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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643924/exosomes-novel-regulators-of-bone-remodelling-and-potential-therapeutic-agents-for-orthodontics
#1
REVIEW
L S Holliday, K P McHugh, J Zuo, J I Aguirre, J K Neubert, W J Rody
Recent studies suggest that exosomes are involved in intercellular communication required for the maintenance of healthy bone. Exosomes are small (30-150 nm in diameter) extracellular vesicles that are formed in multivesicular bodies and are released from cells as the multivesicular bodies fuse with the plasma membrane. Regulatory exosomes have the capacity to exert profound control over target cells. They can stimulate plasma membrane receptors and are also internalized by the target cell delivering proteins, lipids, small molecules and functional RNAs from the cell of origin...
June 2017: Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641547/recent-advances-on-the-role-of-micrornas-in-both-insulin-resistance-and-cancer
#2
Adele Vivacqua, Paola De Marco, Antonino Belfiore, Marcello Maggiolini
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance is a pathological condition characterized by the failure of target cells to uptake and metabolizes glucose in response to insulin. In particular, the elevated concentrations of glucose, insulin and free insulin growth factor-1, which result from insulin resistance, may generate a pro-inflammatory and pro-tumorigenic state. These alterations may underlie the increased risk to develop various types of cancer as well as the worse cancer prognosis observed in obese and diabetic patients...
June 22, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640866/diet-induced-adipose-tissue-expansion-is-mitigated-in-mice-with-a-targeted-inactivation-of-mesoderm-specific-transcript-mest
#3
Rea P Anunciado-Koza, Justin Manuel, Randall L Mynatt, Jingying Zhang, Leslie P Kozak, Robert A Koza
Interindividual variation of white adipose tissue (WAT) expression of mesoderm specific transcript (Mest), a paternally-expressed imprinted gene belonging to the α/β-hydrolase fold protein family, becomes apparent among genetically inbred mice fed high fat diet (HFD) and is positively associated with adipose tissue expansion (ATE). To elucidate a role for MEST in ATE, mice were developed with global and adipose tissue inactivation of Mest. Mice with homozygous (MestgKO) and paternal allelic (MestpKO) inactivation of Mest were born at expected Mendelian frequencies, showed no behavioral or physical abnormalities, and did not perturb expression of the Mest locus-derived microRNA miR-335...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636837/microrna-101-2-5p-targets-the-apob-gene-in-liver-of-chicken-gallus-gallus
#4
Zheng Ma, Hong Li, Hang Zheng, Keren Jiang, Lijuan Jia, Fengbin Yan, Yadong Tian, Xiangtao Kang, Yanbin Wang, Xiaojun Liu
Apolipoprotein B (ApoB) is a major protein component of plasma lipoproteins, which have been involved in many important biological processes such as lipid transportation, enzyme activity regulation and receptor recognition. Extensive studies have showed that the expression of the ApoB was regulated at multiple levels. However, the regulation of ApoB expression by microRNAs (miRNAs) still remains unknown. In present studies, miRNAs that interact with ApoB have been predicted in chicken. The targeted relationship between the predicated miRNAs and ApoB was verified through dual luciferase reporter assay in chicken DF1 cells, and the effect of miRNAs on ApoB expression was analyzed in chicken embryo hepatocytes stimulated by 17β-estradiol...
June 21, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633641/expression-levels-of-atherosclerosis-associated-mir-143-and-mir-145-in-the-plasma-of-patients-with-hyperhomocysteinaemia
#5
Kejian Liu, Saiyare Xuekelati, Yue Zhang, Yin Yin, Yue Li, Rui Chai, Xinwei Li, Yi Peng, Jiangdong Wu, Xiaomei Guo
BACKGROUND: An elevated level of homocysteine (Hcy) in the blood is designated hyperhomocysteinaemia (Hhcy) and is regarded as a strong risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis (ATH), although the association remains controversial. Considered to be essential gene expression regulators, micro-RNAs (miRNAs) modulate cardiovascular disease development and thus can be regarded as potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets in atherosclerosis. The aim of the current study is to investigate the expression levels of atherosclerosis-associated miR-143 and miR-145 in Hhcy patients and predict the progress of atherosclerosis in Hhcy patients...
June 20, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620299/the-alkamide-trans-pellitorine-targets-ppar%C3%AE-via-trpv1-and-trpa1-to-reduce-lipid-accumulation-in-developing-3t3-l1-adipocytes
#6
Barbara Lieder, Mathias Zaunschirm, Ann-Katrin Holik, Jakob P Ley, Joachim Hans, Gerhard E Krammer, Veronika Somoza
Adipose tissue is an important endocrine organ in the human body. However, pathological overgrowth is associated with chronic illness. Regulation of adipogenesis and maturation of adipocytes via bioactive compounds in our daily diet has been in focus of research in the past years and showed promising results for agonists of the ion channels transient receptor potential channel (TRP) V1 and A1. Here, we investigated the anti-adipogenic potential and underlying mechanisms of the alkamide trans-pellitorine present in Piper nigrum via TRPV1 and TRPA1 in 3T3-L1 cells...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612750/genetic-and-epigenetic-profile-of-patients-with-alcoholic-liver-disease
#7
Luigi Boccuto, Ludovico Abenavoli
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a definition encompassing a spectrum of disorders ranging from simple steatosis to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Excessive alcohol consumption triggers a series of metabolic reactions that affect the liver by inducing lipogenesis, increasing oxidative stress, and causing abnormal inflammatory responses. The metabolic pathways regulating lipids, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and immune system are closely related and in some cases cross-regulate each other. Therefore, it must be taken into account that major genetic and epigenetic abnormalities affecting enzymes involved in one of such pathways can play a pivotal role in ALD pathogenesis...
August 1, 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608842/talaromyces-marneffei-genomic-transcriptomic-proteomic-and-metabolomic-studies-reveal-mechanisms-for-environmental-adaptations-and-virulence
#8
REVIEW
Susanna K P Lau, Chi-Ching Tsang, Patrick C Y Woo
Talaromycesmarneffei is a thermally dimorphic fungus causing systemic infections in patients positive for HIV or other immunocompromised statuses. Analysis of its ~28.9 Mb draft genome and additional transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic studies revealed mechanisms for environmental adaptations and virulence. Meiotic genes and genes for pheromone receptors, enzymes which process pheromones, and proteins involved in pheromone response pathway are present, indicating its possibility as a heterothallic fungus...
June 13, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599789/microrna-126-participates-in-lipid-metabolism-in-mammary-epithelial-cells
#9
Meiqiang Chu, Yong Zhao, Yanni Feng, Hongfu Zhang, Jing Liu, Ming Cheng, Lan Li, Wei Shen, Hongfang Cao, Qiang Li, Lingjiang Min
Lipids are a major component of milk and are important for infant growth and development. MicroRNA-126 (miR-126) has previously been observed in mammary glands and adipocytes and is known to be involved in lipid metabolism during the process of atherosclerosis. However, it remains unknown whether miR-126 also participates in lipid metabolism in mammary luminal epithelial cells (MECs). In the current investigation, miR-126-3p inhibition stimulated lipid synthesis in MECs in part through increasing levels of the lipid synthesis enzymes FASN, ACSL1, and Insig1...
June 6, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597147/mir-338-3p-inhibits-tnf-%C3%AE-induced-lipogenesis-in-human-sebocytes
#10
Jia Liu, Linggai Cao, Yue Feng, Yuhua Li, Tao Li
OBJECTIVE: To suppress TNF-α-induced lipogenesis in sebocytes (associated with acne development) with microRNA-338-3p (miR-338-3p) and to explore the underlying mechanisms. RESULTS: TNF-α increased lipid droplet formation in sebocytes which were used as in vitro model of inflammation-induced acne. Flow cytometry and TLC assays validated that miR-338-3p could suppress TNF-α-induced lipid droplet formation, down-regulate the expression of PREX2a, and inactivate AKT signaling in sebocytes...
June 9, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593745/ox-ldl-increases-microrna-29a-transcription-through-up-regulating-yy1-and-stat1-in-macrophages
#11
Dongdong Jian, Bing Dai, Xiaotong Hu, Qiang Yao, Li Zhang, Jianhua Zhu
Macrophages and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) have been verified playing vital roles in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis (AS). Previous studies demonstrated that microRNA-29a (miR-29a) was up-regulated in many atherogenic process and cells thus acting as an important participant in AS. But the detailed regulation mechanism of miR-29a in AS has not been fully understood. In our study, we demonstrated a positive feedback loop ox-LDL-SRA-miR-29a. Furthermore, we found that YY1 and STAT1 were up-regulated in ox-LDL stimulating macrophages followed by translocating in the nucleus and binding to the transcriptional promoter region of miR-29a thus leading to the increase of miR-29a expression...
June 7, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592827/a-comprehensive-characterisation-of-the-metabolic-profile-of-varicose-veins-implications-in-elaborating-plausible-cellular-pathways-for-disease-pathogenesis
#12
Muzaffar A Anwar, Kyrillos N Adesina-Georgiadis, K Spagou, P A Vorkas, J V Li, Joseph Shalhoub, Elaine Holmes, Alun H Davies
Metabolic phenotypes reflect both the genetic and environmental factors which contribute to the development of varicose veins (VV). This study utilises analytical techniques to provide a comprehensive metabolic picture of VV disease, with the aim of identifying putative cellular pathways of disease pathogenesis. VV (n = 80) and non-VV (n = 35) aqueous and lipid metabolite extracts were analysed using 600 MHz (1)H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy and Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry...
June 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585213/microrna-and-adipogenesis
#13
Ayse Basak Engin
In obesity, the process of adipogenesis largely determines the number of adipocytes in body fat depots. Adipogenesis is regulated by several adipocyte-selective microRNAs (miRNAs) and transcription factors that modulate adipocyte proliferation and differentiation. However, some miRNAs block expression of master regulators of adipogenesis. Additionally, specific miRNAs have been implicated in adipocyte differentiation and mature adipocyte functions. While, each miRNA targets multiple mRNAs, which may coordinate or antagonize each other's functions, several miRNAs are dysregulated in other tissues during obesity-related comorbidities...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576870/role-of-mir-383-and-mir-146b-in-different-propensities-to-obesity-in-male-mice
#14
Shu-Fang Xia, Xiao-Mei Duan, Xiang-Rong Cheng, Li-Mei Chen, Yan-Jun Kang, Peng Wang, Xue Tang, Yong-Hui Shi, Guowei Le
The study was designed to investigate the possible mechanisms of hepatic microRNAs (miRs) in regulating local thyroid hormone (TH) action and ultimately different propensities to high-fat diet (HFD) induced obesity. When obesity-prone (OP) and obesity-resistant (OR) mice were fed high-fat diet for 7 weeks, OP mice showed apparent hepatic steatosis, with significantly higher body weight and lower hepatic thyroid hormone receptor b (TRb) expression and type 1 deiodinase (DIO1) activity than OR mice. Next-generation sequencing technology revealed that 13 miRs in liver were dysregulated between the two phenotypes, of which 8 miRs were predicted to target on Dio1 or TRb...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570839/mir-26b-promotes-3t3-l1-adipocyte-differentiation-through-targeting-pten
#15
Guilin Li, Chunyou Ning, Yao Ma, Long Jin, Qianzi Tang, Xuewei Li, Mingzhou Li, Haifeng Liu
microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in adipogenesis that is closely linked to obesity and energy homeostasis. Thus far, only a few miRNAs have been identified to regulate adipocyte development, arousing interest in the detailed function of miRNAs during adipogenesis. In this study, we found that the miR-26b expression showed an increasing trend during 3T3-L1 cells differentiation. To investigate the role of miR-26b in adipogenesis, the synthetic miR-26b agomirs and antagomirs were used to perform overexpression and knockdown experiment, respectively...
June 1, 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561770/identification-of-differentially-expressed-micrornas-associate-with-glucose-metabolism-in-different-organs-of-blunt-snout-bream-megalobrama-amblycephala
#16
Ling-Hong Miao, Yan Lin, Wen-Jing Pan, Xin Huang, Xian-Ping Ge, Ming-Chun Ren, Qun-Lan Zhou, Bo Liu
Blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) is a widely favored herbivorous fish species and is a frequentlyused fish model for studying the metabolism physiology. This study aimed to provide a comprehensive illustration of the mechanisms of a high-starch diet (HSD) induced lipid metabolic disorder by identifying microRNAs (miRNAs) controlled pathways in glucose and lipid metabolism in fish using high-throughput sequencing technologies. Small RNA libraries derived from intestines, livers, and brains of HSD and normal-starch diet (NSD) treated M...
May 31, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560417/atheroprotective-effects-of-statins-in-patients-with-unstable-angina-by-regulating-the-blood-borne-microrna-network
#17
Sufang Li, Chengfu Cao, Hong Chen, Junxian Song, Chongyou Lee, Jing Zhang, Feng Zhang, Qiang Geng, Zheng Li, Jingjin Li
Experimental studies have demonstrated several effects of statins in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) that may extend their clinical benefit beyond the lipid profile modification itself. However, the precise underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. microRNAs (miRNAs) serve significant roles in the pathophysiology of atherosclerotic plaque progression. The present study investigated the protective role of statins in patients with unstable angina (UA) by regulating the circulating miRNA network. miRNA array results demonstrated that there were 21 differentially expressed miRNAs in non‑statin‑treated patients with UA (n=8) compared with non‑coronary artery disease controls (n=8), and 33 differentially expressed miRNAs in statin‑treated patients with UA (n=8) compared with non‑statin patients...
July 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557334/pleiotrophin-a-target-of-mir-384-promotes-proliferation-metastasis-and-lipogenesis-in-hbv-related-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#18
Pei-Song Bai, Nan Xia, Hong Sun, Ying Kong
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection plays a crucial role and is a major cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in China. microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as key players in hepatic steatosis and carcinogenesis. We found that down-regulation of miR-384 expression was a common event in HCC, especially HBV-related HCC. However, the possible function of miR-384 in HBV-related HCC remains unclear. The oncogene pleiotrophin (PTN) was a target of miR-384. HBx inhibited miR-384, increasing PTN expression. The PTN receptor N-syndecan was highly expressed in HCC...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540143/association-between-coronary-artery-disease-and-microrna-literature-review-and-clinical-perspective
#19
Rehan Malik, Raja S Mushtaque, Usman A Siddiqui, Adnan Younus, Muhammad A Aziz, Choudhry Humayun, Kanaan Mansoor, Muhammad A Latif, Salman Waheed, Salman Assad, Idrees Khan, Syed M Bukhari, Daniel DelCampo, Ali Adus, Swetha Gannarapu
BACKGROUND: Until recently, circulating micro-RNAs (miRNAs) have attracted major interest as novel biomarkers for the early diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). This review article summarizes the available evidence on the correlation of micro-RNAs with both the clinical and subclinical coronary artery disease and highlights the necessity for exploring miRNAs as a potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarker of early CAD in an adult population. METHODS: A systematic literature analysis and retrieval online systems Public/Publisher MEDLINE/ Excerpta Medica Database /Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online,(PUBMED/EMBASE/MEDLINE) search were conducted for relevant information...
April 23, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536328/-microrna-in-various-aspects-of-cancer-development
#20
Sho Nambara, Koshi Mimori
MicroRNAs(miRNAs)are small(18-25 nucleotides)noncoding RNA molecules that bind to partially complementary mRNA sequences, resulting in target degradation or translation inhibition. A single miRNA can influence the expression of hundreds of target genes, and miRNAs have been implicated as key molecules in various diseases, including cancer. Many studies have shown that the miRNAs play an important role in cancer cells and tumor microenvironment and may be biomarkers for early detection and therapeutic targets for various cancers...
May 2017: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
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