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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512643/diagnostic-and-research-aspects-of-small-intestinal-disaccharidases-in-coeliac-disease
#1
REVIEW
Tanja Šuligoj, Paul J Ciclitira, Borut Božič
Disaccharidases (DS) are brush border enzymes embedded in the microvillous membrane of small intestinal enterocytes. In untreated coeliac disease (CD), a general decrease of DS activities is seen. This manuscript reviews different aspects of DS activities in CD: their utility in the diagnosis and their application to in vitro toxicity testing. The latter has never been established in CD research. However, with the recent advances in small intestinal organoid techniques, DS might be employed as a biomarker for in vitro studies...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512299/transgenic-bt-rice-lines-producing-cry1ac-cry2aa-or-cry1ca-have-no-detrimental-effects-on-brown-planthopper-and-pond-wolf-spider
#2
Lin Niu, Amani Mannakkara, Lin Qiu, Xiaoping Wang, Hongxia Hua, Chaoliang Lei, Juan Luis Jurat-Fuentes, Weihua Ma
Transgenic rice expressing cry genes from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt rice) is highly resistant to lepidopteran pests. The brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens) is the main non-target sap-sucking insect pest of Bt transgenic rice. The pond wolf spider (PWS, Pardosa pseudoannulata) is one of the most dominant predators of BPH in rice fields. Consequently, the safety evaluation of Bt rice on BPH and PWS should be conducted before commercialization. In the current study, two experiments were performed to assess the potential ecological effects of Bt rice on BPH and PWS: (1) a tritrophic experiment to evaluate the transmission of Cry1Ac, Cry2Aa and Cry1Ca protein in the food chain; and (2) binding assays of Cry1Ac, Cry2Aa and Cry1Ca to midgut brush border membrane proteins from BPH and PWS...
May 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493993/mechanism-of-down-regulation-of-na-h-exchanger-2-in-experimental-colitis
#3
Amal Ali Soleiman, Farook Thameem, Islam Khan
BACKGROUND: The Na-H exchanger [NHE] performs an electroneutral uptake of NaCl and water from the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract. There are several distinct NHE isoforms, some of which show an altered expression in the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). In this study, we examined a role of NHE-2 in experimental colitis. METHODS: Colitis was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by intra-rectal administration of trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS). On day 6 post-TNBS, the animals were sacrificed, colonic and ileal segments were taken out, cleaned with phosphate buffered saline and used in this study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471235/mechanism-of-grape-seeds-extract-protection-against-paracetamol-renal-cortical-damage-in-male-albino-rats
#4
S M N Abdel-Hafez, R A Rifaai, W Y Abd Elzaher
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the possible protective role of grape seeds extract (GSE) in ameliorating the toxic effects of paracetamol overdose on the rat renal cortical tissue. BACKGROUND: Paracetamol is one of the widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Unfortunately, it was reported as the most common cause of toxic ingestion in the world. Grape seeds extract (GSE) is known to have a strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties...
2017: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462379/prolonged-absence-of-mechanoluminal-stimulation-in-human-intestine-alters-the-transcriptome-and-intestinal-stem-cell-niche
#5
Minna M Wieck, Christopher R Schlieve, Matthew E Thornton, Kathryn L Fowler, Mubina Isani, Christa N Grant, Ashley E Hilton, Xiaogang Hou, Brendan H Grubbs, Mark R Frey, Tracy C Grikscheit
BACKGROUND & AIMS: For patients with short-bowel syndrome, intestinal adaptation is required to achieve enteral independence. Although adaptation has been studied extensively in animal models, little is known about this process in human intestine. We hypothesized that analysis of matched specimens with and without luminal flow could identify new potential therapeutic pathways. METHODS: Fifteen paired human ileum samples were collected from children aged 2-20 months during ileostomy-reversal surgery after short-segment intestinal resection and diversion...
May 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424943/intestinal-alkaline-phosphatase-attenuates-alcohol-induced-hepatosteatosis-in-mice
#6
Sulaiman R Hamarneh, Byeong-Moo Kim, Kanakaraju Kaliannan, Sara A Morrison, Tyler J Tantillo, Qingsong Tao, Mussa M Rafat Mohamed, Juan M Ramirez, Aaron Karas, Wei Liu, Dong Hu, Abeba Teshager, Sarah Shireen Gul, Konstantinos P Economopoulos, Atul K Bhan, Madhu S Malo, Michael Y Choi, Richard A Hodin
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Bacterially derived factors from the gut play a major role in the activation of inflammatory pathways in the liver and in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. The intestinal brush-border enzyme intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) detoxifies a variety of bacterial pro-inflammatory factors and also functions to preserve gut barrier function. The aim of this study was to investigate whether oral IAP supplementation could protect against alcohol-induced liver disease...
April 19, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419670/sglt2-and-sglt1-renal-expression-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#7
Anna Solini, Chiara Rossi, Chiara Maria Mazzanti, Agnese Proietti, Hermann Koepsell, Ele Ferrannini
AIMS: The notion of an increased expression of SGLT2 in the kidney of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is based on a single ex vivo study of tubular cells harvested from the urine. DESIGN AND METHODS: We measured SGLT2 and SGLT1 expression in unaffected renal tissue from 19 T2DM patients and 20 age- and eGFR-matched nondiabetic subjects (CT) undergoing unilateral nephrectomy. Expression of SGLT2 and SGLT1 - and their cognate basolateral transporters GLUT2 and GLUT1 - was quantified by real-time and digital PCR; an affinity-purified antibody against human SGLT2 was used localize SGLT2 by immunohistochemistry...
April 17, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419499/periodontitis-changes-renal-structures-by-oxidative-stress-and-lipid-peroxidation
#8
Luiz Felipe de Carvalho França, Any Carolina Cardoso Guimarães Vasconcelos, Felipe Rodolfo Pereira da Silva, Even Herlany Pereira Alves, Joaquina Dos Santos Carvalho, David Di Lenardo, Luan Kelves Miranda de Souza, André Luiz Dos Reis Barbosa, Jand-Venes Rolim Medeiros, Jefferson Soares de Oliveira, Daniel Fernando Pereira Vasconcelos
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether experimental periodontitis cause changes to the renal tissues and imbalance in oxidative stress in kidneys. METHODS: Twenty-two female Wistar rats were separated into two groups: control and periodontitis. We assessed the following parameters: gingival bleeding index (GBI), tooth mobility, gum malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, probing pocket depth (PPD), alveolar bone loss (ABL) for periodontal tissues; histomorphometric measures associated with renal corpuscle and histopathological aspects (evaluation of brush border) for kidneys; as also blood and urine biomarkers...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407399/abnormal-rab11-rab8-vesicles-cluster-in-enterocytes-of-patients-with-microvillus-inclusion-disease
#9
Georg F Vogel, Andreas R Janecke, Iris M Krainer, Karin Gutleben, Barbara Witting, Sally G Mitton, Sahar Mansour, Antje Ballauff, Joseph T Roland, Amy C Engevik, Ernest Cutz, Thomas Müller, James R Goldenring, Lukas A Huber, Michael W Hess
Microvillus Inclusion Disease (MVID) is a congenital enteropathy characterized by accumulation of vesiculo-tubular endomembranes in the subapical cytoplasm of enterocytes, historically termed "secretory granules". However, neither their identity nor pathophysiological significance is well defined. Using immunoelectron microscopy and tomography we studied biopsies from MVID patients (3x Myosin 5b mutations, 1x Syntaxin3 mutation) and compared them to controls and genome-edited CaCo2 cell models, harboring relevant mutations...
April 13, 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398070/psychosocial-factors-and-oral-health-practices-of-preschool-aged-children-a-qualitative-study-with-hispanic-mothers
#10
T L Finlayson, N Y Beltran, K Becerra
OBJECTIVE: This qualitative study sought to gain an in-depth understanding of Hispanic mother's parenting experiences and perceptions about select psychosocial factors. How psychosocial factors influence mothers' engagement in recommended oral health-related behaviors for their preschool-aged children (3-5 years) was explored. Psychosocial resources and barriers explored included maternal knowledge about children's oral health, beliefs such as perceived self-efficacy and health locus of control, and parenting experience and stress...
April 11, 2017: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389549/identification-of-holotrichia-oblita-midgut-proteins-that-bind-to-cry8-like-toxin-from-bacillus-thuringiensis-and-assembling-of-h-oblita-midgut-tissue-transcriptome
#11
Jian Jiang, Ying Huang, Changlong Shu, Mario Soberón, Alejandra Bravo, Chunqing Liu, Fuping Song, Jinsheng Lai, Jie Zhang
The Bacillus thuringiensis strain HBF-18 (CGMCC2070), containing two cry genes (cry8-like and cry8Ga), is toxic to Holotrichia oblita larvae. Both Cry8-like and Cry8Ga proteins are active against this insect pest, while Cry8-like is the more toxic protein. To analyze the binding characteristics of Cry8-like and Cry8Ga proteins to brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) in H. oblita larvae, binding assays were conducted with a fluorescent DyLight488-labeled Cry8-like toxin. Results of binding saturation assays demonstrated that Cry8-like binds specifically to binding sites on BBMV from H...
April 7, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384248/acute-oral-dose-of-sodium-nitrite-induces-redox-imbalance-dna-damage-metabolic-and-histological-changes-in-rat-intestine
#12
Fariheen Aisha Ansari, Shaikh Nisar Ali, Hussain Arif, Aijaz Ahmed Khan, Riaz Mahmood
Industrialization and unchecked use of nitrate/nitrite salts for various purposes has increased human exposure to high levels of sodium nitrite (NaNO2) which can act as a pro-oxidant and pro-carcinogen. Oral exposure makes the gastrointestinal tract particularly susceptible to nitrite toxicity. In this work, the effect of administration of a single acute oral dose of NaNO2 on rat intestine was studied. Animals were randomly divided into four groups and given single doses of 20, 40, 60 and 75 mg NaNO2/kg body weight...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368302/mtase-domain-of-dendrolimus-punctatus-cypovirus-vp3-mediates-virion-attachment-and-interacts-with-host-alp-protein
#13
Lan Su, Congrui Xu, Chuangang Cheng, Chengfeng Lei, Xiulian Sun
Dendrolimus punctatus cypovirus (DpCPV) is an important pathogen of D. punctatus, but little is known about the mechanisms of DpCPV infection. Here, we investigated the effects of VP3, VP4 and VP5 structural proteins on the viral invasion. Both the C-terminal of VP3 (methyltransferase (MTase) domain) and VP4 (A-spike) bound to Spodoptera exigua midgut brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) in a dose-dependent manner, and the binding was inhibited by purified DpCPV virions. Importantly, anti-MTase and anti-VP4 antibodies inhibited viral binding to S...
April 1, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365118/effect-of-increasing-the-proportion-of-dietary-concentrate-on-gastrointestinal-tract-measurements-and-brush-border-enzyme-activity-in-holstein-steers
#14
P Górka, B L Schurmann, M E Walpole, A Błońska, S Li, J C Plaizier, Z M Kowalski, G B Penner
The aim of this study was to determine the time course for adaptation of the reticulo-rumen, omasum, abomasum, and small intestine in response to an abrupt increase in the proportion of grain in the diet. Adaptive responses include tissue and digesta mass, small intestinal length, and brush border enzyme activity in the duodenum, proximal jejunum, and ileum. Twenty-five Holstein steers (213 ± 23 kg; 5 to 7 mo of age) were blocked by body weight, and within block were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatments: the control diet (CTRL; 92% chopped grass hay and 8% mineral and vitamin supplement on a dry matter basis) or a moderate grain diet (MGD; 50% chopped grass hay, 42% rolled barley grain, and 8% mineral and vitamin supplement) that was fed for 3 (MGD3), 7 (MGD7), 14 (MGD14), or 21 d (MGD21)...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365112/a-mechanistic-model-of-small-intestinal-starch-digestion-and-glucose-uptake-in-the-cow
#15
J A N Mills, J France, J L Ellis, L A Crompton, A Bannink, M D Hanigan, J Dijkstra
The high contribution of postruminal starch digestion (up to 50%) to total-tract starch digestion on energy-dense, starch-rich diets demands that limitations to small intestinal starch digestion be identified. A mechanistic model of the small intestine was described and evaluated with regard to its ability to simulate observations from abomasal carbohydrate infusions in the dairy cow. The 7 state variables represent starch, oligosaccharide, glucose, and pancreatic amylase in the intestinal lumen, oligosaccharide and glucose in the unstirred water layer at the intestinal wall, and intracellular glucose of the enterocyte...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364809/influence-of-ephestia-kuehniella-stage-larvae-on-the-potency-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-cry1aa-delta-endotoxin
#16
Nouha Abdelmalek, Sameh Sellami, Mireille Kallassy-Awad, Molka Feki Tounsi, Abdelkrim Mebarkia, Slim Tounsi, Souad Rouis
The economically important crop pest Ephestia kuehniella was tested at two stages of larval development for susceptibility to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Aa toxin. Bioassays showed that toxicity decreased during the development of larvae stage. In fact, Cry1Aa toxins from BNS3-Cry(-) (pHT-cry1Aa) showed low toxicity against the first-instar larvae (L1) with a LC50 value of about 421.02μg/g of diet and was not toxic against the fifth-instar (L5), comparing to the BLB1 toxins used as positive control which represent a LC50 value of about 56...
April 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363958/toxicity-and-binding-studies-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-cry1ac-cry1f-cry1c-and-cry2a-proteins-in-the-soybean-pests-anticarsia-gemmatalis-and-chrysodeixis-pseudoplusia-includens
#17
Yolanda Bel, Joel J Sheets, Sek Yee Tan, Kenneth E Narva, Baltasar Escriche
Anticarsia gemmatalis (velvetbean caterpillar) and Chrysodeixis includens (soybean looper, formerly named Pseudoplusia includens) are two important defoliating insects of soybean. Both lepidopteran pests are controlled mainly with synthetic insecticides. Alternative control strategies such as biopesticides based on the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins or transgenic plants expressing Bt toxins can be used and are increasingly being adopted. Studies on the insect susceptibility and mode of action of the different Bt toxins are crucial to determine management strategies to control the pests and to delay outbreaks of insect resistance...
March 31, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360852/self-organized-behavior-generation-for-musculoskeletal-robots
#18
Ralf Der, Georg Martius
With the accelerated development of robot technologies, control becomes one of the central themes of research. In traditional approaches, the controller, by its internal functionality, finds appropriate actions on the basis of specific objectives for the task at hand. While very successful in many applications, self-organized control schemes seem to be favored in large complex systems with unknown dynamics or which are difficult to model. Reasons are the expected scalability, robustness, and resilience of self-organizing systems...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348063/long-term-endothelin-a-receptor-antagonism-provides-robust-renal-protection-in-humanized-sickle-cell-disease-mice
#19
Malgorzata Kasztan, Brandon M Fox, Joshua S Speed, Carmen De Miguel, Eman Y Gohar, Tim M Townes, Abdullah Kutlar, Jennifer S Pollock, David M Pollock
Sickle cell disease (SCD)-associated nephropathy is a major source of morbidity and mortality in patients because of the lack of efficacious treatments targeting renal manifestations of the disease. Here, we describe a long-term treatment strategy with the selective endothelin-A receptor (ETA) antagonist, ambrisentan, designed to interfere with the development of nephropathy in a humanized mouse model of SCD. Ambrisentan preserved GFR at the level of nondisease controls and prevented the development of proteinuria, albuminuria, and nephrinuria...
March 27, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335485/intra-amniotic-administration-of-raffinose-and-stachyose-affects-the-intestinal-brush-border-functionality-and-alters-gut-microflora-populations
#20
Sarina Pacifici, Jaehong Song, Cathy Zhang, Qiaoye Wang, Raymond P Glahn, Nikolai Kolba, Elad Tako
This study investigates the effectiveness of two types of prebiotics-stachyose and raffinose-which are present in staple food crops that are widely consumed in regions where dietary Fe deficiency is a health concern. The hypothesis is that these prebiotics will improve Fe status, intestinal functionality, and increase health-promoting bacterial populations in vivo (Gallus gallus). By using the intra-amniotic administration procedure, prebiotic treatment solutions were injected in ovo (day 17 of embryonic incubation) with varying concentrations of a 1...
March 19, 2017: Nutrients
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