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Jianhong Hu, Yan Shi, Chao Wang, Hanxing Wan, Dan Wu, Hongyu Wang, Xi Peng
Although intestinal trefoil factor (ITF) can alleviate the burn-induced intestinal mucosa injury, the underlying mechanisms remains elusive. In this study, we investigated if ITF alters glutamine transport on the brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) of the intestines in Sprague-Dawley rats inflicted with 30% TBSA and the underlying mechanisms. We found that ITF significantly stimulated intestinal glutamine transport in burned rats. Mechanistically, ITF enhanced autophagy, reduces endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS), and alleviates the impaired PDI, ASCT2, and B0AT1 in IECs and BBMVs after burn injury likely through AMPK activation...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Margret I Moré, Yvan Vandenplas
Several properties of the probiotic medicinal yeast Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 contribute to its efficacy to prevent or treat diarrhoea. Besides immunologic effects, pathogen-binding and anti-toxin effects, as well as positive effects on the microbiota, S boulardii CNCM I-745 also has pronounced effects on digestive enzymes of the brush border membrane, known as trophic effects. The latter are the focus of this review. Literature has been reviewed after searching Medline and PMC databases. All relevant non-clinical and clinical studies are summarized...
2018: Clinical Medicine Insights. Gastroenterology
Hanen Boukedi, Slim Tounsi, Lobna Abdelkefi-Mesrati
The carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae, is an important agricultural pest that is susceptible to the Vip3(459) protein. The insecticidal activity, evaluated against this lepidopteran pest, displayed an LC 50 value of about 28 ng/cm 2 .The investigation of the mode of action of this B. thuringiensis protein demonstrated that the active form of this toxin bound to putative receptors in the BBMV of E. ceratoniae. Ligand blotting experiment proved that Vip3(459) specifically bound to two proteins of about 53 and 57 kDa, located on the midgut...
February 12, 2018: Acta Tropica
Anandan Dinesh-Kumar, Elangovan Srimaan, Muthiah Chellappandian, Prabhakaran Vasantha-Srinivasan, Sengodan Karthi, Annamalai Thanigaivel, Athirstam Ponsankar, Kanagaraj Muthu-Pandian Chanthini, Narayanan Shyam-Sundar, Mahendiran Annamalai, Kandaswamy Kalaivani, Wayne B Hunter, Sengottayan Senthil-Nathan
Toxicological screening of Swietenia mahagoni Jacq. (Meliaceae, West Indies Mahogany) against the lepidopteran pest Spodoptera litura was examined. Phytochemical screening through GC-MS analysis revealed nine peaks with prominent peak area % in Bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (31.5%) was observed. The larvae exposed to discriminating dosage of 100 ppm deliver significant mortality rate compare to other treatment concentrations. The lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90) was observed at the dosage of 31.04 and 86...
February 3, 2018: Chemosphere
Tom Walsh, Bill James, Maissa Chakroun, Juan Ferré, Sharon Downes
Transgenic cotton expressing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has been grown in Australia for over 20 years and resistance remains the biggest threat. The native moth, Helicoverpa punctigera is a significant pest of cotton. A genotype causing resistance to Cry1Ac in H. punctigera was isolated from the field and a homozygous line established. The phenotype is recessive and homozygous individuals possess 113 fold resistance to Cry1Ac. Individuals that carry Cry1Ac resistance genes are rare in Australia with a frequency of 0...
February 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ivan Sabolić, Mario Škarica, Marija Ljubojević, Davorka Breljak, Carol M Herak-Kramberger, Vladiana Crljen, Nikola Ljubešić
Rodent kidneys exhibit three isoforms of metallothioneins (MTs), MT1, MT2 and MT3, with poorly characterized localization along the nephron. Here we studied in adult male Wistar rats the renal expression of MTs mRNA by end-point RT-PCR and MT proteins by immunochemical methods The expression pattern of MT1 mRNA was cortex (CO)>outer stripe (OS)=inner stripe (IS)=inner medulla (IM), of MT2 mRNA was IM>CO>IS=OS, and of MT3 mRNA was IM>CO=OS=IM. MT1/2-antibody stained with heterogeneous intensity the cell cytoplasm and nuclei in proximal tubule (PT) and thin ascending limb, whereas MT3-antibody stained weakly the cell cytoplasm in various cortical tubules and strongly the nuclei in all nephron segments...
March 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Yiling Fu, Davorka Breljak, Akira Onishi, Falk Batz, Rohit Patel, Winnie Huang, Panai Song, Brent Freeman, Eric Mayoux, Hermann Koepsell, Naohiko Anzai, Sanjay K Nigam, Ivan Sabolić, Volker Vallon
The SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin (plasma protein binding ~88%) may reach its target in the brush border of the early proximal tubule by glomerular filtration and tubular secretion. Here we determined whether empagliflozin is secreted by renal tubules, and whether genetic knockout of the basolateral organic anion transporter Oat3 (-/-) affects its tubular secretion or glucosuric effect. Renal clearance studies in wild-type (WT) mice showed that tubular secretion accounted for 50-70% of empagliflozin urinary excretion...
February 7, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Masashi Miyaoka, Kazuhito Hatanaka, Masayuki Iwazaki, Naoya Nakamura
We report a rare case of pulmonary enteric adenocarcinoma (PEA) exhibiting a immunohistochemical feature of CK7/CK20 double-negativity by evaluating the transformation zone between PEA and conventional pulmonary adenocarcinoma (CPA). A 75-year-old man was found to have a mass, 40 mm in diameter, in the right lower lobe on chest computed tomography, and underwent right lower lobectomy. Histologically, the tumor was composed of a PEA and CPA component. The dominant PEA component had medium to large complex glands with tall columnar cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm and brush-border...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
Md Wasim Khan, Xianzhong Ding, Scott J Cotler, Michael Clarke, Brian T Layden
Hexokinase domain component 1 (HKDC1) is a recently discovered novel protein, which is being promoted as a putative fifth hexokinase. Although the exact role HKDC1 plays in physiology is still unclear, it has been shown to be important during pregnancy in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. In this study, we have comprehensively studied the expression pattern of HKDC1 in the human body. Using human tissue sample, immunohistochemistry imaging was performed. Our studies indicate that the tissues with highest HKDC1 expression were the brush border epithelium of the intestines, parts of the pancreas, and lung alveolar macrophages...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
Maria Maares, Claudia Keil, Susanne Thomsen, Dorothee Günzel, Burkhard Wiesner, Hajo Haase
Intestinal zinc resorption, in particular its regulation and mechanisms, are not yet fully understood. Suitable intestinal cell models are needed to investigate zinc uptake kinetics and the role of labile zinc in enterocytes in vitro. Therefore, a Caco-2 cell clone was produced, stably expressing the genetically encoded zinc biosensor eCalwy-5. The aim of the present study was to reassure the presence of characteristic enterocyte-specific properties in the Caco-2-eCalwy clone. Comparison of Caco-2-WT and Caco-2-eCalwy cells revealed only slight differences regarding subcellular localization of the tight junction protein occludin and alkaline phosphatase activity, which did not affect basic integrity of the intestinal barrier or the characteristic brush border membrane morphology...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Renato Bacchetta, Nadia Santo, Irene Valenti, Daniela Maggioni, Mariangela Longhi, Paolo Tremolada
The acute toxicity of three differently shaped carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) was studied on Daphnia magna, comparing the induced effects and looking for the toxic mechanisms. We used carbon nano-powder (CNP), with almost spherical primary particle morphology, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs), tubes of multi-graphitic sheets, and cubic-shaped carbon nanoparticles (CNCs), for which no ecotoxicological data are available so far. Daphnids were exposed to six suspensions (1, 2, 5, 10, 20 and 50 mg L-1) of each CNM, and then microscopically analyzed...
February 1, 2018: Nanotoxicology
Hanen Boukedi, Saoussen Ben Khedher, Lobna Abdelkefi-Mesrat, Jeroen Van Rie, Slim Tounsi
The cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis is known for causing serious damages to various crops. In this study, the susceptibility/tolerance of this larvae to four Vip3A (Vip3Aa, Vip3Ae, Vip3Ad and Vip3Af) toxins was investigated. UnlikeVip3Ad which showed no activity to S. littoralis, Vip3Aa, Vip3Ae and Vip3Af exhibited high toxicity to this larva with LC50 of 228.42 ng/cm2, 65.71 ng/cm2, and 388.90 ng/cm2, respectively. Activation of the 90 kDa Vip3A proteins by S. littoralis larvae juice generated four major bands of sizes 62, 45, 33 and 22 kDa...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Yuxiang Ma, Yasumasa Okazaki, Jonathan Glass
Iron transport across the intestinal epithelium is facilitated by the divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) on the brush border membrane (BBM). The fluorescent metal sensor calcein, which is hydrophilic, membrane-impermeable and quenched by chelation with iron, was used to test our hypothesis that intestinal iron absorption is through the endocytic processes and is involved in a pathway where BBM-derived vesicles fuse with basolateral membrane (BLM)-derived vesicles. To monitor the flux of iron via transcytosis, Caco-2 cells were employed as a polarized cell layer in Transwell chambers...
January 2018: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Ritesh Srivastava, Amie M Traylor, Changzhao Li, Wenguang Feng, Lingling Guo, Veena B Antony, Trenton R Schoeb, Anupam Agarwal, Mohammad Athar
Lewisite (2-chlorovinyldichloroarsine) is an organic and arsenical chemical warfare agent which was developed and weaponized during World Wars I/II. Stockpiles of lewisite still exist in many parts of the world and pose potential environmental and human health threat. Exposure to lewisite and similar chemicals causes intense cutaneous inflammatory response. However, morbidity and mortality in the exposed population is not only due to cutaneous damage but is also a result of systemic injury. Here, we provide data delineating the pathogenesis of acute kidney injury (AKI) following cutaneous exposure to lewisite and its analogue phenylarsine oxide (PAO) in a murine model...
January 17, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Zdzisław Świderski, Jordi Miquel, Samira Azzouz-Maache, Anne-Françoise Pétavy
Both the oncospheral tegument and the hook region membrane (HRM) of Echinococcus multilocularis hexacanths originate from a syncytial binucleate complex that appears in the early stage of morphogenesis and organogenesis of the hexacanth larva. The primordium of this binucleate complex forms a binucleate syncytial cap or "calotte" situated beneath the inner envelope at one pole of the developing embryo. During oncospheral differentiation, the binucleate perikaryon of the syncytial cap is sunk progressively deeper into the central part of the embryo, but remains always connected with the distal cytoplasm by a tendrillar cytoplasmic connection or bridge...
January 15, 2018: Parasitology Research
Shengyan Li, Zeyu Wang, Yiyao Zhou, Changhui Li, Guiping Wang, Hai Wang, Jie Zhang, Gemei Liang, Zhihong Lang
To improve the novel Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal gene cry2Ah1 toxicity, two mutants cry2Ah1-vp (V354VP) and cry2Ah1-sp (V354SP) were performed. SWISS-MODEL analysis showed two mutants had a longer loop located between β-4 and β-5 of domain II, resulting in higher binding affinity with brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) of Helicoverpa armigera comparing with Cry2Ah1. The cry2Ah1, cry2Ah1-vp, and cry2Ah1-sp were optimized codon usage according to plant codon bias, and named mcry2Ah1, mcry2Ah1-vp, and mcry2Ah1-sp...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jonas Franz, Jonas Grünebaum, Marcus Schäfer, Dennis Mulac, Florian Rehfeldt, Klaus Langer, Armin Kramer, Christoph Riethmüller
Symmetry is rarely found on cellular surfaces. An exception is the brush border of microvilli, which are essential for the proper function of transport epithelia. In a healthy intestine, they appear densely packed as a 2D-hexagonal lattice. For in vitro testing of intestinal transport the cell line Caco-2 has been established. As reported by electron microscopy, their microvilli arrange primarily in clusters developing secondly into a 2D-hexagonal lattice. Here, atomic force microscopy (AFM) was employed under aqueous buffer conditions on Caco-2 cells, which were cultivated on permeable filter membranes for optimum differentiation...
2018: PloS One
Victor Hugo Fuentes-Delgado, María Consolación Martínez-Saldaña, María Luisa Rodríguez-Vázquez, Miguel Arturo Reyes-Romero, José Luis Reyes-Sánchez, Fernando Jaramillo-Juárez
Little information is apparently available regarding the nephrotoxic effects induced by pesticides. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of low doses of methyl parathion (MP) on the structure and function of the kidney of male Wistar rats. A corn oil (vehicle) was administered to control rats, whereas treated rats received MP at 0.56 mg/kg orally (1/25 of LD50), every third day, for 8 weeks. At the end of each week following MP exposure, creatinine and glucose levels were measured in plasma, while glucose, inorganic phosphate, total proteins, albumin, and activity of γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) were determined in urine...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Janka Melicherová, Lada Hofmannová, Andrea Valigurová
The need for an effective treatment against cryptosporidiosis has triggered studies in the search for a working in vitro model. The peculiar niche of cryptosporidia at the brush border of host epithelial cells has been the subject of extensive debates. Despite extensive research on the invasion process, it remains enigmatic whether cryptosporidian host-parasite interactions result from an active invasion process or through encapsulation. We used HCT-8 and HT-29 cell lines for in vitro cultivation of the gastric parasite Cryptosporidium proliferans strain TS03...
December 15, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
Wafa Jallouli, Hanen Boukadi, Sameh Sellami, Fakher Frikha, Lobna Abdelkefi-Mesrati, Slim Tounsi
The entomopathogenic Photorhabdus luminescens TT01 is a promoting bacterium that controls effectively many insect pests. Indeed, it exhibited a mortality rate of 32.36% against the first instar larvae of the turnip moth Agrotis segetum, when it was used at a concentration of 5 × 107 cells/ml but no toxicity against the second instar larvae in the same condition. P. luminescens TT01 oral toxicity is associated to septicaemia since cells fraction exhibited the highest mortality rate of 34%. In order to enhance P...
January 2, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
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