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Patrizia Lo Cascio, Concetta Calabrò, Clara Bertuccio, Carmelo Iaria, Fabio Marino, Maria G Denaro
Gastrointestinal function in vertebrates is influenced by stressors, such as fasting and refeeding, different types of diet and hormonal factors. The aim of this paper was to analyze the effect of a Spirulina ( Arthrospira platensis ) diet, a microalga known for its nutraceutical properties, on the gastrointestinal tract of zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) regarding expression of oligopeptide transporter 1 (PepT1) and ghrelin (GHR). Food deprivation and refeeding was investigated to elucidate expression of PepT1 and GHR at a gastrointestinal level and the zebrafish compensatory mechanism...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Ying-Yu Zhang, Zhen-Yan Fu, Jian Wei, Wei Qi, Gulinaer Baituola, Jie Luo, Ya-Jie Meng, Shu-Yuan Guo, Huiyong Yin, Shi-You Jiang, Yun-Feng Li, Hong-Hua Miao, Yong Liu, Yan Wang, Bo-Liang Li, Yi-Tong Ma, Bao-Liang Song
A high concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Although LDL-C levels vary among humans and are heritable, the genetic factors affecting LDL-C are not fully characterized. We identified a rare frameshift variant in the LIMA1 (also known as EPLIN or SREBP3 ) gene from a Chinese family of Kazakh ethnicity with inherited low LDL-C and reduced cholesterol absorption. In a mouse model, LIMA1 was mainly expressed in the small intestine and localized on the brush border membrane...
June 8, 2018: Science
Chie Suzuki, Tomoya Uehara, Naoki Kanazawa, Shota Wada, Hiroyuki Suzuki, Yasushi Arano
The obstructive renal radioactivity after injection of antibody fragments/constructs labeled with metallic radionuclides would be improved by liberating a radiometal chelate of urinary excretion from the antibody molecules by enzymes on the renal brush border membrane (BBM). A tripeptide GFK sequence was newly evaluated as an enzyme-cleavable linkage and conjugated to a 99mTc chelate of an isonicotinic acid derivative of 2-picolylglycine (99mTc-IPG). 99mTc-IPG-glycine was liberated from 99mTc-IPG-GFK by the enzymes while 99mTc-IPG-GK (where the tripeptide GFK was substituted with a dipeptide GK) did not...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Wannee Jiraungkoorskul
Tinospora crispa stem aqueous extractions for various time durations were determined regarding their total phenolic content and their larvicidal abilities. The results revealed that the total phenolic content in 1-, 3-, 5-, 10-, and 24-h extracts were 8.26, 8.43, 13.57, 12.52, and 12.43 mg/g gallic acid equivalent, respectively. The 5-h extract of T. crispa was evaluated against Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito larva in concentrations 3.125, 6.25, 12.5, and 25 mg/l, by determining the lethal concentration (LC) within 24 h and by histopathological analysis...
June 5, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Arthur Lau, Hyunjae Chung, Takanori Komada, Jaye M Platnich, Christina F Sandall, Saurav Roy Choudhury, Justin Chun, Victor Naumenko, Bas Gj Surewaard, Michelle C Nelson, Annegret Ulke-Lemée, Paul L Beck, Hallgrimur Benediktsson, Anthony M Jevnikar, Sarah L Snelgrove, Michael J Hickey, Donna L Senger, Matthew T James, Justin A Macdonald, Paul Kubes, Craig N Jenne, Daniel A Muruve
Radiographic contrast agents cause acute kidney injury (AKI), yet the underlying pathogenesis is poorly understood. Nod-like receptor pyrin containing 3-deficient (Nlrp3-deficient) mice displayed reduced epithelial cell injury and inflammation in the kidney in a model of contrast-induced AKI (CI-AKI). Unexpectedly, contrast agents directly induced tubular epithelial cell death in vitro that was not dependent on Nlrp3. Rather, contrast agents activated the canonical Nlrp3 inflammasome in macrophages. Intravital microscopy revealed diatrizoate (DTA) uptake within minutes in perivascular CX3CR1+ resident phagocytes in the kidney...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Zeyu Wang, Longfa Fang, Zishan Zhou, Sabino Pacheco, Isabel Gómez, Fuping Song, Mario Soberón, Jie Zhang, Alejandra Bravo
The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis produces several insecticidal proteins, such as the crystal proteins (Cry) and the vegetative insecticidal proteins (Vip). In this work, we report that a specific interaction between two B. thuringiensis toxins creates insecticidal synergism and unravel the molecular basis of this interaction. When applied together, the three-domain Cry toxin, Cry9Aa and the Vip, Vip3Aa, exhibited high insecticidal activity against an important insect pest, the Asiatic rice borer ( Chilo suppressalis )...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Kanae Nakaoka, Asako Yamada, Seiko Noda, Masae Goseki-Sone
Intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) is expressed at a high concentration in the brush border membrane of intestinal epithelial cells. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase controls bacterial endotoxin-induced inflammation by dephosphorylating lipopolysaccharide and is a gut mucosal defense factor. Previously, we reported that IAP activity in the duodenum was significantly decreased in male rats receiving a high-fat diet with vitamin D restriction. Here, we tested the hypothesis that IAP is also regulated by a vitamin D-restricted high-fat diet in an animal model of menopause...
May 2018: Nutrition Research
Ganesan Vaidyanathan, Choong Mo Kang, Darryl McDougald, Il Minn, Mary Brummet, Martin G Pomper, Michael R Zalutsky
INTRODUCTION: Radiolabeled, low-molecular-weight prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) inhibitors based on the Glu-ureido pharmacophore show promise for the detection and treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer; however, high renal retention of activity, related in part to overexpression of PSMA in kidneys can be problematic. The goal of the current study was to investigate the use of brush border enzyme-cleavable linkers as a strategy for reducing kidney activity levels from radiolabeled PSMA inhibitors...
May 5, 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
Kelli L VanDussen, Aleksandar Stojmirović, Katherine Li, Ta-Chiang Liu, Patrick K Kimes, Brian D Muegge, Katherine F Simpson, Matthew A Ciorba, Jacqueline G Perrigoue, Joshua R Friedman, Jennifer E Towne, Richard D Head, Thaddeus S Stappenbeck
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Crohn's disease (CD) presents as chronic and often progressive intestinal inflammation, but the contributing pathogenic mechanisms are unclear. We aimed to identify alterations in intestinal cells that could contribute to the chronic and progressive course of CD. METHODS: We took an unbiased, system-wide approach, performing sequence analysis of RNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded ileal tissue sections from patients with CD (n=36) and without CD (controls, n=32)...
May 18, 2018: Gastroenterology
David R Rose, Marcia M Chaudet, Kyra Jones
OBJECTIVES: Maltase-glucoamylase and sucrase-isomaltase are enzymes in the brush-border membrane of the small intestinal lumen responsible for the breakdown of postamylase starch polysaccharides to release monomeric glucose. As such, they are critical players in healthy nutrition and their malfunction can lead to severe disorders. METHODS: This review covers investigations of the structures and functions of these enzymes. RESULTS: Each consists of 2 enzyme domains of the glycoside hydrolase family GH31 classification, yet with somewhat differing enzymatic properties...
June 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Trevor L Nydam, Robert Plenter, Swati Jain, Scott Lucia, Alkesh Jani
BACKGROUND: Prolonged cold ischemia is a risk factor for delayed graft function of kidney transplants, and is associated with caspase-3 mediated apoptotic tubular cell death. We hypothesized that treatment of tubular cells and donor kidneys during cold storage with a caspase inhibitor before transplant would reduce tubular cell apoptosis and improve kidney function after transplant. METHODS: Mouse tubular cells were incubated with either DMSO or Q-VD-OPh during cold storage in saline followed by rewarming in normal media...
May 1, 2018: Transplantation
Hsih-Yin Tan, Sofie Trier, Ulrik L Rahbek, Martin Dufva, Jörg P Kutter, Thomas L Andresen
This paper presents the design and fabrication of a multi-layer and multi-chamber microchip system using thiol-ene 'click chemistry' aimed for drug transport studies across tissue barrier models. The fabrication process enables rapid prototyping of multi-layer microfluidic chips using different thiol-ene polymer mixtures, where porous Teflon membranes for cell monolayer growth were incorporated by masked sandwiching thiol-ene-based fluid layers. Electrodes for trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER) measurements were incorporated using low-melting soldering wires in combination with platinum wires, enabling parallel real-time monitoring of barrier integrity for the eight chambers...
2018: PloS One
Fariheen Aisha Ansari, Aijaz Ahmed Khan, Riaz Mahmood
The widespread use of sodium nitrite (NaNO2 ) as food preservative, rampant use of nitrogenous fertilizers for agricultural practices, and improper disposal of nitrogenous wastes have drastically increased human exposure to high nitrite levels causing various health disorders and death. In the present study, the protective effect of carnosine and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) against NaNO2 -induced intestinal toxicity in rats was investigated. Animals were given a single acute oral dose of NaNO2 at 60 mg/kg body weight with or without prior administration of either carnosine at 100 mg/kg body weight/day for 7 days or NAC at 100 mg/kg body weight/day for 5 days...
May 4, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Da Huo, Xiao Jiang, Xiaofen Wu, Chunhua Ren, Zonghe Yu, Jinshang Liu, Hongmei Li, Yao Ruan, Jin Wen, Ting Chen, Chaoqun Hu
Trehalases are a group of enzymes that catalyse the conversion of trehalose to glucose, and they are observed in most organisms. In this study, the first echinoderm trehalase, designated Hl-Tre, was identified from a tropical sea cucumber, Holothuria leucospilota. The full-length cDNA of H. leucospilota trehalase (Hl-Tre) is 2461 bp in length with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1788 bp that encodes a 595-amino-acid protein with a deduced molecular weight of 67.95 KDa. The Hl-Tre protein contains a signal peptide at the N-terminal and a functional trehalase domain, which includes the signature motifs 1 and 2...
April 29, 2018: Gene
Adekunle B. Ayinmode, Victor I. Agbajelola
Cryptosporidiosis is an infectious protozoan disease that affects a wide range of animals including reptiles. This is the first report of cryptosporidiosis in a fire skink (Lepidothyris fernandi), an insectivorous reptile commonly found in tropical West Africa. Faecal sample was collected from a fire skink at necropsy for the detection of parasites by faecal sedimentation method, Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) acid-fast staining, Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Nucleotide sequencing. Sections of the intestines were also processed for histopathology...
2018: Annals of Parasitology
Monica Sala-Rabanal, Chiara Ghezzi, Bruce A Hirayama, Vladimir Kepe, Jie Liu, Jorge R Barrio, Ernest M Wright
KEY POINTS: The goal was to determine the importance of the sodium glucose cotransporter SGLT1 and the glucose uniporter GLUT2 in intestinal glucose absorption during oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) in mice. Glucose absorption was determined in mice using positron emission tomography and three non-metabolizable glucose probes: one specific for SGLTs, one specific for GLUTs, and one a substrate for both SGLTs and GLUTs. Absorption was determined in wild-type, Sglt1-/- , and Glut2-/- mice...
April 29, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Mariah Kemmerer, Bryony Bonning
The Junonia coenia densovirus rapidly traverses the gut epithelium of the host lepidopteran without replicating in the gut cells. The ability of this virus to transcytose across the gut epithelium is of interest for the potential use of virus structural proteins as delivery vehicles for insecticidal peptides that act within the insect hemocoel, rather than in the gut. In this study, we used fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda to examine the binding of the virus to brush border membrane vesicle proteins by two-dimensional ligand blot analysis...
April 27, 2018: Insect Science
Balasubramanian Palaniappan, Uma Sundaram
Pharmacological manipulations of constitutive nitric oxide (cNO) levels have been shown to have variable effects on Na absorption in vivo and in vitro in different tissues. Species differences, untoward in vivo effects (e.g. ENS, blood flow) and pharmacological non-specificity may account for these confounding observations. Thus, to directly and specifically determine the effect of cNO on brush border membrane Na/H exchange (NHE3) and Na-dependent glucose co-transport (SGLT-1), we inhibited cNO synthase (cNOS) with its siRNA in rat small intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-18) in vitro...
April 24, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Britta Spanier, Florian Rohm
As the organ with one of the largest surface areas facing the environment and responsible for nutrient uptake, the small intestine expresses numerous transport proteins in its brush-border membrane for efficient absorption and supply of dietary macro- and micronutrients. The understanding of regulation and functional interplay of these nutrient transporters is of emerging interest in nutrition and medical physiology research in respect to development of diabetes, obesity, and inflammatory bowel disease worldwide...
March 25, 2018: Comprehensive Physiology
Gamal H Osman, Waleed J Altaf, Ibrahim A S Saleh, Raya Soltane, Hussein H Abulreesh, Ibrahim A Arif, Ahmed M Ramadan, Yehia A Osman
Black cutworm (BCW) Agrotis ipsilon , an economically important lepidopteran insect, has attracted a great attention. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is spore forming soil bacteria and is an excellent environment-friendly approach for the control of phytophagous and disease-transmitting insects. In fact, bio-pesticide formulations and insect resistant transgenic plants based on the bacterium Bt delta-endotoxin have attracted worldwide attention as a safer alternative to harmful chemical pesticides. The major objective of the current study was to understand the mechanism of interaction of Bt toxin with its receptor molecule(s)...
March 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
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