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Inhalator anaesthesia

Rajasree Omanakutty Amma, Subha Ravindran, Rachel Cherian Koshy, K M Jagathnath Krishna
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: With the availability of modern workstations and heightened awareness on the environmental effects of waste anaesthesia gases, anaesthesiologists worldwide are practicing low flow anaesthesia (LFA). Although LFA is being practiced in India, hard evidence on the current practice of the same from anaesthesiologists practicing in India is lacking and hence, we conducted this survey. METHODS: A questionnaire containing 16 questions was distributed among a subgroup of anaesthesiologists who attended the 2014 National Conference of Indian Society of Anaesthesiologists...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
Anthony G Messina, Michael Wang, Marshall J Ward, Chase C Wilker, Brett B Smith, Daniel P Vezina, Nathan Leon Pace
BACKGROUND: General anaesthesia is usually associated with unconsciousness. 'Awareness' is when patients have postoperative recall of events or experiences during surgery. 'Wakefulness' is when patients become conscious during surgery, but have no postoperative recollection of the period of consciousness. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of two types of anaesthetic interventions in reducing clinically significant awareness:- anaesthetic drug regimens; and- intraoperative anaesthetic depth monitors...
October 18, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Polpun Boonmak, Suhattaya Boonmak, Malinee Laopaiboon
BACKGROUND: Functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) is a minimally invasive technique that is used to treat chronic sinusitis. Small bleeding areas can reduce operative visibility and result in destruction of surrounding structures. Deliberate hypotension (lowering the mean arterial blood pressure to between 50 and 65 mm Hg in normotensive patients) using a range of pharmacological agents during general anaesthesia reduces blood loss in many operations. This review was originally published in 2013 and updated in February 2016...
October 12, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Tomoki Nishiyama
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to compare cardiac sympathetic and parasympathetic balance using heart rate variability (HRV) during induction of anaesthesia between sevoflurane and isoflurane in combination with nitrous oxide. METHODS: 40 individuals aged from 30 to 60 years, scheduled for general anaesthesia were equally divided into sevoflurane or isoflurane groups. After 100% oxygen inhalation for a few minutes, anaesthesia was induced with nitrous oxide 3 L min⁻¹, oxygen 3 L min-1 and sevoflurane or isoflurane...
September 30, 2016: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
I Schulze, E M Poos, H Meyer, A K List, S B R Kaestner, J Rehage
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of preoperative carprofen on the cardiorespiratory, hormonal and metabolic stress response during umbilical surgery under isoflurane anaesthesia combined with local anaesthesia, in calves. A randomised, blinded experimental study was conducted in 24 calves. Carprofen (n = 12; 1.4 mg/kg) or physiological saline solution (controls; n = 12) was administered 1 h prior to surgery. Anaesthesia was induced with xylazine (0.1 mg/kg, IM) and, after the onset of sedation (i...
October 2016: Veterinary Journal
Joe Hulin, Sarah R Baker, Zoe Marshman, Sondos Albadri, Helen D Rodd
BACKGROUND: Decision aids are tools used to help individuals faced with difficult healthcare decisions. They help patients further understand the treatment options available and encourage the sharing of information between patients and clinicians. AIM: To develop a decision aid for young patients faced with the decision to undergo dental treatment with inhalation sedation, intravenous sedation, or general anaesthesia (GA). DESIGN: Qualitative interviews with dental patients (aged 10-16 years), and their parents/guardians were used to inform the content of a draft decision aid...
September 29, 2016: International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry
Hemanshu Prabhakar, Gyaninder Pal Singh, Charu Mahajan, Indu Kapoor, Mani Kalaivani, Vidhu Anand
BACKGROUND: Brain tumour surgery usually is carried out with the patient under general anaesthesia. Over past years, both intravenous and inhalational anaesthetic agents have been used, but the superiority of one agent over the other is a topic of ongoing debate. Early and rapid emergence from anaesthesia is desirable for most neurosurgical patients. With the availability of newer intravenous and inhalational anaesthetic agents, all of which have inherent advantages and disadvantages, we remain uncertain as to which technique may result in more rapid early recovery from anaesthesia...
September 9, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
I Sellbrant, M Brattwall, P Jildenstål, M Warren-Stomberg, S Forsberg, J G Jakobsson
Available general and local anaesthetics, third generation inhaled anaesthetics, propofol and amide class local anaesthetics are effective and reassuringly safe. They are all associated to low incidence of toxicology and or adverse-effects. There is however a debate whether anaesthetic drug and technique could exhibit effects beyond the primary effects; fully reversible depression of the central nervous system, dose dependent anaesthesia. Anaesthetics may be involved in the progression of neurocognitive side effects seen especially in the elderly after major surgery, so called Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction...
August 22, 2016: International Journal of Surgery
Oliver Adolph, Gebhard Froeba
BACKGROUND: Xenon (Xe) in many respects is an ideal anaesthetic agent. Its blood/gas partition coefficient is lower than that of any other anaesthetic, enabling rapid induction of and emergence from anaesthesia. While the whole body kinetics during wash-in of inhalational anaesthesia is well known, data describing the pharmacokinetics of xenon in the cerebral compartment at the site of action are still largely missing. METHODS: In order to illuminate xenon´s cerebral pharmacokinetics, we anaesthetised five pigs and measured arterial, mixed- and sagittal sinus-venous blood, as well as end-expiratory gas concentrations of xenon by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS) up to 30 minutes after starting the anaesthetic gas mixture...
August 23, 2016: Current Clinical Pharmacology
Didem Onk, Tülin Akarsu Ayazoğlu, Oruç Alper Onk, Mehmet Aksüt, Murat Günay, Kultigin Turkmen, Aynur Özensoy, Çiğdem Yazıcı Ersoy, Abdulkadir Çoban
Introduction. Increased levels of stress hormones are associated with mortality in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Aim. To compare total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) and desflurane added to a subanaesthetic dose of propofol. Material and Methods. Fifty patients were enrolled in this study. Fentanyl (3-5 mcg/kg/h) was started in both groups. Patients were divided into two groups. The PD group (n = 25) received 1 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) desflurane anaesthesia in addition to propofol infusion (2-3 mg/kg/h), while P group (n = 25) received propofol infusion (5-6 mg/kg/h) only...
2016: BioMed Research International
B Dikmen, A H Arpaci, D Kalayci, I Gunes, E Beskardes, O Kurtipek, M Arslan
AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate blood glucose level of desflurane and sevoflurane on blood glucose in diabetic rats undergoing acute hyperglycemia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, 30 male Wistar albino rats were included. Diabetes was induced by a single IP injection of streptozotocin. After the effects of chronic diabetes encountered, diabetic rats were randomly assigned into diabetic control (group DC), diabetic hyperglycemia group (group DH), diabetic hyperglycemia group with desflurane (group DH-D), and diabetic hyperglycemia group with sevoflurane (group DH-S) groups...
2016: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
Q Qiu, S W Choi, S S C Wong, M G Irwin, C W Cheung
Propofol is used both for induction and maintenance of anaesthesia. Recent evidence shows that propofol has analgesic properties. This meta-analysis evaluated differences in postoperative analgesia between general anaesthetic maintenance with intravenous propofol and inhalational anaesthetics. Fourteen trials met inclusion criteria and were included. Our outcomes were pain scores 2 and 24 h after surgery. No significant difference in pain scores was found at 2 h after surgery (Hedge's g (95% CI) -0.120 (-0...
October 2016: Anaesthesia
C O A Enyuma, M Offiong, A Adekanye, U Akpan, N Ezeanyagu, O Uffiah
Foreign body (FB) in the aerodigestive tracts has been commonly reported but findings of impacted foreign bodies in the nasopharynx following inhalation/ingestion are very rare. Most of the FB gets lodged as a result of forceful vomiting, coughing,and digital manoeuvres for removal of FB in the oropharynx. Several objects have been identified lodged in the nasopharynx. No age group is spared although most victims are children under 10 years of age. Foreign bodies in the nasopharynx can be uneventful or potentially dangerous depending on type, size and location as it may cause sudden airway obstruction, or local pressure necrosis of alimentary or respiratory tract or both...
October 2015: Nigerian Journal of Medicine: Journal of the National Association of Resident Doctors of Nigeria
K Hopster, B Jacobson, C Hopster-Iversen, K Rohn, S B R Kästner
Inappropriate mechanical ventilation can lead to ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of inhalation anaesthesia and ventilation with and without recruitment (RM) and PEEP titration on alveolar integrity in horses. Twenty-three horses were divided into 4 groups (group OLC ventilated with OLC, group IPPV ventilated with intermittent positive pressure ventilation, group NV non-ventilated, and group C non-anaesthetized control group). After sedation with xylazine and induction with diazepam and ketamine anaesthetized horses were under isoflurane anaesthesia for 5...
August 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
Maximilian S Schaefer, Peter Kranke, Stephanie Weibel, Robert Kreysing, Peter Kienbaum
BACKGROUND: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) are among the most unfavourable anaesthetic outcomes attributed to the administration of inhaled anaesthetics. Accordingly, inhaled anaesthetics are frequently substituted by propofol when patients are at risk of PONV. As, on some occasions, inhalational anaesthesia may be favourable, the relative impact of propofol anaesthesia needs to be established based on robust data. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of a single-drug pharmacological prophylaxis with total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) for prevention of PONV...
October 2016: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
K Hallén, O Stenqvist, S-E Ricksten, S Lindgren
BACKGROUND: Isocapnic hyperventilation (IHV) is a method that fastens weaning from inhalation anaesthesia by increasing airway concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) during hyperventilation (HV). In an animal model, we evaluated a technique of adding CO2 directly to the breathing circuit of a standard anaesthesia apparatus. METHODS: Eight anaesthetised pigs weighing 28 ± 2 kg were intubated and mechanically ventilated. From a baseline ventilation of 5 l/min, HV was achieved by doubling minute volume and fresh gas flow...
October 2016: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
M Alonso, L Builes, P Morán, A Ortega, E Fernández, F Reinoso-Barbero
BACKGROUND: Desflurane has been used in paediatric patients for several surgical indications. This article analyses the efficacy and safety of desflurane for diagnostic-therapeutic procedures in remote areas far from operating room in a group of selected patients with no known associated respiratory disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on 2,072 general anaesthesia procedures stored in a computer database, in which desflurane was used in a Paediatric Pain Unit during the years 2013 and 2014...
July 2, 2016: Revista Española de Anestesiología y Reanimación
Emre Erbabacan, Güniz M Köksal, Tuğçe Barça Şeker, Birsel Ekici, Rahsan Özcan, Fatiş Altindaş
Here, we report anaesthesia management and the successful use of total intravenous anaesthesia and sugammadex in a patient with Ullrich's disease. Propofol and remifentanyl infusion was used for anaesthesia. After the end of the surgery, when the train-of-four value was 0%, 4 mg kg(-1) sugammadex was administered, and the patient was successfully extubated after 36 s. No adverse effects or safety concerns were observed. In conclusion, we suggest that the use of propofol infusion to avoid the use of inhalation anaesthetics and the use of sugammadex for the reversal of the effects of rocuronium is safe in patients with Ullrich's disease...
October 2015: Turkish Journal of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation
Mesut Erbaş, Hasan Ali Kiraz, Tuncer Şimşek, Hasan Şahin, Hüseyin Toman, Volkan Hancı
OBJECTIVE: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an important health problem that is increasing with the increase in the incidence of obesity. For patients with OSA, it is reported that preoperative OSA diagnosis is made in only 10%-20% of the patients. Therefore, it gains importance that these patients are diagnosed in the preoperative period. The aim of this study is to analyze with a survey the experiences of anaesthesia experts working in Turkey about the diagnosis of patients with OSA, anaesthetic methods and postoperative care...
August 2015: Turkish Journal of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation
Polpun Boonmak, Suhattaya Boonmak, Porjai Pattanittum
BACKGROUND: Sevoflurane induction for general anaesthesia has been reported to be safe, reliable and well accepted by patients. Sevoflurane induction uses either low or high initial concentrations. The low initial concentration technique involves initially administering a low concentration of sevoflurane and gradually increasing the concentration of the dose until the patient is anaesthetized. The high initial concentration technique involves administering high concentrations from the beginning, then continuing with those high doses until the patient is anaesthetized...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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