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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180997/functional-characterization-of-a-novel-disaccharide-transporter-in-lobster-hepatopancreas
#1
Olivia Scheffler, Gregory A Ahearn
In animals, the accepted model of carbohydrate digestion and absorption involves reduction of disaccharides into the monosaccharides glucose, fructose, and galactose followed by their individual transmembrane transport into cells. In 2011, a gene for a distinct disaccharide sucrose transporter (SCRT) was found in Drosophila melanogaster and characterized in a yeast expression system. The purpose of the present investigation was to functionally identify and characterize a putative disaccharide transporter analog in the hepatopancreas of the American lobster, Homarus americanus...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177365/segmental-diversity-of-phosphate-transport-along-the-intestinal-axis-in-horses
#2
A S Muscher-Banse, L Marholt, N Eigendorf, M R Wilkens, B Schröder, G Breves, A Cehak
For horses, distinct differences in intestinal phosphate transport have been postulated to account for the unique features of hind gut fermentation compared to other monogastric animals and ruminants. So far published data on mechanisms and underlying transport proteins involved in intestinal phosphate transport in the horse are still missing. Therefore we investigated intestinal phosphate transport in horses at both functional and molecular levels. Segmental diversity of intestinal phosphate transport along the intestinal axis was documented using the Ussing chamber technique...
January 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167864/ezetimibe-reduces-cholesterol-content-and-nf-kappab-activation-in-liver-but-not-in-intestinal-tissue-in-guinea-pigs
#3
Peter Fraunberger, Elisabeth Gröne, Hermann-Josef Gröne, Heinz Drexel, Autar K Walli
BACKGROUND: Statins (HMG CoA reductase inhibitors), in addition to reducing circulating cholesterol and incidence of coronary heart disease, also have pleiotropic, anti-inflammatory effects. Patients with chronic liver diseases, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) or hepatitis C are often excluded from statin therapy because of adverse effects in a small cohort of patients despite increased cardiovascular risk cholesterol. Ezetimibe, which inhibits cholesterol absorption by inhibition of Niemann-Pick C1 like 1 (NPC1L1) protein in the brush border of intestinal cells, has been suggested as a new therapeutic option in these patients...
2017: Journal of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166771/glycemic-insulinemic-and-incretin-responses-after-oral-trehalose-ingestion-in-healthy-subjects
#4
Chiyo Yoshizane, Akiko Mizote, Mika Yamada, Norie Arai, Shigeyuki Arai, Kazuhiko Maruta, Hitoshi Mitsuzumi, Toshio Ariyasu, Shimpei Ushio, Shigeharu Fukuda
BACKGROUND: Trehalose is hydrolyzed by a specific intestinal brush-border disaccharidase (trehalase) into two glucose molecules. In animal studies, trehalose has been shown to prevent adipocyte hypertrophy and mitigate insulin resistance in mice fed a high-fat diet. Recently, we found that trehalose improved glucose tolerance in human subjects. However, the underlying metabolic responses after trehalose ingestion in humans are not well understood. Therefore, we examined the glycemic, insulinemic and incretin responses after trehalose ingestion in healthy Japanese volunteers...
February 6, 2017: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129098/expression-of-kidney-injury-molecule-1-in-healthy-and-diseased-feline-kidney-tissue
#5
S K Bland, C W Schmiedt, M E Clark, J DeLay, D Bienzle
Sensitive markers to detect acute kidney injury (AKI) in cats are lacking. Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) is a promising marker of acute tubular injury in humans, and sequence and structure of feline KIM-1 have been determined. KIM-1 is shed into urine of cats with natural AKI. The objectives of this study were to characterize temporal and cellular expression of KIM-1 in kidneys from cats without and with experimental and natural AKI using histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Tissue sections from 8 cats without kidney disease, 3 to 4 cats with experimentally induced AKI on each day 1, 3, 6, and 12 after unilateral ischemia/reperfusion, and 9 cats with natural AKI were assessed...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125689/selective-inhibition-of-prostasin-in-human-enterocytes-by-the-integral-membrane-kunitz-type-serine-protease-inhibitor-hai-2
#6
Frank Shiao, Li-Ching O Liu, Nanxi Huang, Ying-Jung J Lai, Robert J Barndt, Chun-Che Tseng, Jehng-Kang Wang, Bailing Jia, Michael D Johnson, Chen-Yong Lin
Mutations of hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor (HAI)-2 in humans cause sodium loss in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in patients with syndromic congenital sodium diarrhea (SCSD). Aberrant regulation of HAI-2 target protease(s) was proposed as the cause of the disease. Here functional linkage of HAI-2 with two membrane-associated serine proteases, matriptase and prostasin was analyzed in Caco-2 cells and the human GI tract. Immunodepletion-immunoblot analysis showed that significant proportion of HAI-2 is in complex with activated prostasin but not matriptase...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123906/cry1ac-and-vip3aa-proteins-from-bacillus-thuringiensis-targeting-cry-toxin-resistance-in-diatraea-flavipennella-and-elasmopalpus-lignosellus-from-sugarcane
#7
Ana Rita Nunes Lemes, Camila Soares Figueiredo, Isis Sebastião, Liliane Marques da Silva, Rebeka da Costa Alves, Herbert Álvaro Abreu de Siqueira, Manoel Victor Franco Lemos, Odair Aparecido Fernandes, Janete Apparecida Desidério
The biological potential of Vip and Cry proteins from Bacillus is well known and widely established. Thus, it is important to look for new genes showing different modes of action, selecting those with differentiated entomotoxic activity against Diatraea flavipennella and Elasmopalpus lignosellus, which are secondary pests of sugarcane. Therefore, Cry1 and Vip3 proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli, and their toxicities were evaluated based on bioassays using neonate larvae. Of those, the most toxic were Cry1Ac and Vip3Aa considering the LC50 values...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108197/identification-of-aminopeptidase-n2-as-a-cry2ab-binding-protein-in-manduca-sexta
#8
Janette Onofre, Meztlli O Gaytán, Arlen Peña-Cardeña, Blanca I García-Gomez, Sabino Pacheco, Isabel Gómez, Alejandra Bravo, Mario Soberón
Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ab toxin has been used in combination with Cry1Ac for resistance management on the Bt-cotton that is widely planted worldwide. However, little is known regarding Cry2Ab mode of action. Particularly, there is a gap of knowledge on the identification of insect midgut proteins that bind Cry2Ab and mediate toxicity. In the case of Cry1Ab toxin, a transmembrane cadherin protein and glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored proteins like aminopeptidase-N1 (APN1) or alkaline-phosphatase (ALP) from Manduca sexta, have been shown to be important for oligomer formation and insertion into the membrane...
January 17, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098291/investigation-into-the-bioavailability-of-milk-protein-derived-peptides-with-dipeptidyl-peptidase-iv-inhibitory-activity-using-caco-2-cell-monolayers
#9
Isabelle M E Lacroix, Xiu-Min Chen, David D Kitts, Eunice C Y Li-Chan
In recent years, peptides derived from a variety of dietary proteins have been reported to exhibit inhibitory activity against the dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (DPP-IV) enzyme, a target in the management of type 2 diabetes. While much attention has been given to the production and identification of peptides with DPP-IV inhibitory activity from food proteins, particularly dairy proteins, little is known on the bioavailability of these molecules. In this study, the stability and transport of five previously identified milk-derived peptides (LKPTPEGDL, LPYPY, IPIQY, IPI and WR) and a whey protein isolate (WPI) digest with DPP-IV-inhibitory activity were investigated using Caco-2 cell monolayers as a model system for human intestinal absorption...
January 18, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093209/combinatorial-effect-of-bacillus-amyloliquefaciens-ag1-biosurfactant-and-bacillus-thuringiensis-vip3aa16-toxin-on-spodoptera-littoralis-larvae
#10
Saoussen Ben Khedher, Hanen Boukedi, Mariam Dammak, Olfa Kilani-Feki, Tahya Sellami-Boudawara, Lobna Abdelkefi-Mesrati, Slim Tounsi
Spodoptera littoralis, one of the most serious and destructive agricultural pests in the world, is very susceptible to Vip3 toxin. In order to develop a new efficient bioinsecticide and to prevent the development of resistance by the target pest, insecticidal activity of biosurfactant produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens AG1 was evaluated against S. littoralis. Bioassays revealed the susceptibility of the first instar larvae of this pest to AG1 biosurfactant with an LC50 of 245ng/cm(2). Moreover, the histopathology examination of the larval midgut treated by AG1 biosurfactant showed vacuolization, necrosis and disintegration of the basement membrane...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067269/proteomic-analysis-of-cry2aa-binding-proteins-and-their-receptor-function-in-spodoptera-exigua
#11
Lin Qiu, Boyao Zhang, Lang Liu, Weihua Ma, Xiaoping Wang, Chaoliang Lei, Lizhen Chen
The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis produces Crystal (Cry) proteins that are toxic to a diverse range of insects. Transgenic crops that produce Bt Cry proteins are grown worldwide because of their improved resistance to insect pests. Although Bt "pyramid" cotton that produces both Cry1A and Cry2A is predicted to be more resistant to several lepidopteran pests, including Spodoptera exigua, than plants that produce Cry1Ac alone, the mechanisms responsible for the toxicity of Cry2Aa in S. exigua are not well understood...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034633/glycol-chitosan-a-stabilizer-of-lipid-rafts-in-the-intestinal-brush-border
#12
E Thomas Danielsen, E Michael Danielsen
Chitosan is a polycationic polysaccharide consisting of β-(1-4)-linked glucosamine units and due to its mucoadhesive properties, chemical derivatives of chitosan are potential candidates as enhancers for transmucosal drug delivery. Recently, glycol chitosan (GC), a soluble derivative of chitosan, was shown to bind specifically to lipid raft domains in model bilayers. The small intestinal brush border membrane has a unique lipid raft composition with high amounts of glycolipids cross-linked by lectins, and the aim of the present work therefore was to study the interaction of FITC-conjugated GC (FITC-GC) with the small intestinal epithelium...
December 27, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003188/insulin-like-growth-factor-binding-protein-7-and-tissue-inhibitor-of-metalloproteinases-2-differential-expression-and-secretion-in-human-kidney-tubule-cells
#13
David R Emlet, Nuria Pastor-Soler, Allison Marciszyn, Xiaoyan Wen, Hernando Gomez, William H Humphries, Seth Morrisroe, Jacob K Volpe, John A Kellum
We have characterized the expression and secretion of the acute kidney injury (AKI) biomarkers insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2) in human kidney epithelial cells in primary cell culture and tissue. We established cell culture model systems of primary kidney cells of proximal and distal tubule origin and observed that both proteins are indeed expressed and secreted in both tubule cell types in vitro. However, TIMP-2 is both expressed and secreted preferentially by cells of distal tubule origin, while IGFBP7 is equally expressed across tubule cell types yet preferentially secreted by cells of proximal tubule origin...
February 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988123/short-communication-inhibition-of-angiotensin-1-converting-enzyme-by-peptides-derived-from-variants-of-bovine-%C3%AE-casein-upon-apical-exposure-to-a-caco-2-cell-monolayer
#14
Bjørn Petrat-Melin, Thao T Le, Hanne S Møller, Lotte B Larsen, Jette F Young
This study investigated the consequence of genetically contingent amino acid substitutions in bovine β-casein (CN) genetic variants A(1), A(2), B, and I on the structure and bioactive potential of peptides following in vitro digestion. The β-CN variants were digested in vitro using pepsin and pancreatin, and a peptide profile was obtained by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, revealing among others, the β-casomorphin precursor peptides VYPFPGPIHN and VYPFPGPIPN, derived from variant A(1)/B and from A(2)/I, respectively...
February 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977191/hydrolysis-of-dicaffeoylquinic-acids-from-ilex-kudingcha-happens-in-the-colon-by-intestinal-microbiota
#15
Minhao Xie, Guijie Chen, Bing Hu, Li Zhou, Shiyi Ou, Xiaoxiong Zeng, Yi Sun
Monocaffeoylquinic acids (mono-CQAs) can be hydrolyzed or metabolized by pancreatin, intestinal brush border esterase, and microbiota in the colon. Data about the conversion of dicaffeoylquinic acids (diCQAs) in digestion are scarce. The diCQA-rich fraction including 3,4-, 3,5-, and 4,5-diCQAs was prepared from Ilex kudingcha, and the conversion in simulated gastricintestine was investigated. Artificial saliva, gastric and pancreatic fluids, Caco-2 monolayer cells, and anaerobic fermentation model were utilized to mimic digestions of the oral cavity, stomach, small intestine, and colon in vitro...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941667/hypoglycemic-effect-of-opuntia-ficus-indica-var-saboten-is-due-to-enhanced-peripheral-glucose-uptake-through-activation-of-ampk-p38-mapk-pathway
#16
Kang-Hyun Leem, Myung-Gyou Kim, Young-Tae Hahm, Hye Kyung Kim
Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten (OFS) has been used in traditional medicine for centuries to treat several illnesses, including diabetes. However, detailed mechanisms underlying hypoglycemic effects remain unclear. In this study, the mechanism underlying the hypoglycemic activity of OFS was evaluated using in vitro and in vivo systems. OFS treatment inhibited α-glucosidase activity and intestinal glucose absorption assessed by Na⁺-dependent glucose uptake using brush border membrane vesicles. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is widely recognized as an important regulator of glucose transport in skeletal muscle, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) has been proposed to be a component of AMPK-mediated signaling...
December 9, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940541/insecticidal-specificity-of-cry1ah-to-helicoverpa-armigera-is-determined-by-binding-of-apn1-via-domain-ii-loops-2-and-3
#17
Zishan Zhou, Yuxiao Liu, Gemei Liang, Yongping Huang, Alejandra Bravo, Mario Soberón, Fuping Song, Xueping Zhou, Jie Zhang
Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ah protein is highly toxic against Helicoverpa armigera but shows no toxicity against Bombyx mori larvae. In contrast, the closely related Cry1Ai toxin showed the opposite phenotype: high activity against B. mori but no toxicity against H. armigera. Analysis of binding of Cry1Ah to brush border membrane vesicle (BBMV) proteins from H. armigera and B. mori by surface plasmon resonance revealed association of toxin binding with insect specificity. Pulldown experiments identified aminopeptidase N1 (APN1) as a Cry1Ah binding protein that was not observed in the assays using B...
February 15, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933340/enhancement-of-pharmacological-effects-of-uricosuric-agents-by-concomitant-treatment-with-pyrazinamide-in-rats
#18
Tetsuya Taniguchi, Naoki Ashizawa, Koji Matsumoto, Takashi Iwanaga
Our goal was to establish a model for the evaluation of the effects of uricosuric agents and to clarify the underlying mechanism(s). The effects of a uricosuric agent co-treated with pyrazinamide, an anti-tubercular agent, on urate handling were examined in rats. Furthermore, the effects of uricosuric agents on urate uptake were evaluated using the vesicles of rat renal brush-border membrane. Treatment with probenecid, at a dose of 100 mg/kg, significantly increased the urinary urate to creatinine ratio (UUA/UCRE) in pyrazinamide-treated rats although the same treatment did not produce any uricosuric effects in intact rats...
March 2017: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930989/protective-effect-of-nigella-sativa-oil-on-cisplatin-induced-nephrotoxicity-and-oxidative-damage-in-rat-kidney
#19
Zeba Farooqui, Faizan Ahmed, Sana Rizwan, Faaiza Shahid, Aijaz Ahmed Khan, Farah Khan
BACKGROUND: Nephrotoxicity is a severe complication in patients undergoing cisplatin (CP) chemotherapy. Previous studies in our lab have shown that administration of a single dose of CP results in decrease in the activities of brush border membrane (BBM) and free radical scavenging enzymes and induces oxidative stress in rat kidney. Nigella sativa, is one of the most revered medicinal plant known for its numerous health benefits. Nigella sativa seed/oil has been shown to improve kidney functions in animal models of acute kidney injury...
January 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927654/expression-of-sodium-dependent-dicarboxylate-transporter-1-nadc1-slc13a2-in-normal-and-neoplastic-human-kidney
#20
Hyun-Wook Lee, Mary E Handlogten, Gunars Osis, William L Clapp, Dara N Wakefield, Jill W Verlander, I David Weiner
Regulated dicarboxylate transport is critical for acid-base homeostasis, prevention of calcium nephrolithiasis, regulation of collecting duct sodium chloride transport and the regulation of blood pressure. Although luminal dicarboxylate reabsorption via NaDC1 (SLC13A2) is believed to be the primary mechanism regulating renal dicarboxylate transport, the specific localization of NaDC1 in the human kidney is currently unknown. This study's purpose was to determine NaDC1's expression in normal and neoplastic human kidneys...
December 7, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
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