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Zhou Meng, Sylvain Le Marchand, Deep Agnani, Matt Szapacs, Harma Ellens, Joe Bentz
From fits of drug transport kinetics across confluent MDCKII-hMDR1-NKI and Caco-2 cell monolayers we estimated the levels of efflux active P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in these two cell lines (companion paper, Meng at el., 2016a). In the present work, we compared the efflux active P-gp number to the total P-gp level, using LC/MSMS, and showed that in Caco-2 cells total P-gp is about 10-fold greater than efflux active P-gp, while in MDCKII-hMDR1-NKI cells these values are within 2-fold. We further visualized the microvilli in MDCKII-hMDR1-NKI and Caco-2 cells using three-dimensional structured illumination super-resolution microscopy and found that the microvilli in Caco-2 cells are taller and more densely packed than those in MDCK-NKI-hMDR1 cells...
November 16, 2016: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
Hui Li, Linjian Huang, Qianyang Xie, Xieyi Cai, Chi Yang, Shaoyi Wang, Min Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of gradient mechanical pressure on chondrocyte proliferation, apoptosis, and the expression of markers of chondrogenesis and chondrocyte hypertrophy. METHODS: Mandibular condylar chondrocytes from 5 rabbits were cultured in vitro, and pressed with static pressures of 50kPa, 100kPa, 150kPa and 200kPa for 3h, respectively. The chondrocytes cultured without pressure (0kPa) were used as control. Cell proliferation, apoptosis, and the expression of aggrecan (AGG), collagen II (COL2), collagen X (COL10), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were investigated...
January 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
Rebecca Möller, Gert H Hansen, E Michael Danielsen
Immunoglobulin G (IgG) transfer in opposite directions across the small intestinal brush border serves different purposes in early life and in adulthood. In the neonate, maternal IgG is taken up from the gut lumen into the blood, conferring passive immunity to the offspring, whereas in the adult immunoglobulins, including IgG made by plasma cells in the lamina propria, are secreted via the brush border to the lumen as part of the mucosal defense. Here, IgG has been proposed to perform a luminal immune surveillance which eventually includes a reuptake through the brush border as pathogen-containing immune complexes...
September 19, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Chase R Williams, James W MacDonald, Theo K Bammler, Michael H Paulsen, Christopher D Simpson, Evan P Gallagher
Salmon exposed to waterborne metals can experience olfactory impairment leading to disrupted chemosensation. In the current study, we investigated the effects of cadmium (Cd) on salmon olfactory function by modeling an exposure scenario where juvenile salmon transiently migrate through a polluted waterway. Coho were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of waterborne Cd (2 and 30 µg/L) for 48 h and (0.3 and 2 μg/L) for 16 days, followed by a 16-day depuration associated with outmigration...
December 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Nilufer Guzoglu, Didem Aliefendioglu, Fulya Gulerman, Safak Gucer, Figen Kaymaz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 9, 2016: Pediatrics and Neonatology
Emmanuel Gonzales, Sarah A Taylor, Anne Davit-Spraul, Alice Thébaut, Nadège Thomassin, Catherine Guettier, Peter F Whitington, Emmanuel Jacquemin
: Some patients with microvillus inclusion disease due to myosin 5B (MYO5B) mutations may develop cholestasis characterized by a progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis-like phenotype with normal serum gamma-glutamyl transferase activity. So far MYO5B deficiency has not been reported in patients with such a cholestasis phenotype in the absence of intestinal disease. Using a new-generation sequencing approach, we identified MYO5B mutations in five patients with progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis-like phenotype with normal serum gamma-glutamyl transferase activity without intestinal disease...
August 17, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
P P Feng, F J Zhai, S F Jiang, J Z Wu, L Xue, M M Zheng, L L Zhou, C Y Meng, M Y Cao, Y S Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the damage of blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCB) of rats induced by lead and nano-lead exposure in order to provide the basis for mechanism study of lead neurotoxicity. METHODS: 39 male rats were randomly divided into control group, lead acetate exposed group and nano-lead exposed group. Rats in lead acetate exposed group and nano-lead exposed group were given 20 mg/kg lead acetate or nano-lead by oral gavage and rats in control groups were given the same amount saline for 9 weeks...
May 20, 2016: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
Jaydeep Sidhaye, Clyde Savio Pinto, Shweta Dharap, Tressa Jacob, Shobha Bhargava, Mahendra Sonawane
Microvillus inclusion disease (MVID) is a life threatening enteropathy characterised by malabsorption and incapacitating fluid loss due to chronic diarrhoea. Histological analysis has revealed that enterocytes in MVID patients exhibit reduction of microvilli, presence of microvillus inclusion bodies and intestinal villus atrophy, whereas genetic linkage analysis has identified mutations in myosin Vb gene as the main cause of MVID.In order to understand the cellular basis of MVID and the associated formation of inclusion bodies, an animal model that develops ex-utero and is tractable genetically as well as by microscopy would be highly useful...
August 3, 2016: Mechanisms of Development
Esraa S Al-Tawil, Alanoud M Almuhareb, Hamdy M Amin
BACKGROUND/AIM: Parenteral nutrition (PN) is a lifesaving therapy for patients with many severe conditions, including intestinal failure. Some patients require long-term PN therapy, which makes home parenteral nutrition (HPN) an attractive option to improve the quality of life. Among the most common and serious complications observed in these patients are catheter-related blood stream infections (CRBSIs). The aim of our study is to determine the frequency of CRBSI among patients receiving long-term HPN...
July 2016: Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association
Karen van Hoeve, Ilse Hoffman, Fabio Fusaro, Jacques Pirenne, Ann Vander Auwera, Anne-Marie Dieltjens, Gert De Hertogh, Diethard Monbaliu, Marc Miserez
BACKGROUND: Microvillus inclusion disease (MVID) is a known congenital cause of intractable diarrhea resulting in permanent intestinal failure. There is need for a lifelong total parenteral nutrition (TPN) from diagnosis and the prognosis is poor. Most patients die by the second decade of life as a result of complications of parenteral alimentation including liver failure or sepsis. The only available treatment at this moment is a small bowel transplantation. But before that moment, the patients often suffer from a persistent failure to thrive and electrolyte disturbances despite continuous TPN...
August 1, 2016: Acta Chirurgica Belgica
Zhuoyi Song, Yu Zhou, Mikko Juusola
Many diurnal photoreceptors encode vast real-world light changes effectively, but how this performance originates from photon sampling is unclear. A 4-module biophysically-realistic fly photoreceptor model, in which information capture is limited by the number of its sampling units (microvilli) and their photon-hit recovery time (refractoriness), can accurately simulate real recordings and their information content. However, sublinear summation in quantum bump production (quantum-gain-nonlinearity) may also cause adaptation by reducing the bump/photon gain when multiple photons hit the same microvillus simultaneously...
2016: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
Chika Yoshida, Mayumi Maekawa, Makoto Bannai, Takeshi Yamamoto
Glutamate (Glu) plays various roles directly or through conversions to other amino acids in intracellular metabolisms such as energy source for enterocytes and precursor for nucleic acids. In this study, we examined the effect of single and chronic oral administration of Glu on cell proliferation in intestine and growth in rainbow trout fed soybean meal (SBM) based diet. In the single dose study, 30, 120 and 360 min after oral administration of 50 and 500 mg/kg Glu, the blood and intestine tissues were collected for amino acid concentration and gene expression analysis...
2016: SpringerPlus
Jesús F Peña, Alexandre Alié, Daniel J Richter, Lingyu Wang, Noriko Funayama, Scott A Nichols
BACKGROUND: The microvillus is a versatile organelle that serves important functions in disparate animal cell types. However, from a molecular perspective, the microvillus has been well studied in only a few, predominantly vertebrate, contexts. Little is known about how differences in microvillar structure contribute to differences in function, and how these differences evolved. We sequenced the transcriptome of the freshwater sponge, Ephydatia muelleri, and examined the expression of vertebrate microvillar gene homologs in choanocytes-the only microvilli-bearing cell type present in sponges...
2016: EvoDevo
Yumin Zhang, Jing Li, Xiaojun Niu, Jianchun Liu, Jue Wang, Lan Gao
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the biocompatibility of poiy lactic acid/bone matrix gelatin (PLA/BMG) composite biomaterial so as to lay a foundation for bone defect repair. METHODS: Rats' MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured with leaching solution of PIJA/BMG and PLA material respectively for 7 days. The cell proliferation rate was tested by MTT and cell toxicity grading was carried out everyday. The PLA/BMG and MG3T3-E1 cells were co-cultured, the cell shape and proliferation were observed by inverted phase contrast microscope at 1, 3, and 5 days and cell adhesion by scanning electron microscope at 5 days...
February 2016: Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery
Victor Y Liew, Marianne J Chapman, Nam Q Nguyen, Caroline E Cousins, Mark P Plummer, Lee-Anne S Chapple, Yasmine Ali Abdelhamid, Nicholas D Manton, Adam Swalling, Peter Sutton-Smith, Alastair D Burt, Adam M Deane
OBJECTIVE: Disturbed intestinal barrier function due to 'leaky' tight junctions may cause secondary sepsis via paracellular translocation across the gut wall. Our objective was to describe the effects of critical illness on duodenal morphology and ultrastructure. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Prospective observational study of 12 mechanically ventilated critically ill patients in an intensive care unit and 15 control participants in an outpatient endoscopy suite...
June 2016: Critical Care and Resuscitation: Journal of the Australasian Academy of Critical Care Medicine
Dmitri V Kravtsov, Md Kaimul Ahsan, Vandana Kumari, Sven C D van Ijzendoorn, Miguel Reyes-Mugica, Anoop Kumar, Tarunmeet Gujral, Pradeep K Dudeja, Nadia A Ameen
Loss of function mutations in the actin motor myosin Vb (Myo5b) lead to microvillus inclusion disease (MVID) and death in newborns and children. MVID results in secretory diarrhea, brush border (BB) defects, villus atrophy, and microvillus inclusions (MVIs) in enterocytes. How loss of Myo5b results in increased stool loss of chloride (Cl(-)) and sodium (Na(+)) is unknown. The present study used Myo5b loss-of-function human MVID intestine, polarized intestinal cell models of secretory crypt (T84) and villus resembling (CaCo2BBe, C2BBe) enterocytes lacking Myo5b in conjunction with immunofluorescence confocal stimulated emission depletion (gSTED) imaging, immunohistochemical staining, transmission electron microscopy, shRNA silencing, immunoblots, and electrophysiological approaches to examine the distribution, expression, and function of the major BB ion transporters NHE3 (Na(+)), CFTR (Cl(-)), and SLC26A3 (DRA) (Cl(-)/HCO3 (-)) that control intestinal fluid transport...
July 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Hongbo Yi, Lin Zhang, Zhenshun Gan, Haitao Xiong, Caihua Yu, Huahua Du, Yizhen Wang
Diarrhea is a leading cause of death among young mammals, especially during weaning. Here, we investigated the effects of Cathelicidin-WA (CWA) on diarrhea, intestinal morphology, inflammatory responses, epithelial barrier and microbiota in the intestine of young mammals during weaning. Piglets with clinical diarrhea were selected and treated with saline (control), CWA or enrofloxacin (Enro) for 4 days. Both CWA and Enro effectively attenuated diarrhea. Compared with the control, CWA decreased IL-6, IL-8 and IL-22 levels and reduced neutrophil infiltration into the jejunum...
2016: Scientific Reports
V R Indu, K M Lucy, J J Chungath, N Ashok, S Maya
AIM: To observe the light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the caprine tubal tonsil. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted on six crossbred male goats of 6 months of age. From the median sections of the head, tissue pieces from the nasopharynx around the auditory tube were collected and fixed for histology and SEM. RESULTS: Tonsillar lymphoid tissue was located in the nasopharynx ventral to the auditory tube opening in the lateral wall of the pharynx...
August 2015: Veterinary World
G Victoria Weis, Byron C Knowles, Eunyoung Choi, Anna E Goldstein, Janice A Williams, Elizabeth H Manning, Joseph T Roland, Lynne A Lapierre, James R Goldenring
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Inactivating mutations in MYO5B cause severe neonatal diarrhea in Microvillus Inclusion Disease. Loss of active MYO5B causes the formation of pathognomonic inclusions and aberrations in brush border enzymes. METHODS: We developed three mouse models of germline, constitutively intestinal targeted and inducible intestinal targeted deletion of MYO5B. The mice were evaluated for enterocyte cellular morphology. RESULTS: Germline MYO5B KO mice showed early diarrhea and failure to thrive with evident microvillus inclusions and loss of apical transporters in the duodenum...
February 1, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Klaus-Peter Zimmer, Jan de Laffolie, Maria Vittoria Barone, Hassan Y Naim
Endocytosis is a fundamental cell biological process, which carries out essential functions in a polarized epithelial cell such as enterocytes provided with a huge surface area of the brush border membrane. Major tasks of enterocytes, which are regulated by endocytic signals, are digestion and absorption of nutrients and drugs/pharmacological agents, barrier permeability to microorganism, toxins and antigens, and transcytotic crosstalk between intestinal lumen and lamina propria cells with access to the circulation...
May 2016: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
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