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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655677/an-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-study-of-a-4-herb-formula-on-the-management-of-diet-induced-metabolic-syndrome
#1
Elaine Wat, Yanping Wang, Ken Chan, Hon Wai Law, Chi Man Koon, Kit Man Lau, Ping Chung Leung, Choly Yan, Clara Bik San Lau
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome is the cluster of risk factors that leads to increased episodes of cardiovascular disease (CVD). These risk factors include but are not limited to obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD), dyslipidemia, and type 2 diabetes. Since the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome has multiple metabolic origins, there is no single treatment for it. Pharmacological approaches consist of separate drugs which target at individual risk factors which pose various side effects...
March 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652728/intestinal-microbiota-in-hirschsprung-disease
#2
Malla I Neuvonen, Katri Korpela, Kristiina Kyrklund, Risto J Rintala, Mikko P Pakarinen
OBJECTIVES: To characterize the microbiota profiles of patients with Hirschsprung's disease (HD), and to evaluate this in relation to postoperative bowel function and the incidence of Hirschsprung-associated enterocolitis (HAEC). METHODS: All patients operated on for HD at our center between 1987-2011 were invited to answer questionnaires on bowel function and to participate in a clinical follow-up for laboratory investigations, including fecal DNA extraction, fecal calprotectin (FC), and brush border lactase (LCT) genotyping...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29630055/use-of-anti-phospho-girdin-antibodies-to-visualize-intestinal-tuft-cells-in-free-floating-mouse-jejunum-cryosections
#3
Yuka Mizutani, Daisuke Kuga, Machiko Iida, Kaori Ushida, Tsuyoshi Takagi, Yoshihito Tokita, Masahide Takahashi, Masato Asai
The actin binding protein girdin is a cytosolic protein that is required for actin remodeling to trigger cell migration in various tissues. Girdin is phosphorylated by both receptor and non-receptor tyrosine kinases at tyrosine 1798. Omori et al. developed site- and phosphorylation status-specific antibodies against human girdin at tyrosine-1798 (pY1798), which specifically bind to phosphorylated tyrosine-1798, but not to unphosphorylated tyrosine-1798. pY1798 antibodies have been used to specifically label tuft cells (TCs) that are present in mammalian gastrointestinal tissues, but the function of these cells is unclear...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610554/hypoglycemic-property-of-soy-isoflavones-from-hypocotyl-in-goto-kakizaki-diabetic-rats
#4
Ming Jin, Ming-Hua Shen, Mei-Hua Jin, Ai-Hua Jin, Xue-Zhe Yin, Ji-Shu Quan
The present study was carried out to investigate the hypoglycemic effect of soy isoflavones from hypocotyl in GK diabetic rats. A single administration and long-term administration tests were conducted in GK diabetic rats to test the hypoglycemic effect of soy isoflavones. At the end of long-term administration trial, blood protein, cholesterol, triglyceride, glycosylated serum protein, C-reactive protein, insulin, aminotransferase, lipid peroxide, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α were estimated. Inhibition of soy isoflavones against α-amylase and α-glucosidase, as well as on glucose uptake into brush border membrane vesicles or Caco-2 cells were determined in vitro ...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597266/the-in-ovo-feeding-administration-gallus-gallus-an-emerging-in-vivo-approach-to-assess-bioactive-compounds-with-potential-nutritional-benefits
#5
REVIEW
Tao Hou, Elad Tako
In recent years, the in ovo feeding in fertilized broiler ( Gallus gallus ) eggs approach was further developed and currently is widely applied in the evaluation process of the effects of functional foods (primarily plant origin compounds) on the functionality of the intestinal brush border membrane, as well as potential prebiotic properties and interactions with the intestinal microbial populations. This review collates the information of potential nutrients and their effects on the mineral absorption, gut development, brush border membrane functionality, and immune system...
March 28, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581186/the-phosphatase-ptpl1-is-required-for-pten-mediated-regulation-of-apical-membrane-size
#6
Lucas J M Bruurs, Mirjam C van der Net, Susan Zwakenberg, Axel Rosendahl Huber, Anneke Post, Fried J Zwartkruis, Johannes L Bos
PTEN is a tumor suppressor frequently lost in epithelial malignancies. Part of the tumor suppressive properties of PTEN is attributed to its function in cell polarization and consequently its role in maintaining epithelial tissue integrity. However, surprisingly little is known about the function and regulation of PTEN during epithelial cell polarization.We used CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene disruption to delete PTEN in intestinal epithelial Ls174T:W4 cells, which upon differentiation form a microvilli-covered apical membrane (brush border) on a part of the cell cortex, independent of cell-cell junctions...
March 26, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579950/hydrolysis-and-transepithelial-transport-of-two-corn-gluten-derived-bioactive-peptides-in-human-caco-2-cell-monolayers
#7
Long Ding, Liying Wang, Ting Zhang, Zhipeng Yu, Jingbo Liu
The objective of this paper was to investigate the transepithelial transport of two novel corn gluten-derived antioxidant peptides, YFCLT and GLLLPH, using Caco-2 cell monolayers. Results showed that both of YFCLT and GLLLPH could transport in intact form across Caco-2 cell monolayers with apparent permeability coefficient (Papp ) values of (1.10±0.16)×10-7 cm/s and (1.98±0.23)×10-7 cm/s, respectively. However, it was found that the two peptides were susceptible and easily hydrolyzed by brush border membrane peptidases...
April 2018: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567797/human-alpi-deficiency-causes-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-highlights-a-key-mechanism-of-gut-homeostasis
#8
Marianna Parlato, Fabienne Charbit-Henrion, Jie Pan, Claudio Romano, Rémi Duclaux-Loras, Marie-Helene Le Du, Neil Warner, Paola Francalanci, Julie Bruneau, Marc Bras, Mohammed Zarhrate, Bernadette Bègue, Nicolas Guegan, Sabine Rakotobe, Nathalie Kapel, Paola De Angelis, Anne M Griffiths, Karoline Fiedler, Eileen Crowley, Frank Ruemmele, Aleixo M Muise, Nadine Cerf-Bensussan
Herein, we report the first identification of biallelic-inherited mutations in ALPI as a Mendelian cause of inflammatory bowel disease in two unrelated patients. ALPI encodes for intestinal phosphatase alkaline, a brush border metalloenzyme that hydrolyses phosphate from the lipid A moiety of lipopolysaccharides and thereby drastically reduces Toll-like receptor 4 agonist activity. Prediction tools and structural modelling indicate that all mutations affect critical residues or inter-subunit interactions, and heterologous expression in HEK293T cells demonstrated that all ALPI mutations were loss of function...
March 22, 2018: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534987/transcriptomic-profiling-of-nematode-parasites-surviving-vaccine-exposure
#9
Guillaume Sallé, Roz Laing, James A Cotton, Kirsty Maitland, Axel Martinelli, Nancy Holroyd, Alan Tracey, Matthew Berriman, W David Smith, George F J Newlands, Eve Hanks, Eileen Devaney, Collette Britton
Some nematode species are economically important parasites of livestock, while others are important human pathogens causing some of the most important neglected tropical diseases. In both humans and animals, anthelmintic drug administration is the main control strategy, but the emergence of drug-resistant worms has stimulated the development of alternative control approaches. Among these, vaccination is considered to be a sustainable and cost effective strategy. Currently, Barbervax® for the ruminant strongylid Haemonchus contortus is the only registered subunit vaccine for a nematode parasite, although a vaccine for the human hookworm Necator americanus is undergoing clinical trials (HOOKVAC consortium)...
March 10, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534626/nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway-enhanced-complement-activation-mediates-renal-injury-in-trichloroethylene-sensitized-mice
#10
Min Liu, Hui Wang, Jiaxiang Zhang, Xiaodong Yang, Bodong Li, Changhao Wu, Qixing Zhu
Both NF-κB pathway and complement activation appear to be involved in kidney damage induced by trichloroethylene (TCE). However, any relationship between these two systems has not yet been established. The present study aimed to clarify the role of NF-κB in complement activation and renal injury in TCE-sensitized BALB/c mice. Mice were sensitized by an initial subcutaneous injection and repeated focal applications of TCE to dorsal skin at specified timepoints. NF-κB inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) was injected (intraperitoneal) before the final two focal TCE challenges...
December 2018: Journal of Immunotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522573/octreotide-modulates-the-expression-of-somatostatin-receptor-subtypes-in-inflamed-rat-jejunum-induced-by-cryptosporidium-parvum
#11
Jie Bai, Xin Liu, Le Goff Laetitia, Gargala Gilles, Francois Arnaud, Ballet Jean Jacques, Ducrotte Phillipe, Favennec Loic, Liqianhai Towledahong
Somatostatins are proteins that are involved in gastrointestinal function. However, little is known with regard to somatostatin receptor subtype (SSTR) expression changes that occur in the jejunum during low-grade inflammation and during subsequent octreotide treatment. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of SSTRs in the jejunums of Cryptosporidium parvum (C. parvum)-infected rats by immunohistochemisty, reverse transcription (RT) PCR and quantitative real-time RT-PCR assays. Five-day-old suckling Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 15 for each group) were orally gavaged with 105 Nouzilly isolate (NoI) oocysts...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495466/domain-iii-of-cry1ac-is-critical-to-binding-and-toxicity-against-soybean-looper-chrysodeixis-includens-but-not-to-velvetbean-caterpillar-anticarsia-gemmatalis
#12
Rubina Mushtaq, Abdul Rauf Shakoori, Juan Luis Jurat-Fuentes
Insecticidal proteins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ac7 from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) belong to the three-domain family of Bt toxins. Commercial transgenic soybean hybrids produce Cry1Ac to control the larvae of the soybean looper ( Chrysodeixis includens ) and the velvet bean caterpillar ( Anticarsia gemmatalis ). The specificity of Cry1Ac is determined by loops extending from domain II and regions of domain III in the three-dimensional structure of the toxin. In this study, we constructed a hybrid toxin (H1...
February 27, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29493669/identification-and-characterization-of-proteolytically-resistant-gluten-derived-peptides
#13
M R Perez-Gregorio, R Días, N Mateus, V de Freitas
The lack of digestibility of certain gluten proteins is essential in the development of celiac disease (CD). Gluten proteins are remarkably resistant to luminal and brush-border proteolysis owing to their high proline and glutamine content. Consequently, large fragments remain intact after digestion exerting toxic effects. Intestinal brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV) have been described as having strong proteolytic activity mainly through prolyl endopeptidase enzymes. The purpose of this work was to monitor the gastrointestinal digestion of specific CD epitopes by means of an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model that included incubation with brush-border membrane enzymes...
March 1, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490294/massive-proteinuria-induced-injury-of-tubular-epithelial-cells-in-nephrotic-syndrome-is-not-exacerbated-by-furosemide
#14
Shujun Wang, Qingjun Pan, Chen Xu, Jun-Jia Li, Hao-Xuan Tang, Ting Zou, Kai-Peng Jing, Lin Ye, Hong-Luan Wu, Wei-Jing Liu, Hua-Feng Liu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Massive proteinuria, a significant sign of nephrotic syndrome (NS), has the potential to injure tubular epithelial cells (TECs). Furosemide is widely used for the treatment of edema, a common manifestation of NS. However, whether furosemide treatment affects massive proteinuria-induced TEC injury in patients with NS is unknown. METHODS: The effect of furosemide on TEC damage was investigated in vitro. In addition, a clinical study was conducted to study whether the short-term treatment of nephrotic edema with furosemide could exacerbate TEC injury...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483574/elevated-fgf23-levels-in-mice-lacking-the-thiazide-sensitive-nacl-cotransporter-ncc
#15
Ganesh Pathare, Manuel Anderegg, Giuseppe Albano, Florian Lang, Daniel G Fuster
Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) participates in the orchestration of mineral metabolism by inducing phosphaturia and decreasing the production of 1,25(OH)2 D3 . It is known that FGF23 release is stimulated by aldosterone and extracellular volume depletion. To characterize this effect further in a model of mild hypovolemia, we studied mice lacking the thiazide sensitive NaCl cotransporter (NCC). Our data indicate that NCC knockout mice (KO) have significantly higher FGF23, PTH and aldosterone concentrations than corresponding wild type (WT) mice...
February 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462370/the-effect-of-eimeria-maxima-infection-on-the-expression-of-amino-acid-and-sugar-transporters-aminopeptidase-as-well-as-the-di-and-tri-peptide-transporter-pept1-is-not-solely-due-to-decreased-feed-intake
#16
Katarzyna B Miska, Raymond H Fetterer
Coccidiosis caused by Eimeria in poultry is endemic to poultry operations and results in decreased feed intake, diarrhea, and decreased weight gain. The goal was to determine the effect of Eimeria maxima infection on the expression of genes that encode peptide and amino acid transporters (AATs), and also to determine whether decreased feed intake contributes to the change in gene expression by including a pair-fed group of broilers. Three groups of male Ross broilers: 1) not infected, 2) infected, and 3) not infected pair-fed groups were used...
February 14, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453360/role-of-intestinal-trefoil-factor-in-protecting-intestinal-epithelial-cells-from-burn-induced-injury
#17
Jianhong Hu, Yan Shi, Chao Wang, Hanxing Wan, Dan Wu, Hongyu Wang, Xi Peng
Although intestinal trefoil factor (ITF) can alleviate the burn-induced intestinal mucosa injury, the underlying mechanisms remains elusive. In this study, we investigated if ITF alters glutamine transport on the brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) of the intestines in Sprague-Dawley rats inflicted with 30% TBSA and the underlying mechanisms. We found that ITF significantly stimulated intestinal glutamine transport in burned rats. Mechanistically, ITF enhanced autophagy, reduces endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS), and alleviates the impaired PDI, ASCT2, and B0AT1 in IECs and BBMVs after burn injury likely through AMPK activation...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449779/-saccharomyces-boulardii-cncm-i-745-improves-intestinal-enzyme-function-a-trophic-effects-review
#18
REVIEW
Margret I Moré, Yvan Vandenplas
Several properties of the probiotic medicinal yeast Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 contribute to its efficacy to prevent or treat diarrhoea. Besides immunologic effects, pathogen-binding and anti-toxin effects, as well as positive effects on the microbiota, S boulardii CNCM I-745 also has pronounced effects on digestive enzymes of the brush border membrane, known as trophic effects. The latter are the focus of this review. Literature has been reviewed after searching Medline and PMC databases. All relevant non-clinical and clinical studies are summarized...
2018: Clinical Medicine Insights. Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448008/insecticidal-activity-putative-binding-proteins-and-histopathological-effects-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-vip3-459-toxin-on-the-lepidopteran-pest-ectomyelois-ceratoniae
#19
Hanen Boukedi, Slim Tounsi, Lobna Abdelkefi-Mesrati
The carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae, is an important agricultural pest that is susceptible to the Vip3(459) protein. The insecticidal activity, evaluated against this lepidopteran pest, displayed an LC 50 value of about 28 ng/cm 2 .The investigation of the mode of action of this B. thuringiensis protein demonstrated that the active form of this toxin bound to putative receptors in the BBMV of E. ceratoniae. Ligand blotting experiment proved that Vip3(459) specifically bound to two proteins of about 53 and 57 kDa, located on the midgut...
February 12, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428514/target-and-non-target-response-of-swietenia-mahagoni-jacq-chemical-constituents-against-tobacco-cutworm-spodoptera-litura-fab-and-earthworm-eudrilus-eugeniae-kinb
#20
Anandan Dinesh-Kumar, Elangovan Srimaan, Muthiah Chellappandian, Prabhakaran Vasantha-Srinivasan, Sengodan Karthi, Annamalai Thanigaivel, Athirstam Ponsankar, Kanagaraj Muthu-Pandian Chanthini, Narayanan Shyam-Sundar, Mahendiran Annamalai, Kandaswamy Kalaivani, Wayne B Hunter, Sengottayan Senthil-Nathan
Toxicological screening of Swietenia mahagoni Jacq. (Meliaceae, West Indies Mahogany) against the lepidopteran pest Spodoptera litura was examined. Phytochemical screening through GC-MS analysis revealed nine peaks with prominent peak area % in Bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (31.5%) was observed. The larvae exposed to discriminating dosage of 100 ppm deliver significant mortality rate compare to other treatment concentrations. The lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90) was observed at the dosage of 31.04 and 86...
February 3, 2018: Chemosphere
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