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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320404/tryptophan-rich-domains-of-plasmodium-falciparum-surfin4-2-and-plasmodium-vivax-pvstp2-interact-with-membrane-skeleton-of-red-blood-cell
#1
Xiaotong Zhu, Yang He, Yifan Liang, Osamu Kaneko, Liwang Cui, Yaming Cao
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum dramatically alters the morphology and properties of the infected red blood cells (iRBCs). A large group of exported proteins participate in these parasite-host interactions occurring at the iRBC membrane skeleton. SURFIN4.2 is one of iRBC surface protein that belongs to surface-associated interspersed protein (SURFIN) family. Although the intracellular tryptophan-rich domain (WRD) was proposed to be important for the translocation of SURFINs from Maurer's clefts to iRBC surface, the molecular basis of this observation has yet to be defined...
March 20, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318976/assembly-of-cns-nodes-of-ranvier-in-myelinated-nerves-is-promoted-by-the-axon-cytoskeleton
#2
Veronica Brivio, Catherine Faivre-Sarrailh, Elior Peles, Diane L Sherman, Peter J Brophy
Nodes of Ranvier in the axons of myelinated neurons are exemplars of the specialized cell surface domains typical of polarized cells. They are rich in voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav) and thus underpin rapid nerve impulse conduction in the vertebrate nervous system [1]. Although nodal proteins cluster in response to myelination, how myelin-forming glia influence nodal assembly is poorly understood. An axoglial adhesion complex comprising glial Neurofascin155 and axonal Caspr/Contactin flanks mature nodes [2]...
March 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290154/the-role-of-calpains-in-ventilator-induced-diaphragm-atrophy
#3
Xiaoping Zhu, Hieronymus W H van Hees, Leo Heunks, Feifei Wang, Lei Shao, Jiaru Huang, Lei Shi, Shaolin Ma
BACKGROUND: Controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV) is associated with diaphragm dysfunction. Dysfunction results from muscle atrophy and injury of diaphragm muscle fibers. Enhanced proteolysis and reduced protein synthesis play an important role in the development of atrophy. The current study is to evaluate the effects of the calpains inhibitor calpeptin on the development of diaphragm atrophy and activation of key enzymes of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in rats under CMV. METHODS: Three groups of rats were studied: control animals (CON, n = 8), rats subjected to 24 h of MV (CMV, n = 8), and rats subjected to 24 h of MV after administration of the calpain inhibitor calpeptin (CMVC, n = 8)...
December 2017: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290147/temporal-profile-and-severity-correlation-of-a-panel-of-rat-spinal-cord-injury-protein-biomarkers
#4
Zhihui Yang, Helen M Bramlett, Ahmed Moghieb, Dongnan Yu, Ping Wang, Fan Lin, Carl Bauer, Tyler M Selig, Emily Jaalouk, Amanda S Weissman, Disa S Rathore, Pammela Romo, Zhiqun Zhang, Ronald L Hayes, Michael Y Wang, W Dalton Dietrich, Kevin K W Wang
In the USA, there are approximately 12,000 new cases of spinal cord injury (SCI) each year and some 1.2 million people living with paralysis due to SCI. Seven percent of them are paralyzed due to an accident or injury occurring while serving in the military. Here, we report a systematic study on protein biomarker candidates in a rat SCI model with either moderate or severe injury. Tissue, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and serum samples were obtained at 4 h, 24 h, and 7 days post-injury. The candidate biomarkers included axonal injury markers αII-spectrin breakdown products (SBDP150/145/120), neuronal cell body injury marker ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1), astrogliosis/astroglial injury markers S100 calcium-binding protein-β (S100β), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and GFAP breakdown products (GBDPs), demyelination marker myelin basic protein (MBP), axonal injury marker phosphorylated neurofilament-H (pNF-H), and neuroinflammation marker interleukin-6 (IL-6)...
March 13, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283886/protein-characterization-of-extracellular-microvesicles-exosomes-released-from-cytotoxin-challenged-rat-cerebrocortical-mixed-culture-and-mouse-n2a-cells
#5
Dhwani Kumar, Rachna Manek, Vijaya Raghavan, Kevin K Wang
A number of neuronal and glial proteins were previously found to be released in free-standing soluble form from cultured brain cells into cell-conditioned media. Here, we sought to examine if similar proteins are also contained in neural and astroglial cell-released extracellular microvesicles/exosomes (MV/E). In this study, MV/E were isolated from cell-conditioned media from control and cytotoxin-challenged rat cerebrocortical mixed culture (CTX) and mouse neuroblastoma N2a cells. Cytotoxin challenges included pro-necrosis calcium ionophore A23187, pro-apoptosis staurosporine (STS), and excitotoxin N-methyl-D-aspartate...
March 10, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241082/modeling-of-the-axon-membrane-skeleton-structure-and-implications-for-its-mechanical-properties
#6
Yihao Zhang, Krithika Abiraman, He Li, David M Pierce, Anastasios V Tzingounis, George Lykotrafitis
Super-resolution microscopy recently revealed that, unlike the soma and dendrites, the axon membrane skeleton is structured as a series of actin rings connected by spectrin filaments that are held under tension. Currently, the structure-function relationship of the axonal structure is unclear. Here, we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to show that the stiffness of the axon plasma membrane is significantly higher than the stiffnesses of dendrites and somata. To examine whether the structure of the axon plasma membrane determines its overall stiffness, we introduced a coarse-grain molecular dynamics model of the axon membrane skeleton that reproduces the structure identified by super-resolution microscopy...
February 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237317/a-calpain-inhibitor-ameliorates-seizure-burden-in-an-experimental-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#7
Philip M Lam, Jessica Carlsen, Marco I González
In this study, we used the pilocarpine model of epilepsy to evaluate the involvement of calpain dysregulation on epileptogenesis. Detection of spectrin breakdown products (SBDPs, a hallmark of calpain activation) after induction of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) and before appearance of spontaneous seizure suggested the existence of sustained calpain activation during epileptogenesis. Acute treatment with a cell permeable inhibitor of calpain, MDL-28170, resulted in a partial but significant reduction on seizure burden...
February 22, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236056/influence-of-membrane-receptor-lateral-diffusion-on-the-short-term-depression-of-acetylcholine-induced-current-in-helix-neurons
#8
Natalia A Vasilyeva, Galina B Murzina, Igor I Kireev, Arkady S Pivovarov
We have studied how various drugs increasing the rate of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) lateral diffusion affect the depression of ACh-induced current in land snail Helix lucorum neurons responsible for defensive behavior. The acetylcholine (ACh) iontophoretic application protocol imitated the behavioral habituation protocol for the intact animal. We found that the drugs decreasing cholesterol level in cell membranes as methyl-β-cyclodextrin 1 mM and Ro 48-8071 2 µM, and polyclonal antibodies to actin-binding proteins as spectrin 5 µg/ml and merlin 2...
February 24, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219397/immunohistochemistry-of-sarcolemmal-membrane-associated-proteins-in-formalin-fixed-and-paraffin-embedded-skeletal-muscle-tissue-a-promising-tool-for-the-diagnostic-evaluation-of-common-muscular-dystrophies
#9
Chinnawut Suriyonplengsaeng, Charungthai Dejthevaporn, Chaiyos Khongkhatithum, Suda Sanpapant, Nattha Tubthong, Koset Pinpradap, Nippa Srinark, Jariya Waisayarat
BACKGROUND: The analysis of fresh frozen muscle specimens is standard following routine muscle biopsy, but this service is not widely available in countries with limited medical facilities, such as Thailand. Nevertheless, immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis is essential for the diagnosis of patients with a strong clinical suspicion of muscular dystrophy, in the absence of mutations detected by molecular genetics. As the successful labelling of sarcolemmal membrane-associated proteins in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) muscle sections using IHC staining has rarely been described, this study aimed to develop a reproducible IHC method for such an analysis...
February 20, 2017: Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193846/protein-4-1r-exon-16-3-splice-site-activation-requires-coordination-among-tia1-pcbp1-and-rbm39-during-terminal-erythropoiesis
#10
Shu-Ching Huang, Henry S Zhang, Brian Yu, Ellen McMahon, Dan T Nguyen, Faye H Yu, Alexander C Ou, Jennie Park Ou, Edward J Benz
Exon 16 of protein 4.1R encodes a spectrin/actin-binding peptide critical for erythrocyte membrane stability. Its expression during erythroid differentiation is regulated by alternative pre-mRNA splicing. A UUUUCCCCCC-motif situated between the branch point and the 3' splice site is crucial for inclusion. We show that the "UUUU" region and the last 3 C's in this motif are necessary for the binding of splicing factors TIA1 and Pcbp1, and that these proteins appear to act in a collaborative manner to enhance exon 16 inclusion...
February 13, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190474/salvianolic-acid-a-inhibits-calpain-activation-and-enos-uncoupling-during-focal-cerebral-ischemia-in-mice
#11
Qaisar Mahmood, Guang-Fa Wang, Gang Wu, Huan Wang, Chang-Xin Zhou, Hong-Yu Yang, Zhi-Rong Liu, Feng Han, Kui Zhao
BACKGROUND: Salvianolic acid A (SAA) is obtained from Chinese herb Salviae Miltiorrhizae Bunge (Labiatae), has been reported to have the protective effects against cardiovascular and neurovascular diseases. HYPOTHESIS: The aim of present study was to investigate the relationship between the effectiveness of SAA against neurovascular injury and its effects on calpain activation and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) uncoupling. STUDY DESIGN: SAA or vehicle was given to C57BL/6 male mice for seven days before the occlusion of middle cerebral artery (MCAO) for 60min...
February 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179572/spectrin-%C3%AE-v-adaptive-mutations-and-changes-in-subcellular-location-correlate-with-emergence-of-hair-cell-electromotility-in-mammalians
#12
Matteo Cortese, Samantha Papal, Francisco Pisciottano, Ana Belén Elgoyhen, Jean-Pierre Hardelin, Christine Petit, Lucia Florencia Franchini, Aziz El-Amraoui
The remarkable hearing capacities of mammals arise from various evolutionary innovations. These include the cochlear outer hair cells and their singular feature, somatic electromotility, i.e., the ability of their cylindrical cell body to shorten and elongate upon cell depolarization and hyperpolarization, respectively. To shed light on the processes underlying the emergence of electromotility, we focused on the βV giant spectrin, a major component of the outer hair cells' cortical cytoskeleton. We identified strong signatures of adaptive evolution at multiple sites along the spectrin-βV amino acid sequence in the lineage leading to mammals, together with substantial differences in the subcellular location of this protein between the frog and the mouse inner ear hair cells...
February 8, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173092/posterior-cerebellar-purkinje-cells-in-an-sca5-sparca1-mouse-model-are-especially-vulnerable-to-the-synergistic-effect-of-loss-of-%C3%AE-iii-spectrin-and-glast
#13
Emma M Perkins, Daumante Suminaite, Yvonne L Clarkson, Sin Kwan Lee, Alastair R Lyndon, Jeffrey D Rothstein, David J A Wyllie, Kohichi Tanaka, Mandy Jackson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 15, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163384/association-between-alcohol-induced-erythrocyte-membrane-alterations-and-hemolysis-in-chronic-alcoholics
#14
Saradamma Bulle, Vaddi Damodara Reddy, Pannuru Padmavathi, Paramahamsa Maturu, Pavan Kumar Puvvada, Varadacharyulu Nallanchakravarthula
The present study aimed to understand the association between erythrocyte membrane alterations and hemolysis in chronic alcoholics. Study was conducted on human male volunteers aged between 35-45 years with a drinking history of 8-10 years. Results showed that plasma marker enzymes AST, ALT, ALP and γGT were increased in alcoholic subjects. Plasma and erythrocyte membrane lipid peroxidation, erythrocyte lysate nitric oxide (NOx) levels were also increased significantly in alcoholics. Furthermore, erythrocyte membrane protein carbonyls, total cholesterol, phospholipid and cholesterol/phospholipid (C/P) ratio were increased in alcoholics...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150589/effects-of-heat-and-freeze-on-isolated-erythrocyte-submembrane-skeletons
#15
Ivan T Ivanov, Boyana K Paarvanova, Veselin Ivanov, Kathrin Smuda, Hans Bäumler, Radostina Georgieva
In this study we heated insoluble residues, obtained after Triton-X-100 (0.1 v/v%) extraction of erythrocyte ghost membranes (EGMs). Specific heat capacity, electric capacitance and resistance, and optical transmittance (280 nm) sustained sharp changes at 49°C (TA) and 66°C (TC), the known denaturation temperatures of spectrin and band 3, respectively. The change at TA was selectively inhibited by diamide (1 mM) and taurine mustard (1 mM) while its inducing temperature was selectively decreased by formamide in full concert with the assumed involvement of spectrin denaturation...
February 2, 2017: General Physiology and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148727/early-and-late-loss-of-the-cytoskeletal-scaffolding-protein-ankyrin-g-reveals-its-role-in-maturation-and-maintenance-of-nodes-of-ranvier-in-myelinated-axons
#16
Julia Saifetiarova, Anna M Taylor, Manzoor A Bhat
The mechanisms that govern node of Ranvier organization, stability, and long-term maintenance remain to be fully elucidated. One of the molecular components of the node is the cytoskeletal scaffolding protein, ankyrin G (AnkG), which interacts with multiple members of the nodal complex. The role of AnkG in nodal organization and maintenance is still not clearly defined as to whether AnkG functions as an initial nodal organizer or whether it functions as a nodal stabilizer after the nodal complex has been assembled...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143451/distinct-prostate-cancer-related-mrna-cargo-in-extracellular-vesicle-subsets-from-prostate-cell-lines
#17
Elisa Lázaro-Ibáñez, Taral R Lunavat, Su Chul Jang, Carmen Escobedo-Lucea, Jorge Oliver-De La Cruz, Pia Siljander, Jan Lötvall, Marjo Yliperttula
BACKGROUND: Multiple types of extracellular vesicles (EVs), including microvesicles (MVs) and exosomes (EXOs), are released by all cells constituting part of the cellular EV secretome. The bioactive cargo of EVs can be shuffled between cells and consists of lipids, metabolites, proteins, and nucleic acids, including multiple RNA species from non-coding RNAs to messenger RNAs (mRNAs). In this study, we hypothesized that the mRNA cargo of EVs could differ based on the EV cellular origin and subpopulation analyzed...
February 1, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134616/the-paranodal-cytoskeleton-clusters-na-channels-at-nodes-of-ranvier
#18
Veronique Amor, Chuansheng Zhang, Anna Vainshtein, Ao Zhang, Daniel R Zollinger, Yael Eshed-Eisenbach, Peter J Brophy, Matthew N Rasband, Elior Peles
A high density of Na(+) channels at nodes of Ranvier is necessary for rapid and efficient action potential propagation in myelinated axons. Na+ channel clustering is thought to depend on two axonal cell adhesion molecules that mediate interactions between the axon and myelinating glia at the nodal gap (i.e., NF186) and the paranodal junction (i.e., Caspr). Here we show that while Na(+) channels cluster at nodes in the absence of NF186, they fail to do so in double conditional knockout mice lacking both NF186 and the paranodal cell adhesion molecule Caspr, demonstrating that a paranodal junction-dependent mechanism can cluster Na(+) channels at nodes...
January 30, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130160/chelerythrine-promotes-ca-2-dependent-calpain-activation-in-neuronal-cells-in-a-pkc-independent-manner
#19
Ana Saavedra, Sara Fernández-García, Silvia Cases, Mar Puigdellívol, Rafael Alcalá-Vida, Núria Martín-Flores, Jordi Alberch, Silvia Ginés, Cristina Malagelada, Esther Pérez-Navarro
BACKGROUND: Chelerythrine is widely used as a broad range protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, but there is controversy about its inhibitory effect. Moreover, it has been shown to exert PKC-independent effects on non-neuronal cells. METHODS: In this study we investigated possible off-target effects of chelerythrine on cultured cortical rodent neurons and a neuronal cell line. RESULTS: We found that 10μM chelerythrine, a commonly used concentration in neuronal cultures, reduces PKC and cAMP-dependent protein kinase substrates phosphorylation in mouse cultured cortical neurons, but not in rat primary cortical neurons or in a striatal cell line...
April 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123494/sbdps-and-tau-proteins-for-diagnosis-and-hypothermia-therapy-in-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#20
Hongwei Wu, Zhenguang Li, Xia Yang, Jinfeng Liu, Wei Wang, Gang Liu
The use of spectrin breakdown products (SBDPs) and Tau protein levels for diagnosis and a mild hypothermia therapy for treatment of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) was evaluated. One hundred and fifty infants, with HIE within 12 h after birth, participated in the study. There were 30 newborns with mild symptoms, 60 with moderate symptoms, 60 with severe symptoms, and 30 in a control group. Regular therapy was used for the control and the mild HIE groups, and also for 30 cases in the group with moderate symptoms and for 30 in the group with severe symptoms...
January 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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