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microRNA lipid

Renumathy Dhanasekaran, Meital Gabay-Ryan, Virginie Baylot, Ian Lai, Adriane Mosley, Xinqiang Huang, Sonya Zabludoff, Jian Li, Vivek Kaimal, Priya Karmali, Dean W Felsher
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains a significant clinical challenge with few therapeutic options. Genomic amplification and/or overexpression of the MYC oncogene is a common molecular event in HCC, thus making it an attractive target for drug therapy. Unfortunately, currently there are no direct drug therapies against MYC. As an alternative strategy, microRNAs regulated by MYC may be downstream targets for therapeutic blockade. MiR-17 family is a microRNA family transcriptionally regulated by MYC and it is commonly overexpressed in human HCCs...
January 19, 2018: Oncotarget
Katia Monastyrskaya
Cells respond to pathophysiological states by activation of stress-induced signalling. Regulatory non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) often form stable feed-forward loops which ensure prolongation of the signal, contributing to sustained activation. Members of the annexin protein family act as sensors for Ca2+ , pH, and lipid second messengers, and regulate various signalling pathways. Recently, annexins were reported to participate in feedback loops, suppressing miRNA synthesis and attenuating stress-induced dysregulation of gene expression...
February 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Kejian Liu, Saiyare Xuekelati, Kang Zhou, Zhitao Yan, Xu Yang, Azeem Inayat, Jiangdong Wu, Xiaomei Guo
The aim of this study is to discuss the hypothesis that expression of plasma atherosclerosis-associated microRNAs (miRNAs) in hyperhomocysteinemia (Hhcy) patients could predict the presence of atherosclerosis from different channels. Six plasma miRNAs (miR-145, miR-155, miR-222, miR-133, miR-217, and miR-30) selected for our study have been confirmed as critical gene regulators involved in atherosclerosis and can be steadily determined in plasma. Expression of the above six plasma circulating miRNAs revealed significant upregulation of two miRNAs (miR-133 and miR-217) and downregulation of three miRNAs (miR-145, miR-155, and miR-222)...
February 20, 2018: DNA and Cell Biology
Rafael Escate, Pedro Mata, Jose Maria Cepeda, Teresa Padró, Lina Badimon
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) conveys a high risk of premature atherosclerosis as a result of lifelong exposure to high LDL cholesterol levels that are not fully reduced by standard-of-care lipid-lowering treatment. Inflammatory mediators have played a role in the progression of atherosclerotic lesions. Here, we investigated whether innate immunity cells in patients with FH have a specific proinflammatory phenotype that is distinct from that of cells in normal participants. To this end, miR-505-3p-a microRNA related to chronic inflammation-and its target genes were investigated in monocyte-derived macrophages (MACs) of patients with FH (FH-MACs) and non-FH controls (co-MACs)...
February 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Brian D Rutter, Roger W Innes
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are lipid compartments capable of trafficking proteins, lipids, RNA and metabolites between cells. Plant cells have been shown to secrete EVs during immune responses, but virtually nothing is known about their formation, contents or ultimate function. Recently developed methods for isolating plant EVs have revealed that these EVs are enriched in stress response proteins and signaling lipids, and appear to display antifungal activity. Comparison to work on animal EVs, and the observation that host-derived small interfering RNAs and microRNAs can silence fungal genes, suggests that plant EVs may also mediate trans-kingdom RNA interference...
February 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
K S Amr, H Abdelmawgoud, Z Y Ali, S Shehata, H M Raslan
BACKGROUND: Macrovascular complications are the main cause of morbidity and mortality among the diabetic patients. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a family of small non-coding RNAs, play vital roles in the regulation of blood glucose level and the concurrent cardiovascular complications of type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that plasma miR-126 and miR-210 are linked to coronary artery disease (CAD) in these diabetes patients. METHODS: Fasting blood samples were collected from 20 healthy volunteers and 100 patients with diabetes (54 patients without CAD and 46 patients with CAD)...
February 16, 2018: British Journal of Biomedical Science
Sergey E Sedykh, Lada V Purvinish, Artem S Monogarov, Evgeniya E Burkova, Alina E Grigor'eva, Dmitrii V Bulgakov, Pavel S Dmitrenok, Valentin V Vlassov, Elena I Ryabchikova, Georgy A Nevinsky
Exosomes are 40-100 nm nanovesicles containing RNA and different proteins. Exosomes containing proteins, lipids, mRNAs, and microRNAs are important in intracellular communication and immune function. Exosomes from different sources are usually obtained by combination of centrifugation and ultracentrifugation and according to published data can contain from a few dozens to thousands of different proteins. Crude exosome preparations from milk of eighteen horses were obtained for the first time using several standard centrifugations...
June 2017: Biochimie Open
Nuno Bastos, Sónia A Melo
Exosomes are a cell-to-cell communication system that transports information to neighbor and/or distant cells. Their content is composed of lipids, proteins, RNAs, and DNA. The role of exosomes released by cancer cells in disease progression has been widely studied. Here, we report a detailed protocol to quantify precursor microRNAs and mature microRNAs overtime in exosomes of cancer cells. Those precursor microRNAs that are packaged together with RISC proteins will get further processed in the exosomes overtime and an accumulation of the mature form of the microRNAs will occur...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Yingfeng Weng, Jixian Lin, Hui Liu, Hui Wu, Zhimin Yan, Jing Zhao
The current study tested the potential neuroprotective function of Tanshinone IIA (ThIIA) in neuronal cells with oxygen-glucose deprivation (ODG) and re-oxygenation (OGDR). In SH-SY5Y neuronal cells and primary murine cortical neurons, ThIIA pre-treatment attenuated OGDR-induced viability reduction and apoptosis. Further, OGDR-induced mitochondrial depolarization, reactive oxygen species production, lipid peroxidation and DNA damages in neuronal cells were significantly attenuated by ThIIA. ThIIA activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling, which was essential for neuroprotection against OGDR...
January 12, 2018: Oncotarget
Kun Ren, Xiao Zhu, Zhi Zheng, Zhong-Cheng Mo, Xiao-Shan Peng, Yong-Zhi Zeng, Han-Xiao Ou, Qing-Hai Zhang, Hui-Zhou Qi, Guo-Jun Zhao, Guang-Hui Yi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Liver scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) exerts atheroprotective effects through selective lipid uptake (SLU) from high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Low hepatic SR-BI expression leads to high HDL-C levels in the circulation and an increased risk of atherosclerosis. Furthermore, macrophage SR-BI mediates bidirectional cholesterol flux and may protect against atherogenesis. Previous studies have revealed that miR-24 is closely related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) progression...
January 30, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Negar Saliani, Soheila Montazersaheb, Shideh Montasser Kouhsari
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous non-coding RNAs that have significant roles in biological processes such as glucose homoeostasis. MiRNAs fine-tune target genes expression via sequence-specific binding of their seed sequence to the untranslated region of mRNAs and degrade target mRNAs. MicroRNAs in islet β-cells regulate β-cell differentiation, proliferation, insulin transcription and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Furthermore, miRNAs play key roles in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolisms and modify insulin sensitivity by controlling metabolic functions in main target organs of insulin such as skeletal muscle, liver and adipose tissue...
December 2017: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Wei-Jiang Liu, Xue Li, Yuan-Lin Liu, Peng Wang, Yue Fan, Tian-Yi Teng, Bo-Qian Bai, Yue Tong, Wei Zhang, Yi Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of MicroRNA-3963(miR-3963) on the adipogenic differentiation of mouse bone-derived mesenchymal stem cells(MSC). METHODS: MSCs were isolated from C57BL/6 mice bone fragment and transfected with miR-3963 mimic, miR-3963 inhibitor and negative control. The expression of miR-3963 and transfection efficiency were detected by q-PCR. These transfected cells were induced to adipocytes and stained with oil red O after 14 days culture...
February 2018: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
Feng Gao, Fa-Gang Wang, Ren-Rong Lyu, Feng Xue, Jian Zhang, Ran Huo
MicroRNAs (miRNA) are considered to be potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of various cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). To understand the underlying mechanism of miRNAs and target genes associated with CVD, deep sequencing of blood samples from three patients with CVD and three controls was performed using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 system. The results of the present study revealed that 65 abnormal hsa‑miRNAs targeted 2,784 putative genes in patients with CVD; 59 upregulated miRNAs targeted 2,401 genes and six downregulated miRNAs targeted 383 genes...
January 25, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Kang Li, David K Wong, Fu Sang Luk, Roy Y Kim, Robert L Raffai
Plasma lipoproteins are essential vehicles of lipid distribution for cellular energy and structural requirements as well as for excretion of lipid excess. Imbalances in lipoprotein metabolism are known to contribute to metabolic diseases ranging from vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis to obesity and diabetes. The lipid and protein cargo carried by lipoprotein subclasses have long been the focus of studies exploring the contribution of plasma lipoproteins in health and in metabolic disorders. More recent studies have revealed the presence of noncoding RNA as a new form of cargo carried by plasma lipoproteins...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Shinsuke Itoh, Ken Mizuno, Masanori Aikawa, Elena Aikawa
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) play a critical role in intercellular communication by transferring microRNAs, lipids and proteins to neighboring cells. Sortilin, a sorting receptor that directs target proteins to the secretary or endocytic compartments of cells, is found in both EVs and cells. In many human diseases, including cancer and cardiovascular disorders, sortilin expression levels are atypically high. To elucidate the relationship between cardiovascular disease, particularly vascular calcification, and sortilin expression levels, we explored the trafficking of sortilin in both intracellular and extracellular milieu...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Yongfeng Zhang, Xiaoyun Wu, Chunnian Liang, Pengjia Bao, Xuezhi Ding, Min Chu, Congjun Jia, Xian Guo, Ping Yan
The domestic yak (Bos grunniens) is a culturally important animal that lives at high altitude and is farmed by Tibetan herders for its meat, milk, and other animal by-products. Within the animal, adipose tissue is an important store and source of energy and is used to maintain adequate body temperature during the extended cold seasons. Exploring the biomolecular role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the regulation of growth, development, and metabolism of yak adipocytes may provide valuable insights into the physiology of adipogenesis in the yak...
January 24, 2018: Gene
P S S Rao, Kelly O'Connell, Thomas Kyle Finnerty
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small vesicles secreted by cells and are known to carry sub-cellular components including microRNA, proteins, and lipids. Due to their ability to transport cargo between cells, EVs have been identified as important regulators of various pathophysiological conditions and can therefore influence treatment outcomes. In particular, the significance of microRNAs in EV-mediated cell-cell communication is well-documented. While the influence of EVs and the cargo delivered by EVs has been extensively reviewed in other neurological disorders, the available literature on the potential role of EVs in the pathophysiology of drug addiction has not been reviewed...
January 23, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Elizabeth Ma, Yuchang Fu, W Timothy Garvey
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance disrupts metabolic processes and leads to various chronic disease states such as diabetes and metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, the mechanism linking insulin resistance with cardiometabolic disease pathophysiology is still unclear. One possibility may be through circulating microRNAs (c-miRs), which can alter gene expression in target tissues. Our goal was to assess the relationship of c-miRs with insulin sensitivity, as measured by the gold standard, hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp technique...
January 23, 2018: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
Elisa Bisicchia, Valeria Sasso, Giuseppina Catanzaro, Alessandro Leuti, Zein Mersini Besharat, Martina Chiacchiarini, Marco Molinari, Elisabetta Ferretti, Maria Teresa Viscomi, Valerio Chiurchiù
Remote damage is a secondary phenomenon that usually occurs after a primary brain damage in regions that are distant, yet functionally connected, and that is critical for determining the outcomes of several CNS pathologies, including traumatic brain and spinal cord injuries. The understanding of remote damage-associated mechanisms has been mostly achieved in several models of focal brain injury such as the hemicerebellectomy (HCb) experimental paradigm, which helped to identify the involvement of many key players, such as inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis and autophagy...
January 22, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Samantha J Snow, Wan-Yun Cheng, Andres Henriquez, Myles Hodge, Virgina Bass, Gail M Nelson, Gleta Carswell, Judy E Richards, Mette C Schladweiler, Allen D Ledbetter, Brian Chorley, Kymberly M Gowdy, Haiyan Tong, Urmila P Kodavanti
Fish, olive, and coconut oil dietary supplementation have several cardioprotective benefits, but it is not established if they protect against air pollution-induced adverse effects. We hypothesized that these dietary supplements would attenuate ozone-induced systemic and pulmonary effects. Male Wistar Kyoto rats were fed either a normal diet, or a diet supplemented with fish, olive, or coconut oil for 8 weeks. Animals were then exposed to air or ozone (0.8 ppm), 4h/day for 2 days. Ozone exposure increased phenylephrine-induced aortic vasocontraction, which was completely abolished in rats fed the fish oil diet...
January 10, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
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