with a transcanal transpromontorial approach, were included in the study. The average age at presentation was 47 years...
March 20, 2018: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553844/estimation-of-the-status-of-spiral-ganglion-neurons-and-schwann-cells-in-the-auditory-neural-degeneration-mouse-using-the-auditory-brainstem-response
#12
Zhi-Jian Zhang, Hong-Xia Guan, Kun Yang, Bo-Kui Xiao, Hua Liao, Yang Jiang, Tao Zhou, Qing-Quan Hua
CONCLUSION: The auditory brainstem response (ABR) wave I threshold, latency and amplitude are insensitive to spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) degeneration, but are sensitive to the degeneration of Schwann cells and can estimate the status of Schwann cells in a neural degeneration mouse model. The thorough pre-operative ABR assessment would be helpful in predicting cochlear implant performance. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed in finding a non-invasive electrophysiological method to evaluate the status of the auditory nerve and the Schwann cells in sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) and auditory neuropathy (AN) ears, and providing useful information for candidates screening and outcome prediction in cochlear implantation...
March 19, 2018: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553522/a-surgical-procedure-for-the-administration-of-drugs-to-the-inner-ear-in-a-non-human-primate-common-marmoset-callithrix-jacchus
#13
Sho Kurihara, Masato Fujioka, Tomohiko Yoshida, Makoto Koizumi, Kaoru Ogawa, Hiromi Kojima, Hirotaka James Okano
Hearing research has long been facilitated by rodent models, although in some diseases, human symptoms cannot be recapitulated. The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a small, easy-to-handle New World monkey which has a similar anatomy of the temporal bone, including the middle ear ossicular chains and inner ear to humans, than in comparison with that of rodents. Here, we report a reproducible, safe, and rational surgical approach to the cochlear round window niche for the drug delivery to the inner ear of the common marmoset...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29537890/evaluating-auditory-pathway-by-electrical-auditory-middle-latency-response-and-postoperative-hearing-rehabilitation
#14
Bin Wang, Keli Cao, Chaogang Wei, Zhiqiang Gao, Huan Li
OBJECTIVE: To establish an effective detection method to evaluate auditory pathway in patients by electrical evoked middle latency response (EMLR) before artificial cochlear implantation, and to analyze the relationship between postoperative hearing rehabilitation and auditory cortex functions. METHODS: Twenty-three patients with artificial cochlear implant were recruited. EMLR was measured after adjusting the depth of anesthesia. The electrical auditory brainstem response (EABR) mode with monopolar stimulation and two-phase alternating current square waves was selected...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Investigative Surgery: the Official Journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536590/neuronal-cell-adhesion-molecule-nrcam-is-expressed-by-sensory-cells-in-the-cochlea-and-is-necessary-for-proper-cochlear-innervation-and-sensory-domain-patterning-during-development
#15
Randall J Harley, Joseph P Murdy, Zhirong Wang, Michael C Kelly, Tessa-Jonne F Ropp, SeHoon H Park, Patricia F Maness, Paul B Manis, Thomas M Coate
BACKGROUND: In the cochlea, auditory development depends on precise patterns of innervation by afferent and efferent nerve fibers, as well as a stereotyped arrangement of hair and supporting cells. NrCAM is a homophilic cell adhesion molecule that controls diverse aspects of nervous system development, but the function of NrCAM in cochlear development is not well understood. RESULTS: Throughout cochlear innervation, NrCAM is detectable on spiral ganglion neuron (SGN) afferent and olivocochlear efferent fibers, and on the membranes of developing hair and supporting cells...
March 14, 2018: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502727/advanced-otosclerosis-stapes-surgery-or-cochlear-implantation
#16
REVIEW
Adrien A Eshraghi, Kadri Ila, Emre Ocak, Fred F Telischi
Diagnosis and treatment of advanced otosclerosis can be controversial. In 1961, House and Sheehy defined advanced otosclerosis as hearing loss in air conduction threshold by 85 dB with nonmeasurable bone conduction. Recently, the definition of advanced otosclerosis is mostly based on the decrease of speech recognition. There are some treatment modalities: stapes surgery and hearing aids, cochlear implantation, or direct acoustic cochlear implant. The authors propose a new algorithm for treatment. If the patient is treated with cochlear implantation, the surgeon should be cautious for facial nerve stimulation after surgery because it is the most prevalent complication...
April 2018: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498575/long-term-outcome-after-gamma-knife-radiosurgery-for-acoustic-neuroma-of-all-koos-grades-a-single-center-study
#17
Josa M Frischer, Elise Gruber, Verena Schöffmann, Adolf Ertl, Romana Höftberger, Ammar Mallouhi, Stefan Wolfsberger, Christoph Arnoldner, Wilhelm Eisner, Engelbert Knosp, Klaus Kitz, Brigitte Gatterbauer
OBJECTIVE The authors present long-term follow-up data on patients treated with Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for acoustic neuroma. METHODS Six hundred eighteen patients were radiosurgically treated for acoustic neuroma between 1992 and 2016 at the Department of Neurosurgery, Medical University Vienna. Patients with neurofibromatosis and patients treated too recently to attain 1 year of follow-up were excluded from this retrospective study. Thus, data on 557 patients with spontaneous acoustic neuroma of any Koos grade are presented, as are long-term follow-up data on 426 patients with a minimum follow-up of 2 years...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496369/cochlear-implant-revision-surgeries-in-children
#18
Maria Stella Arantes do Amaral, Ana Cláudia Mirândola B Reis, Eduardo T Massuda, Miguel Angelo Hyppolito
INTRODUCTION: The surgery during which the cochlear implant internal device is implanted is not entirely free of risks and may produce problems that will require revision surgeries. OBJECTIVE: To verify the indications for cochlear implantation revision surgery for the cochlear implant internal device, its effectiveness and its correlation with certain variables related to language and hearing. METHODS: A retrospective study of patients under 18 years submitted to cochlear implant Surgery from 2004 to 2015 in a public hospital in Brazil...
February 16, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496363/simulated-auditory-nerve-axon-demyelination-alters-sensitivity-and-response-timing-to-extracellular-stimulation
#19
Jesse M Resnick, Gabrielle E O'Brien, Jay T Rubinstein
Since cochlear implant function involves direct depolarization of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) by applied current, SGN physiological health must be an important factor in cochlear implant (CI) outcomes. This expected relationship has, however, been difficult to confirm in implant recipients. Suggestively, animal studies have demonstrated both acute and progressive SGN ultrastructural changes (notably axon demyelination), even in the absence of soma death, and corresponding altered physiology following sensorineural deafening...
February 14, 2018: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495673/cochlear-spike-synchronization-and-neuron-coincidence-detection-model
#20
Rolf Bader
Coincidence detection of a spike pattern fed from the cochlea into a single neuron is investigated using a physical Finite-Difference model of the cochlea and a physiologically motivated neuron model. Previous studies have shown experimental evidence of increased spike synchronization in the nucleus cochlearis and the trapezoid body [Joris et al., J. Neurophysiol. 71(3), 1022-1036 and 1037-1051 (1994)] and models show tone partial phase synchronization at the transition from mechanical waves on the basilar membrane into spike patterns [Ch...
February 2018: Chaos
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