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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302370/the-lipid-5-phoshatase-ship2-controls-renal-brush-border-ultrastructure-and-function-by-regulating-the-activation-of-erm-proteins
#1
Sufyan G Sayyed, François Jouret, Marjorie Vermeersch, David Pérez-Morga, Stéphane Schurmans
The microvillus brush border on the renal proximal tubule epithelium allows the controlled reabsorption of solutes that are filtered through the glomerulus and thus participates in general body homeostasis. Here, using the lipid 5-phosphatase Ship2 global knockout mice, proximal tubule-specific Ship2 knockout mice, and a proximal tubule cell model in which SHIP2 is inactivated, we show that SHIP2 is a negative regulator of microvilli formation, thereby controlling solute reabsorption by the proximal tubule...
March 13, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271233/regulation-of-glomerulotubular-balance-flow-activated-proximal-tubule-function
#2
REVIEW
Tong Wang, Sheldon Weinbaum, Alan M Weinstein
The purpose of this review is to summarize our knowledge and understanding of the physiological importance and the mechanisms underlying flow-activated proximal tubule transport. Since the earliest micropuncture studies of mammalian proximal tubule, it has been recognized that tubular flow is an important regulator of sodium, potassium, and acid-base transport in the kidney. Increased fluid flow stimulates Na(+) and HCO3(-) absorption in the proximal tubule via stimulation of Na/H-exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) and H(+)-ATPase...
March 7, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264818/trafficking-ion-transporters-to-the-apical-membrane-of-polarized-intestinal-enterocytes
#3
Amy Christine Engevik, James R Goldenring
Epithelial cells lining the gastrointestinal tract require distinct apical and basolateral domains to function properly. Trafficking and insertion of enzymes and transporters into the apical brush border of intestinal epithelial cells is essential for effective digestion and absorption of nutrients. Specific critical ion transporters are delivered to the apical brush border to facilitate fluid and electrolyte uptake. Maintenance of these apical transporters requires both targeted delivery and regulated membrane recycling...
March 6, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174707/new-mouse-models-for-microvillus-inclusion-disease-mvid-where-do-the-inclusions-come-from-and-are-they-cause-or%C3%A2-consequence
#4
EDITORIAL
Lukas A Huber
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123938/intestinal-invalidation-of-the-glucose-transporter-glut2-delays-tissue-distribution-of-glucose-and-reveals-an-unexpected-role-in-gut-homeostasis
#5
Charlotte C Schmitt, Thomas Aranias, Thomas Viel, Danielle Chateau, Maude Le Gall, Anne-Judith Waligora-Dupriet, Chloé Melchior, Ophélie Rouxel, Nathalie Kapel, Guillaume Gourcerol, Bertrand Tavitian, Agnès Lehuen, Edith Brot-Laroche, Armelle Leturque, Patricia Serradas, Alexandra Grosfeld
OBJECTIVE: Intestinal glucose absorption is orchestrated by specialized glucose transporters such as SGLT1 and GLUT2. However, the role of GLUT2 in the regulation of glucose absorption remains to be fully elucidated. METHODS: We wanted to evaluate the role of GLUT2 on glucose absorption and glucose homeostasis after intestinal-specific deletion of GLUT2 in mice (GLUT2(ΔIEC) mice). RESULTS: As anticipated, intestinal GLUT2 deletion provoked glucose malabsorption as visualized by the delay in the distribution of oral sugar in tissues...
January 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053225/the-v-atpase-is-expressed-in-the-choroid-plexus-and-mediates-camp-induced-intracellular-ph-alterations
#6
Henriette L Christensen, Teodor G Păunescu, Vladimir Matchkov, Dagne Barbuskaite, Dennis Brown, Helle H Damkier, Jeppe Praetorius
The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pH influences brain interstitial pH and, therefore, brain function. We hypothesized that the choroid plexus epithelium (CPE) expresses the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) as an acid extrusion mechanism in the luminal membrane to counteract detrimental elevations in CSF pH. The expression of mRNA corresponding to several V-ATPase subunits was demonstrated by RT-PCR analysis of CPE cells (CPECs) isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Immunofluorescence and electron microscopy localized the V-ATPase primarily in intracellular vesicles with only a minor fraction in the luminal microvillus area...
January 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034633/glycol-chitosan-a-stabilizer-of-lipid-rafts-in-the-intestinal-brush-border
#7
E Thomas Danielsen, E Michael Danielsen
Chitosan is a polycationic polysaccharide consisting of β-(1-4)-linked glucosamine units and due to its mucoadhesive properties, chemical derivatives of chitosan are potential candidates as enhancers for transmucosal drug delivery. Recently, glycol chitosan (GC), a soluble derivative of chitosan, was shown to bind specifically to lipid raft domains in model bilayers. The small intestinal brush border membrane has a unique lipid raft composition with high amounts of glycolipids cross-linked by lectins, and the aim of the present work therefore was to study the interaction of FITC-conjugated GC (FITC-GC) with the small intestinal epithelium...
December 27, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027573/defects-in-myosin-vb-are-associated-with-a-spectrum-of-previously-undiagnosed-low-%C3%AE-glutamyltransferase-cholestasis
#8
Yi-Ling Qiu, Jing-Yu Gong, Jia-Yan Feng, Ren-Xue Wang, Jun Han, Teng Liu, Yi Lu, Li-Ting Li, Mei-Hong Zhang, Jonathan A Sheps, Neng-Li Wang, Yan-Yan Yan, Jia-Qi Li, Lian Chen, Christoph H Borchers, Bence Sipos, A S Knisely, Victor Ling, Qing-He Xing, Jian-She Wang
Hereditary cholestasis in childhood and infancy with normal serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) activity is linked to several genes. Many patients, however, remain genetically undiagnosed. Defects in myosin VB (MYO5B; encoded by MYO5B) cause microvillus inclusion disease (MVID; MIM251850) with recurrent watery diarrhea. Cholestasis, reported as an atypical presentation in MVID, has been considered a side effect of parenteral alimentation. Here, however, we report on 10 patients who experienced cholestasis associated with biallelic, or suspected biallelic, mutations in MYO5B and who had neither recurrent diarrhea nor received parenteral alimentation...
December 27, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984607/-phenotypic-and-genetic-analysis-of-a-family-affected-with-microvillus-inclusion-disease
#9
Man Mao, Li Guo, Zhanhui Zhang, Bin Wang, Shanhua Huang, Yuanzong Song, Fengping Chen, Wangrong Wen
OBJECTIVE: To explore the clinical features and mutations of MYO5B gene in a family affected with microvillus inclusion disease. METHODS: Clinical data of an infant affected with microvillus inclusion disease was collected. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples from the patient and her parents. PCR amplification and Sanger sequencing were performed to analyze all the exons and their flanking sequences of the MYO5B gene. RESULTS: The patient presented with complicated manifestations including respiratory distress syndrome, dehydration, acidosis, bowel dilatation, liver and kidney dysfunction, and severe and intractable diarrhea...
December 10, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Yixue Yichuanxue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933652/nonobstructive-diffuse-dilated-bowel-loops-prenatal-diagnosis-fetal-characteristics-and-neonatal-outcomes
#10
Guy Katz, Ben Pode-Shakked, Michal Berkenstadt, Ron Bilik, Sylvie Polak Charcon, Iris Barshack, Reuven Achiron, Yinon Gilboa
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to describe the characteristics and outcomes of fetuses with a diagnosis of nonobstructive diffuse dilated bowel loops. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of all pregnancies with fetal diagnosis of nonobstructive diffuse dilated bowel loops over 14 years in a large tertiary referral center. Fetomaternal and neonatal characteristics and outcomes were assessed. RESULTS: Seven fetuses had sonograms showing diffuse dilated bowel loops; none of them had intestinal obstruction after labor...
January 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856525/microvilli-morphology-can-affect-efflux-active-p-glycoprotein-in-confluent-mdckii-nki_hmdr1-and-caco-2-cell-monolayers
#11
Zhou Meng, Sylvain Le Marchand, Deep Agnani, Matt Szapacs, Harma Ellens, Joe Bentz
From fits of drug transport kinetics across confluent MDCKII-hMDR1-NKI and Caco-2 cell monolayers we estimated the levels of efflux active P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in these two cell lines (companion paper, Meng at el., 2016a). In the present work, we compared the efflux active P-gp number to the total P-gp level, using LC/MSMS, and showed that in Caco-2 cells total P-gp is about 10-fold greater than efflux active P-gp, while in MDCKII-hMDR1-NKI cells these values are within 2-fold. We further visualized the microvilli in MDCKII-hMDR1-NKI and Caco-2 cells using three-dimensional structured illumination super-resolution microscopy and found that the microvilli in Caco-2 cells are taller and more densely packed than those in MDCK-NKI-hMDR1 cells...
November 16, 2016: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771587/study-on-the-effects-of-gradient-mechanical-pressures-on-the-proliferation-apoptosis-chondrogenesis-and-hypertrophy-of-mandibular-condylar-chondrocytes-in-vitro
#12
Hui Li, Linjian Huang, Qianyang Xie, Xieyi Cai, Chi Yang, Shaoyi Wang, Min Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of gradient mechanical pressure on chondrocyte proliferation, apoptosis, and the expression of markers of chondrogenesis and chondrocyte hypertrophy. METHODS: Mandibular condylar chondrocytes from 5 rabbits were cultured in vitro, and pressed with static pressures of 50kPa, 100kPa, 150kPa and 200kPa for 3h, respectively. The chondrocytes cultured without pressure (0kPa) were used as control. Cell proliferation, apoptosis, and the expression of aggrecan (AGG), collagen II (COL2), collagen X (COL10), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were investigated...
January 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646280/igg-trafficking-in-the-adult-pig-small-intestine-one-or-bidirectional-transfer-across-the-enterocyte-brush-border
#13
Rebecca Möller, Gert H Hansen, E Michael Danielsen
Immunoglobulin G (IgG) transfer in opposite directions across the small intestinal brush border serves different purposes in early life and in adulthood. In the neonate, maternal IgG is taken up from the gut lumen into the blood, conferring passive immunity to the offspring, whereas in the adult immunoglobulins, including IgG made by plasma cells in the lamina propria, are secreted via the brush border to the lumen as part of the mucosal defense. Here, IgG has been proposed to perform a luminal immune surveillance which eventually includes a reuptake through the brush border as pathogen-containing immune complexes...
September 19, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621283/from-the-cover-cadmium-exposure-differentially-alters-odorant-driven-behaviors-and-expression-of-olfactory-receptors-in-juvenile-coho-salmon-oncorhynchus-kisutch
#14
Chase R Williams, James W MacDonald, Theo K Bammler, Michael H Paulsen, Christopher D Simpson, Evan P Gallagher
Salmon exposed to waterborne metals can experience olfactory impairment leading to disrupted chemosensation. In the current study, we investigated the effects of cadmium (Cd) on salmon olfactory function by modeling an exposure scenario where juvenile salmon transiently migrate through a polluted waterway. Coho were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of waterborne Cd (2 and 30 µg/L) for 48 h and (0.3 and 2 μg/L) for 16 days, followed by a 16-day depuration associated with outmigration...
December 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27575604/congenital-microvillus-inclusion-disease-in-the-differential-diagnosis-of-intractable-metabolic-acidosis
#15
Nilufer Guzoglu, Didem Aliefendioglu, Fulya Gulerman, Safak Gucer, Figen Kaymaz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 9, 2016: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27532546/myo5b-mutations-cause-cholestasis-with-normal-serum-gamma-glutamyl-transferase-activity-in-children-without-microvillous-inclusion-disease
#16
Emmanuel Gonzales, Sarah A Taylor, Anne Davit-Spraul, Alice Thébaut, Nadège Thomassin, Catherine Guettier, Peter F Whitington, Emmanuel Jacquemin
Some patients with microvillus inclusion disease due to myosin 5B (MYO5B) mutations may develop cholestasis characterized by a progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis-like phenotype with normal serum gamma-glutamyl transferase activity. So far MYO5B deficiency has not been reported in patients with such a cholestasis phenotype in the absence of intestinal disease. Using a new-generation sequencing approach, we identified MYO5B mutations in five patients with progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis-like phenotype with normal serum gamma-glutamyl transferase activity without intestinal disease...
January 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27514413/-blood-cerebrospinal-fluid-barrier-damage-of-rats-induced-by-lead-acetate-or-nano-lead-exposure
#17
P P Feng, F J Zhai, S F Jiang, J Z Wu, L Xue, M M Zheng, L L Zhou, C Y Meng, M Y Cao, Y S Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the damage of blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCB) of rats induced by lead and nano-lead exposure in order to provide the basis for mechanism study of lead neurotoxicity. METHODS: 39 male rats were randomly divided into control group, lead acetate exposed group and nano-lead exposed group. Rats in lead acetate exposed group and nano-lead exposed group were given 20 mg/kg lead acetate or nano-lead by oral gavage and rats in control groups were given the same amount saline for 9 weeks...
May 20, 2016: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27497746/the-zebrafish-goosepimples-myosin-vb-mutant-exhibits-cellular-attributes-of-human-microvillus-inclusion-disease
#18
Jaydeep Sidhaye, Clyde Savio Pinto, Shweta Dharap, Tressa Jacob, Shobha Bhargava, Mahendra Sonawane
Microvillus inclusion disease (MVID) is a life-threatening enteropathy characterised by malabsorption and incapacitating fluid loss due to chronic diarrhoea. Histological analysis has revealed that enterocytes in MVID patients exhibit reduction of microvilli, presence of microvillus inclusion bodies and intestinal villus atrophy, whereas genetic linkage analysis has identified mutations in myosin Vb gene as the main cause of MVID. In order to understand the cellular basis of MVID and the associated formation of inclusion bodies, an animal model that develops ex utero and is tractable genetically as well as by microscopy would be highly useful...
November 2016: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27488325/catheter-related-blood-stream-infection-in-patients-receiving-long-term-home-parenteral-nutrition-tertiary-care-hospital-experience-in-saudi-arabia
#19
Esraa S Al-Tawil, Alanoud M Almuhareb, Hamdy M Amin
BACKGROUND/AIM: Parenteral nutrition (PN) is a lifesaving therapy for patients with many severe conditions, including intestinal failure. Some patients require long-term PN therapy, which makes home parenteral nutrition (HPN) an attractive option to improve the quality of life. Among the most common and serious complications observed in these patients are catheter-related blood stream infections (CRBSIs). The aim of our study is to determine the frequency of CRBSI among patients receiving long-term HPN...
July 2016: Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27477384/microvillus-inclusion-disease-a-subtotal-enterectomy-as-a-bridge-to-transplantation
#20
Karen van Hoeve, Ilse Hoffman, Fabio Fusaro, Jacques Pirenne, Ann Vander Auwera, Anne-Marie Dieltjens, Gert De Hertogh, Diethard Monbaliu, Marc Miserez
BACKGROUND: Microvillus inclusion disease (MVID) is a known congenital cause of intractable diarrhea resulting in permanent intestinal failure. There is need for a lifelong total parenteral nutrition (TPN) from diagnosis and the prognosis is poor. Most patients die by the second decade of life as a result of complications of parenteral alimentation including liver failure or sepsis. The only available treatment at this moment is a small bowel transplantation. But before that moment, the patients often suffer from a persistent failure to thrive and electrolyte disturbances despite continuous TPN...
December 2016: Acta Chirurgica Belgica
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