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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876791/an-amino-acid-based-oral-rehydration-solution-aa-ors-enhanced-intestinal-epithelial-proliferation-in-mice-exposed-to-radiation
#1
Liangjie Yin, Reshu Gupta, Lauren Vaught, Astrid Grosche, Paul Okunieff, Sadasivan Vidyasagar
Destruction of clonogenic cells in the crypt following irradiation are thought to cause altered gastrointestinal function. Previously, we found that an amino acid-based oral rehydration solution (AA-ORS) improved gastrointestinal function in irradiated mice. However, the exact mechanisms were unknown. Electrophysiology, immunohistochemistry, qPCR, and Western blot analysis were used to determine that AA-ORS increased proliferation, maturation, and differentiation and improved electrolyte and nutrient absorption in irradiated mice...
November 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865621/menaquinone-4-vitamin-k2-up-regulates-expression-of-human-intestinal-alkaline-phosphatase-in-caco-2-cells
#2
Seiko Noda, Asako Yamada, Rieko Tanabe, Kanae Nakaoka, Takayuki Hosoi, Masae Goseki-Sone
Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) hydrolyzes several monophosphate esters into inorganic acid and alcohol. In humans, 4 kinds of ALP isozymes have been identified: tissue-nonspecific ALP, intestinal ALP, placental ALP, and germ cell ALP. Intestinal ALP is expressed at a high concentration in the brush border membrane of intestinal epithelial cells and is known to be affected by several kinds of nutrients, such as lipids, but the physiological function of intestinal ALP has remained elusive. Vitamin K is an essential cofactor for the posttranslational carboxylation of glutamate residues into γ-carboxy glutamate...
October 14, 2016: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864738/biochemical-and-histological-biomarkers-in-the-midgut-of-apis-mellifera-from-polluted-environment-at-beheira-governorate-egypt
#3
Ahmed M Abu El-Saad, Dalia A Kheirallah, Lamia M El-Samad
The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of organophosphorus (OP) pollutants on oxidative stress and ultrastructural biomarkers in the midgut of the honeybee Apis mellifera collected from three locations that differ in their extent of spraying load with OP insecticides: a weakly anthropised rural site, Bolin which is considered as a reference site; moderately spraying site, El Kaza; and a strongly anthropised urban site, Tiba with a long history of pesticide use. Results showed that high concentrations of chlorpyrifos, malathion, diazinon, chlorpyrifos-methyl, and pirimiphos-methyl were detected in midgut at locations with extensive pesticide spraying...
November 18, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815127/larvicidal-activity-of-essential-oil-of-peumus-boldus-molina-and-its-ascaridole-enriched-fraction-against-culex-quinquefasciatus
#4
Débora Silva Borges de Castro, Denise Brentan da Silva, Jacqueline Domingues Tibúrcio, Marcos Eduardo Guerra Sobral, Vany Ferraz, Alex Gutterres Taranto, João Máximo de Siqueira, Stênio Nunes Alves
Culex quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823), known as the domestic mosquito, is a common and abundant species throughout the world, and a cosmopolitan species. The adults of this mosquito are important in terms of public and animal health since they display adaptability to different hosts. In humans, they are responsible for the transmission of various diseases. One manner of control of this vector is the use of insecticidal or larvicidal products, which may have the drawback of toxicity to mammals and can be harmful to the environment...
November 1, 2016: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802168/control-of-apico-basal-epithelial-polarity-by-the-microtubule-minus-end-binding-protein-camsap3-and-spectraplakin-acf7
#5
Ivar Noordstra, Qingyang Liu, Wilco Nijenhuis, Shasha Hua, Kai Jiang, Matthijs Baars, Sanne Remmelzwaal, Maud Martin, Lukas C Kapitein, Anna Akhmanova
The microtubule cytoskeleton regulates cell polarity by spatially organizing membrane trafficking and signaling processes. In epithelial cells, microtubules form parallel arrays aligned along the apico-basal axis, and recent work has demonstrated that the members of CAMSAP/Patronin family control apical tethering of microtubule minus ends. Here, we show that in mammalian intestinal epithelial cells, the spectraplakin ACF7 (also known as MACF1) specifically binds to CAMSAP3 and is required for the apical localization of CAMSAP3-decorated microtubule minus ends...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786153/diplopods-as-soil-bioindicators-of-toxicity-after-application-of-residues-from-sewage-treatment-plants-and-ethanol-industry
#6
Cintya A Christofoletti, Annelise Francisco, Janaína Pedro-Escher, Vinícius D Gastaldi, Carmem S Fontanetti
Residues like sewage sludge and vinasse have been reused as agricultural fertilizers, but they also present a potential to contaminate soils. Diplopods have been considered excellent bioindicators of soil contamination. In the present study, Rhinocricus padbergi were used to assess toxicity in samples of sewage sludge, biosolids, and sugarcane vinasse. The behavioral analysis, mortality rate, and histological, histochemical, and ultrastructural analyses of the midgut of diplopods were the parameters evaluated...
October 2016: Microscopy and Microanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783286/structural-and-functional-analysis-of-the-small-intestine-in-rats-after-six-month-long-exposure-to-multiwalled-carbon-nanotubes
#7
N N Belyaeva, L P Sycheva, O N Savostikova
Structural and functional analysis of the small intestinal villi in outbred rats was performed after treatment with multiwalled carbon nanotube suspension in comparison with the effects of fine charcoal suspension. Chronic (6 months) exposure to nanotubes in a concentration of 0.2 mg/liter and, particularly, 0.5 mg/liter induced significant changes in the small intestine manifested in a decrease in the number of villi without changes in the brush border integrity, increase in the number of destructed villi, and appearance of villi with apical necrosis...
October 26, 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773781/the-na-d-glucose-cotransporters-sglt1-and-sglt2-are-targets-for-the-treatment-of-diabetes-and-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Hermann Koepsell
Orally applied SGLT2 (SLC5A2) inhibitors that enter the blood and decrease renal reabsorption of glucose have been approved as antidiabetic drugs. They decrease blood glucose levels, slightly reduce body weight and blood pressure, and decrease the risk for diabetic nephropathy. The SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin has been shown to reduce the risk of severe cardiac failure. This review summarizes knowledge about the functions of SGLT2 and the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and diabetic follow-up diseases...
October 20, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771052/effects-of-2-polyoxyethylene-alkyl-ethers-on-the-function-of-intestinal-p-glycoprotein-and-their-inhibitory-mechanisms
#9
Wanting Zhao, Tammam Alama, Kosuke Kusamori, Hidemasa Katsumi, Toshiyasu Sakane, Akira Yamamoto
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of polyoxyethylene 10-oleyl ether and polyoxyethylene 9-lauryl ether, 2 polyoxyethylene alkyl ethers, on the transport and absorption of 2 P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrates, quinidine and prednisolone, across the intestinal membrane and to elucidate the inhibitory mechanisms of intestinal P-gp by these polyoxyethylene alkyl ethers. For in vitro studies, we used a diffusion chamber method and the Caco-2 cell model. An in situ closed-loop method was used for in vivo study...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760765/deletion-of-protein-kinase-c-%C3%AE%C2%B5-attenuates-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-ameliorates-ischemic-renal-injury
#10
Grazyna Nowak, Diana Takacsova Bakajsova, Judit Megyesi
Previously, we documented that activation of protein kinase C-ε (PKC-ε) mediates mitochondrial dysfunction in cultured renal proximal tubule cells (RPTC). This study tested whether deletion of the PKC-ε decreases dysfunction of renal cortical mitochondria and improves kidney function after renal ischemia. PKC-ε levels in mitochondria of ischemic kidneys increased 24h after ischemia. Complex I- and complex II-coupled state 3 respirations were reduced 44% and 27%, respectively, in wild-type (WT) but unchanged and increased in PKC-ε-deficient (KO) mice after ischemia...
October 19, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756652/insecticidal-spectrum-and-mode-of-action-of-the-bacillus-thuringiensis-vip3ca-insecticidal-protein
#11
Joaquín Gomis-Cebolla, Iñigo Ruiz de Escudero, Natalia Mara Vera-Velasco, Patricia Hernández-Martínez, Carmen Sara Hernández-Rodríguez, Tomás Ceballos, Leopoldo Palma, Baltasar Escriche, Primitivo Caballero, Juan Ferré
The Vip3Ca protein, discovered in a screening of Spanish collections of Bacillus thuringiensis, was known to be toxic to Chrysodeixis chalcites, Mamestra brassicae and Trichoplusia ni. In the present study, its activity has been tested with additional insect species and we found that Cydia pomonella is moderately susceptible to this protein. Vip3Ca (of approximately 90 kDa) was processed to an approximately 70 kDa protein when incubated with midgut juice in all tested species. The kinetics of proteolysis correlated with the susceptibility of the insect species to Vip3Ca...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753900/os-01-09-markers-of-early-renal-impairment-in-prehypertension
#12
Ana Vrdoljak, Vanja Ivković, Sandra Karanović, Živka Dika, Ivana Vuković, Jelena Kos, Mario Laganović, Tajana Željković Vrkić, Margareta Fištrek Prlić, Ivan Pećin, Bojan Jelaković
OBJECTIVE: It was observed that glomerular hyperfiltration (GHF) is associated with progression of kidney disease in diabetics, patients in stage 1 hypertension (HT), and we found previously that eGFR decreased faster also in prehypertensives (PHT) with GHF. Here we analyzed whether GHF in PHT is associated with other biomarkers of early renal impairment. DESIGN AND METHOD: From 954 subjects enrolled in ENAH follow-up study, 371(137 m;mean age = 46years) were eligible for further analysis:100 with optimal,72 with normal BP,70 with PHT(high normal BP),and 129 with newly diagnosed untreated HT...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749612/congenital-sucrase-isomaltase-deficiency-a-novel-compound-heterozygous-mutation-causing-aberrant-protein-localization
#13
Yael Haberman, Ayelet Di Segni, Nurit Loberman-Nachum, Ortal Barel, Vered Kunik, Eran Eyal, Nitzan Kol, Goni Hout-Siloni, Brigitte Kochavi, Camila Avivi, Michael Schvimer, Gideon Rechavi, Yair Anikster, Iris Barshack, Batia Weiss
OBJECTIVES: Congenital chronic diarrhea (CCD) is a group of inherited enteropathies presenting in early life and requiring parenteral nutrition. In most cases, genetics may be the key for precise diagnosis. We present an infant girl with CCD that resolved after introduction of fructose-based formula but had no identified mutation in the SLC5A1 gene. Using whole exome sequencing (WES) we identified other mutations that better dictated dietary adjustments. METHODS: WES of the patient and her parents was performed...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719884/effect-of-molecular-weight-on-the-transepithelial-transport-and-peptidase-degradation-of-casein-derived-peptides-by-using-caco-2-cell-model
#14
Bo Wang, Bo Li
The transepithelial transport routes of casein-derived peptides with different molecular weights (MWs) were investigated using a Caco-2 cell monolayer. The peptidase hydrolysis during transport was also studied. The results indicate that the paracellular route was the main pathway for F1 (1600-1300Da) and F2 (1000-500Da), and the bioavailabilities were 10.66% and 9.54%, respectively. Peptidase hydrolysis results reveal that brush-border peptidases (BBPs) as well as some other peptidases were responsible for peptide degradation in the paracellular route...
March 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695788/cloning-of-oligopeptide-transport-carrier-pept1-and-comparative-analysis-of-pept1-messenger-ribonucleic-acid-expression-in-response-to-dietary-nitrogen-levels-in-yak-and-indigenous-cattle-on-the-qinghai-tibetan-plateau
#15
H C Wang, F Y Shi, M J Hou, X Y Fu, R J Long
The gastrointestinal lumen can directly absorb all di- and tripeptide protein degradation products, and oligopeptide absorption depends on the specific peptide transport carriers, which are located in gastrointestinal epithelial cells on the brush border membrane. Yak () use N more efficiently than cattle do, which implies that yak have a specific mechanism of nonprotein utilization including a peptide absorption mechanism. However, this mechanism has not been clarified. Our objective was to explore whether yak possess any adaptive mechanisms of peptide absorption to survive in the harsh foraging environment of the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau...
August 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681177/n-glycosylation-critically-regulates-function-of-oxalate-transporter-slc26a6
#16
R Brent Thomson, Claire L Thomson, Peter S Aronson
The brush border Cl(-)-oxalate exchanger SLC26A6 plays an essential role in mediating intestinal secretion of oxalate and is crucial for the maintenance of oxalate homeostasis and the prevention of hyperoxaluria and calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. Previous in vitro studies have suggested that SLC26A6 is heavily N-glycosylated. N-linked glycosylation is known to critically affect folding, trafficking, and function in a wide variety of integral membrane proteins and could therefore potentially have a critical impact on SLC26A6 function and subsequent oxalate homeostasis...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677532/doublecortin-like-kinase-1-positive-enterocyte-a-new-cell-type-in-human-intestine
#17
Joni Leppänen, Olli Helminen, Heikki Huhta, Joonas H Kauppila, Ilkka Miinalainen, Veli-Pekka Ronkainen, Juha Saarnio, Petri P Lehenkari, Tuomo J Karttunen
Doublecortin-like kinase 1 (DCLK1) is a microtubule-associated kinase. In murine intestine, DCLK1 marks tuft cells with characteristic microvilli, features of neuroendocrine cells and also quiescent stem cell-like properties. The occurrence and pathological role of DCLK1-positive cells in human intestinal mucosa is unknown. We analysed DCLK1 expression in healthy duodenal, jejunal and colorectal mucosa samples (n = 35), and in duodenal specimens from patients with coeliac disease (n = 20). The samples were immunohistochemically double-stained with DCLK1, and synaptophysin, chromogranin A and Ki-67...
November 2016: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666969/myosin-7b-promotes-distal-tip-localization-of-the-intermicrovillar-adhesion-complex
#18
Meredith L Weck, Scott W Crawley, Colin R Stone, Matthew J Tyska
Transporting epithelial cells interact with the luminal environment using a tightly packed array of microvilli known as the brush border. During intestinal epithelial differentiation, microvillar packing and organization are driven by cadherin-dependent adhesion complexes that localize to the distal tips of microvilli, where they drive physical interactions between neighboring protrusions. Although enrichment of the "intermicrovillar adhesion complex" (IMAC) at distal tips is required for proper function, the mechanism driving tip accumulation of these factors remains unclear...
October 24, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664775/the-proton-coupled-folate-transporter-pcft-slc46a1-and-the-syndrome-of-systemic-and-cerebral-folate-deficiency-of-infancy-hereditary-folate-malabsorption
#19
Rongbao Zhao, Srinivas Aluri, I David Goldman
The proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT-SLC46A1) is the mechanism by which folates are absorbed across the brush-border membrane of the small intestine. The transporter is also expressed in the choroid plexus and is required for transport of folates into the cerebrospinal fluid. Loss of PCFT function, as occurs in the autosomal recessive disorder "hereditary folate malabsorption" (HFM), results in a syndrome characterized by severe systemic and cerebral folate deficiency. Folate-receptor alpha (FRα) is expressed in the choroid plexus, and loss of function of this protein, as also occurs in an autosomal recessive disorder, results solely in "cerebral folate deficiency" (CFD), the designation for this disorder...
September 21, 2016: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664588/influence-of-glucagon-like-peptide-2-on-energy-homeostasis
#20
REVIEW
Sara Baldassano, Antonella Amato, Flavia Mulè
Glucagon like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a gastrointestinal hormone released from enteroendocrine L-type cells together with glucagon like peptide-1 in response to dietary nutrients. GLP-2 acts through a specific receptor, the GLP-2 receptor, mainly located in the gut and in the brain. Classically, GLP-2 is considered a trophic hormone involved in the maintenance of intestinal epithelial morphology and function. This role has been targeted for therapies promoting repair and adaptive growth of the intestinal mucosa...
December 2016: Peptides
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