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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101717/ileal-transposition-it-surgery-changing-the-ultrastructure-of-the-transposed-segment-as-well-as-jejunum-histomorphometric-and-electron-microscopy-analysis
#1
Tomasz Sawczyn, Julia Zimmermann, Dominika Stygar, Michał Kukla, Katarzyna Nabrdalik, Natalia Matysiak, Łukasz Mielańczyk, Konrad Wojciech Karcz
OBJECTIVE: Ileal transposition (IT) procedure leads to higher secretion of incretin hormones what is associated with a beneficial metabolic effect. However, IT will also have an influence on the related jejunum and ileum function. The aim of this research was to investigate the morphology of the jejunum and transposed ileum with the use of light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in order to determine the local alternations in the intestine resulting from the transposition. METHODS: Twenty male, 8-week-old, obese Zucker rats underwent IT and six of them sham surgery...
November 3, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923303/an-extremely-high-bioavailability-of-orally-administered-vancomycin-in-a-patient-with-severe-colitis-and-renal-insufficiency
#2
Shingo Yamazaki, Takaaki Suzuki, Tatsuya Suzuki, Hirokazu Takatsuka, Masayuki Ishikawa, Noriyuki Hattori, Takeshi Fujishiro, Hideaki Miyauchi, Takehiko Oami, Noritaka Ariyoshi, Shigeto Oda, Hisahiro Matsubara, Itsuko Ishii
Because there is little absorption of orally administered vancomycin hydrochloride (VCM) through the normal intestinal microvillus membrane, the pharmacokinetics of VCM absorbed from the digestive tract are mostly unknown. Here we report a case of severe colitis and renal insufficiency in which the serum concentration of VCM reached the supratherapeutic range after oral administration. A 54-year-old man receiving outpatient chemotherapy for rectal cancer was admitted to our hospital for severe sepsis and acute renal failure...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905451/gene-edited-human-kidney-organoids-reveal-mechanisms-of-disease-in-podocyte-development
#3
Yong Kyun Kim, Ido Refaeli, Craig R Brooks, Peifeng Jing, Ramila E Gulieva, Michael R Hughes, Nelly M Cruz, Yannan Liu, Angela J Churchill, Yuliang Wang, Hongxia Fu, Jeffrey W Pippin, Lih Y Lin, Stuart J Shankland, A Wayne Vogl, Kelly M McNagny, Benjamin S Freedman
A critical event during kidney organogenesis is the differentiation of podocytes, specialized epithelial cells that filter blood plasma to form urine. Podocytes derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC-podocytes) have recently been generated in nephron-like kidney organoids, but the developmental stage of these cells and their capacity to reveal disease mechanisms remains unclear. Here, we show that hPSC-podocytes phenocopy mammalian podocytes at the capillary loop stage (CLS), recapitulating key features of ultrastructure, gene expression, and mutant phenotype...
September 14, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899465/-clinical-features-and-myo5b-mutations-of-a-family-affected-by-microvillus-inclusion-disease
#4
Ying Cheng, Hong Liang, Na-Li Cai, Li Guo, Yu-Ge Huang, Yuan-Zong Song
Microvillus inclusion disease (MVID) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by biallelic mutations in the MYO5B or STX3 gene. Refractory diarrhea and malabsorption are the main clinical manifestations. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical features and MYO5B gene mutations of an infant with MVID. A 21-day-old female infant was referred to the hospital with the complaint of diarrhea for 20 days. On physical examination, growth retardation of the body weight and length was found along with moderately jaundiced skin and sclera...
September 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882893/kinetic-signatures-of-myosin-5b-the-motor-involved-in-microvillus-inclusion-disease
#5
Sarah M Heissler, Krishna Chinthalapudi, James R Sellers
Myosin-5B is a ubiquitous molecular motor that transports cargo vesicles of the endomembrane system in intracellular recycling pathways. Myosin-5B malfunction causes the congenital enteropathy microvillus inclusion disease, underlining its importance in cellular homeostasis. Here we describe the interaction of myosin-5B with F-actin, nucleotides, and the pyrazolopyrimidine compound myoVin-1. We show that single-headed myosin-5B is an intermediate duty ratio motor with a kinetic ATPase cycle that is rate-limited by the release of phosphate...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882822/both-nherf3-and-nherf2-are-necessary-for-multiple-aspects-of-acute-regulation-of-nhe3-by-elevated-ca-2-cgmp-and-lysophosphatidic-acid
#6
Leela Rani Avula, Tiane Chen, Olga Kovbasnjuk, Mark Donowitz
The intestinal epithelial brush border Na(+)/H(+) exchanger NHE3 accounts for a large component of intestinal Na absorption. NHE3 is regulated during digestion by signaling complexes on its C-terminus that include the four multi-PDZ domain containing NHERF family proteins. Because the roles of each NHERF appear to vary based on the cell model or intestinal segment studied and because of our recent finding that a NHERF3-NHERF2 heterodimer appears important for NHE3 regulation in Caco-2 cells, we examined the role of NHERF3 and NHERF2 in homozygous C57BL/6 NHERF2 and NHERF3 KO mouse jejunum...
September 7, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867961/potential-immunotoxic-effects-of-trichloroethylene-induced-iv-allergic-reaction-in-renal-impairment
#7
Jun-Feng Yu, Yan-Yan Feng, Xiao-Feng Shen
Trichloroethylene (TCE) is known to induce allergic contact dermatitis and subsequent occupational medicamentosa-like dermatitis (OMLD) with multi-system injuries, including liver, kidney, and skin injuries. However, the mechanisms underlying immune system dysfunction that result in organ injury have not yet been clearly elucidated. In the present study, we measured the levels of secreted cytokines by effect or T cells in TCE-treated guinea pigs to better understand the contribution of allergic disorders in renal injuries...
2017: Central-European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846140/an-examination-of-surface-epithelium-structures-of-the-embryo-across-the-genus-poeciliopsis-poeciliidae
#8
Tami M Panhuis, Megan Fris, Laura Tuhela, Lucia Kwan
In viviparous, teleost fish, with postfertilization maternal nutrient provisioning, embryonic structures that facilitate maternal-fetal nutrient transfer are predicted to be present. For the family Poeciliidae, only a handful of morphological studies have explored these embryonic specializations. Here, we present a comparative morphological study in the viviparous poeciliid genus, Poeciliopsis. Using microscopy techniques, we examine the embryonic surface epidermis of Poeciliopsis species that vary in their level of postfertilization maternal nutrient provisioning and placentation across two phylogenetic clades and three independent evolutionary origins of placentation...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842815/congenital-fatal-diarrhea-in-newborns
#9
Swapna Lingaldinna, Mangala Bharathi Sundaram, C N Kamalarathnam, Sumathi Bavanandam
Microvillus inclusion disease is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of intestinal epithelium causing intractable secretary diarrhea in the first two months of life and about 140 cases have been reported worldwide till now. Here authors report 2 cases of Microvillus inclusion disease (MVID) diagnosed in neonates by electron microscopy study of small intestinal biopsy.
December 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724787/disrupted-apical-exocytosis-of-cargo-vesicles-causes-enteropathy-in-fhl5-patients-with-munc18-2-mutations
#10
Georg F Vogel, Jorik M van Rijn, Iris M Krainer, Andreas R Janecke, Carsten Posovzsky, Marta Cohen, Claire Searle, Prevost Jantchou, Johanna C Escher, Natalie Patey, Ernest Cutz, Thomas Müller, Sabine Middendorp, Michael W Hess, Lukas A Huber
Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis 5 (FHL5) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in STXBP2, coding for Munc18-2, which is required for SNARE-mediated membrane fusion. FHL5 causes hematologic and gastrointestinal symptoms characterized by chronic enteropathy that is reminiscent of microvillus inclusion disease (MVID). However, the molecular pathophysiology of FHL5-associated diarrhea is poorly understood. Five FHL5 patients, including four previously unreported patients, were studied...
July 20, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596241/disruption-of-rab8a-and-rab11a-causes-formation-of-basolateral-microvilli-in-neonatal-enteropathy
#11
Qiang Feng, Edward M Bonder, Amy C Engevik, Lanjing Zhang, Matthew J Tyska, James R Goldenring, Nan Gao
Misplaced formation of microvilli to basolateral domains and intracellular inclusions in enterocytes are pathognomonic features in congenital enteropathy associated with mutation of the apical plasma membrane receptor syntaxin 3 (STX3). Although the demonstrated binding of Myo5b to the Rab8a and Rab11a small GTPases in vitro implicates cytoskeleton-dependent membrane sorting, the mechanisms underlying the microvillar location defect remain unclear. By selective or combinatory disruption of Rab8a and Rab11a membrane traffic in vivo, we demonstrate that transport of distinct cargo to the apical brush border rely on either individual or both Rab regulators, whereas certain basolateral cargos are redundantly transported by both factors...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481180/trophoblast-glycoprotein-tpgb-5t4-in-human-placenta-expression-regulation-and-presence-in-extracellular-microvesicles-and-exosomes
#12
S M K Alam, S Jasti, S K Kshirsagar, D S Tannetta, R A Dragovic, C W Redman, I L Sargent, H C Hodes, T L Nauser, T Fortes, A M Filler, K Behan, D R Martin, T A Fields, B K Petroff, M G Petroff
BACKGROUND: Many parallels exist between growth and development of the placenta and that of cancer. One parallel is shared expression of antigens that may have functional importance and may be recognized by the immune system. Here, we characterize expression and regulation of one such antigen, Trophoblast glycoprotein (TPGB; also called 5T4), in the placenta across gestation, in placentas of preeclamptic (PE) pregnancies, and in purified microvesicles and exosomes. METHODS: Trophoblast glycoprotein expression was analyzed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blot, and immunohistochemistry...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478805/clostridium-butyricum-partially-regulates-the-development-of-colitis-associated-cancer-through-mir-200c
#13
Y Xiao, X Dai, K Li, G Gui, J Liu, H Yang
Colitis-associated cancer (CAC), one form of colorectal cancer (CRC),is an increasing concern worldwide. Both diagnosis and current therapy are challenging and bottlenecked. The aim of this study is to investigate novel mechanisms by which the therapeutic C. butyricum regulates colitis-induced oncogenesis. Mouse models of CAC were established with 2,4,6-Trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)and azoxymethane (AOM), following by biochemical, clinical and histological analysis. The integrity of epitheliumwas examined by electron microscopy (EM)...
April 29, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431964/microvillus-specific-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-sap-1-plays-a-role-in-regulating-the-intestinal-paracellular-transport-of-macromolecules
#14
Shingo Mori, Noriyasu Kamei, Yoji Murata, Kozo Takayama, Takashi Matozaki, Mariko Takeda-Morishita
The stomach cancer-associated protein tyrosine phosphatase 1 (SAP-1) is a receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase that is specifically expressed on the apical membrane of the intestinal epithelium. SAP-1 is known to maintain the balance of phosphorylation of proteins together with protein kinases; however, its biological function and impact on pharmacokinetics in the intestine remain unclear. The present study, therefore, aimed at clarifying the relationship between SAP-1 and the intestinal absorption behaviors of typical transporter substrates and macromolecules...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407399/abnormal-rab11-rab8-vesicles-cluster-in-enterocytes-of-patients-with-microvillus-inclusion-disease
#15
Georg F Vogel, Andreas R Janecke, Iris M Krainer, Karin Gutleben, Barbara Witting, Sally G Mitton, Sahar Mansour, Antje Ballauff, Joseph T Roland, Amy C Engevik, Ernest Cutz, Thomas Müller, James R Goldenring, Lukas A Huber, Michael W Hess
Microvillus inclusion disease (MVID) is a congenital enteropathy characterized by accumulation of vesiculo-tubular endomembranes in the subapical cytoplasm of enterocytes, historically termed "secretory granules." However, neither their identity nor pathophysiological significance is well defined. Using immunoelectron microscopy and tomography, we studied biopsies from MVID patients (3× Myosin 5b mutations and 1× Syntaxin3 mutation) and compared them to controls and genome-edited CaCo2 cell models, harboring relevant mutations...
July 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369994/a-biomimetic-fly-photoreceptor-model-elucidates-how-stochastic-adaptive-quantal-sampling-provides-a-large-dynamic-range
#16
Zhuoyi Song, Mikko Juusola
Light intensities (photons s(-1)  μm(-2) ) in a natural scene vary over several orders of magnitude from shady woods to direct sunlight. A major challenge facing the visual system is how to map such a large dynamic input range into its limited output range, so that a signal is neither buried in noise in darkness nor saturated in brightness. A fly photoreceptor has achieved such a large dynamic range; it can encode intensity changes from single to billions of photons, outperforming man-made light sensors...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302370/the-lipid-5-phoshatase-ship2-controls-renal-brush-border-ultrastructure-and-function-by-regulating-the-activation-of-erm-proteins
#17
Sufyan G Sayyed, François Jouret, Marjorie Vermeersch, David Pérez-Morga, Stéphane Schurmans
The microvillus brush border on the renal proximal tubule epithelium allows the controlled reabsorption of solutes that are filtered through the glomerulus and thus participates in general body homeostasis. Here, using the lipid 5-phosphatase Ship2 global knockout mice, proximal tubule-specific Ship2 knockout mice, and a proximal tubule cell model in which SHIP2 is inactivated, we show that SHIP2 is a negative regulator of microvilli formation, thereby controlling solute reabsorption by the proximal tubule...
July 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271233/regulation-of-glomerulotubular-balance-flow-activated-proximal-tubule-function
#18
REVIEW
Tong Wang, Sheldon Weinbaum, Alan M Weinstein
The purpose of this review is to summarize our knowledge and understanding of the physiological importance and the mechanisms underlying flow-activated proximal tubule transport. Since the earliest micropuncture studies of mammalian proximal tubule, it has been recognized that tubular flow is an important regulator of sodium, potassium, and acid-base transport in the kidney. Increased fluid flow stimulates Na(+) and HCO3(-) absorption in the proximal tubule via stimulation of Na/H-exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) and H(+)-ATPase...
June 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264818/trafficking-ion-transporters-to-the-apical-membrane-of-polarized-intestinal-enterocytes
#19
Amy Christine Engevik, James R Goldenring
Epithelial cells lining the gastrointestinal tract require distinct apical and basolateral domains to function properly. Trafficking and insertion of enzymes and transporters into the apical brush border of intestinal epithelial cells is essential for effective digestion and absorption of nutrients. Specific critical ion transporters are delivered to the apical brush border to facilitate fluid and electrolyte uptake. Maintenance of these apical transporters requires both targeted delivery and regulated membrane recycling...
March 6, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174707/new-mouse-models-for-microvillus-inclusion-disease-mvid-where-do-the-inclusions-come-from-and-are-they-cause-or%C3%A2-consequence
#20
EDITORIAL
Lukas A Huber
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
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