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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723063/placenta-specific-1-regulates-oocyte-meiosis-and-fertilization-through-furin
#1
Li-Ya Shi, Yang Ma, Gang-Yi Zhu, Jin-Wei Liu, Chun-Xiang Zhou, Liang-Jian Chen, Yang Wang, Rui-Chao Li, Zhi-Xia Yang, Dong Zhang
Placenta-specific 1 (Plac1) has been found to be essential for placentation, and abnormal Plac1 expression and distribution is highly correlated with preeclampsia and implantation failure; however, its function in mammalian oocytes has not been elucidated. Here, we report that Plac1 was more prominent in mouse oocytes and enriched at the membrane region throughout meiosis. On the one hand, Plac1 knockdown severely disrupted microvillus organization; however, on the other hand, Plac1 significantly decreased oocyte maturation and increased aneuploidy, consequently disrupting normal fertilization...
May 3, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590640/intestinal-epithelial-cell-polarity-defects-in-disease-lessons-from-microvillus-inclusion-disease
#2
REVIEW
Kerstin Schneeberger, Sabrina Roth, Edward E S Nieuwenhuis, Sabine Middendorp
The intestinal epithelium is a highly organized tissue. The establishment of epithelial cell polarity, with distinct apical and basolateral plasma membrane domains, is pivotal for both barrier formation and for the uptake and vectorial transport of nutrients. The establishment of cell polarity requires a specialized subcellular machinery to transport and recycle proteins to their appropriate location. In order to understand and treat polarity-associated diseases, it is necessary to understand epithelial cell-specific trafficking mechanisms...
February 13, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569194/hematological-and-histopathological-effects-of-silver-nanoparticles-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-how-about-increase-of-salinity
#3
Hamid Salari Joo, Mohammad Reza Kalbassi, Seyed Ali Johari
Hematological and histopathological toxicities of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) to rainbow trout were assessed in three water salinities: 0.4 ppt (low salinity), 6 ± 0.3 ppt (moderate salinity), and 12 ± 0.2 ppt (high salinity). The concentrations of Ag-NPs in the low salinity were 0.032, 0.1, 0.32, and 1 ppm, and in the moderate and high salinities were 3.2, 10, 32, and 100 ppm. The results indicated a concentration-dependently increased (thrombocyte, monocyte, and large lymphocyte) and decreased (neutrophil and small lymphocyte) white blood cell count in the Ag-NP treatments in the low salinity than the other ones in the moderate and high salinities...
March 22, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568513/assaying-sensory-ciliopathies-using-calcium-biosensor-expression-in-zebrafish-ciliated-olfactory-neurons
#4
Judith G M Bergboer, Cameron Wyatt, Christina Austin-Tse, Emre Yaksi, Iain A Drummond
Background: Primary cilia mediate signal transduction by acting as an organizing scaffold for receptors, signalling proteins and ion channels. Ciliated olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) organize olfactory receptors and ion channels on cilia and generate a calcium influx as a primary signal in odourant detection. In the zebrafish olfactory placode, ciliated OSNs and microvillus OSNs constitute the major OSN cell types with distinct odourant sensitivity. Methods: Using transgenic expression of the calcium biosensor GCaMP5 in OSNs, we analysed sensory cilia-dependent odour responses in live zebrafish, at individual cell resolution...
2018: Cilia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555369/occludin-induces-microvillus-formation-via-phosphorylation-of-ezrin-in-a-mouse-hepatic-cell-line
#5
Masaki Murata, Makoto Osanai, Akira Takasawa, Kumi Takasawa, Tomoyuki Aoyama, Yuka Kawada, Akihiro Yamamoto, Yusuke Ono, Yutaro Hiratsuka, Takashi Kojima, Norimasa Sawada
Apical and basolateral cell membranes are separated by tight junctions (TJs). Microvilli are limited to the apical cell membrane. TJs and microvilli are the landmarks for epithelial cell polarity. However, the direct relationship between TJ proteins (TJPs) and the components of microvilli remains unclear. In this study, we investigated whether occludin, which is considered to be a functional TJP, is involved in microvillus formation. In occludin knockout mouse hepatic cells (OcKO cells), the microvillus density was less than that in wild-type (WT) cells and the length of microvilli was short...
March 16, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540787/microvillar-and-ciliary-defects-in-zebrafish-lacking-an-actin-binding-bioactive-peptide-amidating-enzyme
#6
Dhivya Kumar, Rebecca T Thomason, Maya Yankova, Jonathan D Gitlin, Richard E Mains, Betty A Eipper, Stephen M King
The assembly of membranous extensions such as microvilli and cilia in polarized cells is a tightly regulated, yet poorly understood, process. Peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase (PAM), a membrane enzyme essential for the synthesis of amidated bioactive peptides, was recently identified in motile and non-motile (primary) cilia and has an essential role in ciliogenesis in Chlamydomonas, Schmidtea and mouse. In mammalian cells, changes in PAM levels alter secretion and organization of the actin cytoskeleton...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322087/the-endosomal-protein-endotubin-is-required-for-enterocyte-differentiation
#7
Christopher M Cox, Ruifeng Lu, Kaan Salcin, Jean M Wilson
Background & Aims: During late embryonic development and through weaning, enterocytes of the ileum are highly endocytic. Defects in endocytosis and trafficking are implicated in neonatal disease, however, the mechanisms regulating trafficking during the developmental period are incompletely understood. The apical endosomal protein endotubin (EDTB) is highly expressed in the late embryonic and neonatal ileum. In epithelial cells in vitro, EDTB regulates both trafficking of tight junction proteins and proliferation through modulation of YAP activity...
2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320535/rhombic-organization-of-microvilli-domains-found-in-a-cell-model-of-the-human-intestine
#8
Jonas Franz, Jonas Grünebaum, Marcus Schäfer, Dennis Mulac, Florian Rehfeldt, Klaus Langer, Armin Kramer, Christoph Riethmüller
Symmetry is rarely found on cellular surfaces. An exception is the brush border of microvilli, which are essential for the proper function of transport epithelia. In a healthy intestine, they appear densely packed as a 2D-hexagonal lattice. For in vitro testing of intestinal transport the cell line Caco-2 has been established. As reported by electron microscopy, their microvilli arrange primarily in clusters developing secondly into a 2D-hexagonal lattice. Here, atomic force microscopy (AFM) was employed under aqueous buffer conditions on Caco-2 cells, which were cultivated on permeable filter membranes for optimum differentiation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311620/dietary-soybean-meal-affects-intestinal-homoeostasis-by-altering-the-microbiota-morphology-and-inflammatory-cytokine-gene-expression-in-northern-snakehead
#9
Shuyan Miao, Chenze Zhao, Jinyu Zhu, Juntao Hu, Xiaojing Dong, Longsheng Sun
A 63-day feeding trial was conducted in northern snakehead to observe the effects of a dietary soybean meal substitution on the microbiota community, morphology and inflammatory cytokine gene expression in the intestine. Four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets containing increasing levels of soybean meal were used to replace 0%, 25%, 50% and 75% of the defatted fishmeal (diets are referred to G1, G2, G3 and G4, respectively). Different dietary soybean meal substitutions significantly affected the intestinal microbiota composition...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282386/microvillus-inclusion-disease-variant-in-an-infant-with-intractable-diarrhea
#10
Badr M Rasheed Alsaleem, Amna Basheer M Ahmed, Musa Ahmad Fageeh
Microvillus inclusion disease (MVID) is a rare autosomal recessive congenital enteropathy characterized by intractable secretory diarrhea. We report a case of MVID variant with a homozygous gene mutation in syntaxin 3 (STX3) . The patient is a male Saudi infant who presented shortly after birth with severe vomiting, metabolic acidosis, and mild diarrhea. Electron microscopy study for small intestinal biopsy was consistent with MVID. MYO5B gene mutation was excluded; subsequently, whole exome sequencing (WES) was performed, which revealed homozygous gene mutation in STX3 ...
September 2017: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218485/apical-membrane-alterations-in-non-intestinal-organs-in-microvillus-inclusion-disease
#11
Cameron Schlegel, Victoria G Weis, Byron C Knowles, Lynne A Lapierre, Martin G Martin, Paul Dickman, James R Goldenring, Mitchell D Shub
OBJECTIVES: Microvillus inclusion disease (MVID) is a severe form of neonatal diarrhea, caused mainly by mutations in MYO5B. Inactivating mutations in MYO5B causes depolarization of enterocytes in the small intestine, which gives rise to chronic, unremitting secretory diarrhea. While the pathology of the small intestine in MVID patients is well described, little is known about extraintestinal effects of MYO5B mutation. METHODS: We examined stomach, liver, pancreas, colon, and kidney in Navajo MVID patients, who share a single homozygous MYO5B-P660L (1979C>T p...
February 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101717/ileal-transposition-it-surgery-changing-the-ultrastructure-of-the-transposed-segment-as-well-as-jejunum-histomorphometric-and-electron-microscopy-analysis
#12
Tomasz Sawczyn, Julia Zimmermann, Dominika Stygar, Michał Kukla, Katarzyna Nabrdalik, Natalia Matysiak, Łukasz Mielańczyk, Konrad Wojciech Karcz
OBJECTIVE: Ileal transposition (IT) procedure leads to higher secretion of incretin hormones what is associated with a beneficial metabolic effect. However, IT will also have an influence on the related jejunum and ileum function. The aim of this research was to investigate the morphology of the jejunum and transposed ileum with the use of light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in order to determine the local alternations in the intestine resulting from the transposition. METHODS: Twenty male, 8-week-old, obese Zucker rats underwent IT and six of them sham surgery...
November 3, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923303/an-extremely-high-bioavailability-of-orally-administered-vancomycin-in-a-patient-with-severe-colitis-and-renal-insufficiency
#13
Shingo Yamazaki, Takaaki Suzuki, Tatsuya Suzuki, Hirokazu Takatsuka, Masayuki Ishikawa, Noriyuki Hattori, Takeshi Fujishiro, Hideaki Miyauchi, Takehiko Oami, Noritaka Ariyoshi, Shigeto Oda, Hisahiro Matsubara, Itsuko Ishii
Because there is little absorption of orally administered vancomycin hydrochloride (VCM) through the normal intestinal microvillus membrane, the pharmacokinetics of VCM absorbed from the digestive tract are mostly unknown. Here we report a case of severe colitis and renal insufficiency in which the serum concentration of VCM reached the supratherapeutic range after oral administration. A 54-year-old man receiving outpatient chemotherapy for rectal cancer was admitted to our hospital for severe sepsis and acute renal failure...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905451/gene-edited-human-kidney-organoids-reveal-mechanisms-of-disease-in-podocyte-development
#14
Yong Kyun Kim, Ido Refaeli, Craig R Brooks, Peifeng Jing, Ramila E Gulieva, Michael R Hughes, Nelly M Cruz, Yannan Liu, Angela J Churchill, Yuliang Wang, Hongxia Fu, Jeffrey W Pippin, Lih Y Lin, Stuart J Shankland, A Wayne Vogl, Kelly M McNagny, Benjamin S Freedman
A critical event during kidney organogenesis is the differentiation of podocytes, specialized epithelial cells that filter blood plasma to form urine. Podocytes derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC-podocytes) have recently been generated in nephron-like kidney organoids, but the developmental stage of these cells and their capacity to reveal disease mechanisms remains unclear. Here, we show that hPSC-podocytes phenocopy mammalian podocytes at the capillary loop stage (CLS), recapitulating key features of ultrastructure, gene expression, and mutant phenotype...
December 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899465/-clinical-features-and-myo5b-mutations-of-a-family-affected-by-microvillus-inclusion-disease
#15
Ying Cheng, Hong Liang, Na-Li Cai, Li Guo, Yu-Ge Huang, Yuan-Zong Song
Microvillus inclusion disease (MVID) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by biallelic mutations in the MYO5B or STX3 gene. Refractory diarrhea and malabsorption are the main clinical manifestations. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical features and MYO5B gene mutations of an infant with MVID. A 21-day-old female infant was referred to the hospital with the complaint of diarrhea for 20 days. On physical examination, growth retardation of the body weight and length was found along with moderately jaundiced skin and sclera...
September 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882893/kinetic-signatures-of-myosin-5b-the-motor-involved-in-microvillus-inclusion-disease
#16
Sarah M Heissler, Krishna Chinthalapudi, James R Sellers
Myosin-5B is a ubiquitous molecular motor that transports cargo vesicles of the endomembrane system in intracellular recycling pathways. Myosin-5B malfunction causes the congenital enteropathy microvillus inclusion disease, underlining its importance in cellular homeostasis. Here we describe the interaction of myosin-5B with F-actin, nucleotides, and the pyrazolopyrimidine compound myoVin-1. We show that single-headed myosin-5B is an intermediate duty ratio motor with a kinetic ATPase cycle that is rate-limited by the release of phosphate...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882822/both-nherf3-and-nherf2-are-necessary-for-multiple-aspects-of-acute-regulation-of-nhe3-by-elevated-ca-2-cgmp-and-lysophosphatidic-acid
#17
Leela Rani Avula, Tiane Chen, Olga Kovbasnjuk, Mark Donowitz
The intestinal epithelial brush border Na+ /H+ exchanger NHE3 accounts for a large component of intestinal Na absorption. NHE3 is regulated during digestion by signaling complexes on its COOH terminus that include the four multi-PDZ domain-containing NHERF family proteins. All bind to NHE3 and take part in different aspects of NHE3 regulation. Because the roles of each NHERF appear to vary on the basis of the cell model or intestinal segment studied and because of our recent finding that a NHERF3-NHERF2 heterodimer appears important for NHE3 regulation in Caco-2 cells, we examined the role of NHERF3 and NHERF2 in C57BL/6 mouse jejunum using homozygous NHERF2 and NHERF3 knockout mice...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867961/potential-immunotoxic-effects-of-trichloroethylene-induced-iv-allergic-reaction-in-renal-impairment
#18
Jun-Feng Yu, Yan-Yan Feng, Xiao-Feng Shen
Trichloroethylene (TCE) is known to induce allergic contact dermatitis and subsequent occupational medicamentosa-like dermatitis (OMLD) with multi-system injuries, including liver, kidney, and skin injuries. However, the mechanisms underlying immune system dysfunction that result in organ injury have not yet been clearly elucidated. In the present study, we measured the levels of secreted cytokines by effect or T cells in TCE-treated guinea pigs to better understand the contribution of allergic disorders in renal injuries...
2017: Central-European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846140/an-examination-of-surface-epithelium-structures-of-the-embryo-across-the-genus-poeciliopsis-poeciliidae
#19
Tami M Panhuis, Megan Fris, Laura Tuhela, Lucia Kwan
In viviparous, teleost fish, with postfertilization maternal nutrient provisioning, embryonic structures that facilitate maternal-fetal nutrient transfer are predicted to be present. For the family Poeciliidae, only a handful of morphological studies have explored these embryonic specializations. Here, we present a comparative morphological study in the viviparous poeciliid genus, Poeciliopsis. Using microscopy techniques, we examine the embryonic surface epidermis of Poeciliopsis species that vary in their level of postfertilization maternal nutrient provisioning and placentation across two phylogenetic clades and three independent evolutionary origins of placentation...
December 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842815/congenital-fatal-diarrhea-in-newborns
#20
Swapna Lingaldinna, Mangala Bharathi Sundaram, C N Kamalarathnam, Sumathi Bavanandam
Microvillus inclusion disease is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of intestinal epithelium causing intractable secretary diarrhea in the first two months of life and about 140 cases have been reported worldwide till now. Here authors report 2 cases of Microvillus inclusion disease (MVID) diagnosed in neonates by electron microscopy study of small intestinal biopsy.
December 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
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