keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Spectrin

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098556/genetic-defects-in-%C3%AE-spectrin-and-tau-sensitize-c-elegans-axons-to-movement-induced-damage-via-torque-tension-coupling
#1
Michael Krieg, Jan Stühmer, Juan G Cueva, Richard Fetter, Kerri A Spliker, Daniel Cremers, Kang Shen, Alexander R Dunn, Miriam B Goodman
Our bodies are in constant motion and so are the neurons that invade each tissue. Motion-induced neuron deformation and damage are associated with several neurodegenerative conditions. Here, we investigated the question of how the neuronal cytoskeleton protects axons and dendrites from mechanical stress, exploiting mutations in UNC-70 β-spectrin, PTL-1 tau/MAP2-like and MEC-7 β-tubulin proteins in Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that mechanical stress induces supercoils and plectonemes in the sensory axons of spectrin and tau double mutants...
January 18, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090778/three-novel-spectrin-variants-in-jaundiced-neonates
#2
Robert D Christensen, Archana M Agarwal, Hassan M Yaish, N Scott Reading, Elizabeth A O'Brien, Josef T Prchal
Various mutations in the genes encoding alpha spectrin (SPTA1) or beta spectrin (SPTB) are known to cause erythrocyte membrane disorders, sometimes associated with severe neonatal jaundice and anemia. We used a next-generation sequencing panel to evaluate 3 unrelated neonates who had puzzling cases of nonimmune hemolytic jaundice. In each case, we identified novel mutations in either SPTA1 or SPTB. Correlating erythrocyte morphology, clinical course, and computational analysis, we submit that each of the 3 variants is a probable pathogenic cause of the hereditary hemolytic conditions in these patients...
January 1, 2017: Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089391/camsap3-dependent-microtubule-dynamics-regulates-golgi-assembly-in-epithelial-cells
#3
Jing Wang, Honglin Xu, Yuqiang Jiang, Mikiko Takahashi, Masatoshi Takeichi, Wenxiang Meng
The Golgi assembly pattern varies among cell types. In fibroblast cells, the Golgi apparatus concentrates around the centrosome that radiates microtubules; whereas in epithelial cells, whose microtubules are mainly noncentrosomal, the Golgi apparatus accumulates around the nucleus independently of centrosome. Little is known about the mechanisms behind such cell type-specific Golgi and microtubule organization. Here, we show that the microtubule minus-end binding protein Nezha/CAMSAP3 (calmodulin-regulated spectrin-associated protein 3) plays a role in translocation of Golgi vesicles in epithelial cells...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087633/the-abl-pathway-bifurcates-to-balance-enabled-and-rac-signaling-in-axon-patterning-in-drosophila
#4
Ramakrishnan Kannan, Jeong-Kuen Song, Tatiana Karpova, Akanni Clarke, Madhuri Shivalkar, Benjamin Wang, Lyudmila Kotlyanskaya, Irina Kuzina, Qun Gu, Edward Giniger
The Abl tyrosine kinase signaling network controls cell migration, epithelial organization, axon patterning and other aspects of development. While individual components are known, the relationships among them remain mysterious. We now use FRET measurements of pathway activity, analysis of protein localization and genetic epistasis to dissect the structure of this network in Drosophila We find that the adaptor protein Disabled stimulates Abl kinase activity. Abl suppresses the actin regulatory factor Enabled, and we find that Abl also acts through the GEF Trio to stimulate the signaling activity of Rac GTPase: Abl gates the activity of the spectrin repeats of Trio, allowing them to relieve intramolecular repression of Trio GEF activity by the Trio N-terminal domain...
January 13, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007575/the-mechanism-of-formation-structure-and-physiological-relevance-of-covalent-hemoglobin-attachment-to-the-erythrocyte-membrane
#5
Elizabeth M Welbourn, Michael T Wilson, Ashril Yusof, Metodi V Metodiev, Chris E Cooper
Covalent hemoglobin binding to membranes leads to band 3 (AE1) clustering and the removal of erythrocytes from the circulation; it is also implicated in blood storage lesions. Damaged hemoglobin, with the heme being in a redox and oxygen-binding inactive hemichrome form, has been implicated as the binding species. However, previous studies used strong non-physiological oxidants. In vivo hemoglobin is constantly being oxidised to methemoglobin (ferric), with around 1% of hemoglobin being in this form at any one time...
December 20, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003466/ultrastructural-anatomy-of-nodes-of-ranvier-in-the-peripheral-nervous-system-as-revealed-by-sted-microscopy
#6
Elisa D'Este, Dirk Kamin, Francisco Balzarotti, Stefan W Hell
We used stimulated emission depletion (STED) superresolution microscopy to analyze the nanoscale organization of 12 glial and axonal proteins at the nodes of Ranvier of teased sciatic nerve fibers. Cytoskeletal proteins of the axon (betaIV spectrin, ankyrin G) exhibit a high degree of one-dimensional longitudinal order at nodal gaps. In contrast, axonal and glial nodal adhesion molecules [neurofascin-186, neuron glial-related cell adhesion molecule (NrCAM)] can arrange in a more complex, 2D hexagonal-like lattice but still feature a ∼190-nm periodicity...
December 21, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997158/chaperone-like-activity-of-calnuc-prevents-amyloid-aggregation
#7
Madhavi Kanuru, Gopala Krishna Aradhyam
Calnuc is a ubiquitously expressed protein of the EF-hand Ca(2+)-binding superfamily. Previous studies have implicated it in Ca(2+)-sensitive physiological processes, whereas details of its function and involvement in human diseases are lacking. Drawing upon the sequence homology of calnuc with calreticulin, we propose it functions as a molecular chaperone-like protein. In cells under thermal, chemical [urea and guanidinium chloride (GdmCl)], and acidic stress, calnuc exhibits properties similar to those of established chaperone-like proteins (GRP78, spectrin, and α-crystallin), effectively demonstrated by its ability to suppress aggregation of malate dehydrogenase (MDH), alcohol dehydrogenase, and catalase...
December 20, 2016: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994169/subfunctionalization-of-paralogous-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptors-from-the-frog-xenopus-laevis-distinct-target-genes-and-differential-responses-to-specific-agonists-in-a-single-cell-type
#8
Scott H Freeburg, Eric Engelbrecht, Wade H Powell
Gene duplication confers genetic redundancy that can facilitate subfunctionalization, the partitioning of ancestral functions between paralogs. We capitalize on a recent genome duplication in Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog) to interrogate possible functional differentiation between alloalleles of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), a ligand-activated transcription factor that mediates toxicity of dioxin-like compounds and plays a role in the physiology and development of the cardiovascular, hepatic, and immune systems in vertebrates...
October 19, 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990119/oral-administration-of-sitagliptin-activates-creb-and-is-neuroprotective-in-murine-model-of-brain-trauma
#9
Brian DellaValle, Gitte S Brix, Birgitte Brock, Michael Gejl, Jørgen Rungby, Agnete Larsen
Introduction: Traumatic brain injury is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. We have previously shown that the injectable glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog, liraglutide, significantly improved the outcome in mice after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). In this study we are interested in the effects of oral treatment of a different class of GLP-1 based therapy, dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibition on mice after TBI. DPP-IV inhibitors reduce the degradation of endogenous GLP-1 and extend circulation of this protective peptide in the bloodstream...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979964/schwannomin-interacting-protein-1-isoform-iqcj-schip1-is-a-multi-partner-ankyrin-and-spectrin-binding-protein-involved-in-the-organization-of-nodes-of-ranvier
#10
Pierre-Marie Martin, Carmen Cifuentes-Diaz, Jérôme Devaux, Marta Garcia, Jocelyne Bureau, Sylvie Thomasseau, Esther Klingler, Jean-Antoine Girault, Laurence Goutebroze
Nodes of Ranvier are essential regions for action potential conduction in myelinated fibers. They are enriched in multimolecular complexes comprised of voltage-gated Nav and Kv7 channels associated with cell adhesion molecules. Cytoskeletal proteins ankyrin-G (AnkG) and βIV-spectrin control the organization of these complexes and provide mechanical support to the plasma membrane. IQCJ-SCHIP1 is a cytoplasmic protein present in axon initial segments and nodes of Ranvier. It interacts with AnkG and is absent from nodes and axon initial segments of βIV-spectrin and AnkG mutant mice...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978509/nuclear-functions-of-%C3%AE-2-spectrin-in-genomic-stability
#11
Kalpana Mujoo, Clayton R Hunt, Tej K Pandita
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 14, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974641/proper-cytoskeletal-architecture-beneath-the-plasma-membrane-of-red-blood-cells-requires-ttll4
#12
Faryal Ijaz, Yasue Hatanaka, Takahiro Hatanaka, Koji Tsutsumi, Takayuki Iwaki, Kazuo Umemura, Koji Ikegami, Mitsutoshi Setou
Mammalian red blood cells (RBCs) circulate through blood vessels, including capillaries, for tens of days under high mechanical stress. RBCs tolerate this mechanical stress while maintaining their shape because of their elastic membrane skeleton. This membrane skeleton consists of spectrin-actin lattices arranged as quasi-hexagonal units beneath the plasma membrane. In this study, we found that the organization of the RBC cytoskeleton requires tubulin tyrosine ligase-like 4 (Ttll4). RBCs from Ttll4-knockout mice showed larger average diameters in smear tests...
December 14, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958650/calmodulin-regulated-spectrin-associated-protein-1-mrna-is-directly-regulated-by-mir-126-in-primary-human-osteoblasts
#13
Sandra Strassburg, Nikita Nabar, Florian Lampert, Sebastian M Goerke, Dietmar Pfeifer, Günter Finkenzeller, G Björn Stark, Filip Simunovic
Vascularization is essential for bone development, fracture healing and bone tissue engineering. We have previously described that coculture of primary human osteoblasts (hOBs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) improves differentiation of both cell types. Investigating the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in this system, we found that miR-126 is highly upregulated in hOBs following coculturing with HUVECs. In this study we performed miR-126 gain-of-function and loss-of-function experiments in hOBs followed by microarray analysis in order to identify targets of miR-126...
December 13, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908790/mpp-inhibits-mglur1-5-mediated-long-term-depression-in-mouse-hippocampus-by-calpain-activation
#14
Junyao Li, Hui Chen, Shengbing Wu, Yuefa Cheng, Qinglin Li, Jing Wang, Guoqi Zhu
Neurotoxins are harmful to nervous system and cause either neuronal cell death or impairment of synaptic activity, which contributes to Parkinson's disease or other neuronal disorders. Hippocampal synaptic plasticity was proposed as a cellular model for memory processing. In this study, we reported a novel effect of neurotoxin, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)), on metabotropic glutamate receptor 1/5 agonist, 3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG)-induced hippocampal synaptic plasticity, and MPP(+) incubation blocked DHPG-induced hippocampal long-term depression (LTD) in Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses...
November 29, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907191/trio-a-rho-family-gef-interacts-with-the-presynaptic-active-zone-proteins-piccolo-and-bassoon
#15
Ryan T Terry-Lorenzo, Viviana I Torres, Dhananjay Wagh, Jose Galaz, Selene K Swanson, Laurence Florens, Michael P Washburn, Clarissa L Waites, Eckart D Gundelfinger, Richard J Reimer, Craig C Garner
Synaptic vesicles (SVs) fuse with the plasma membrane at a precise location called the presynaptic active zone (AZ). This fusion is coordinated by proteins embedded within a cytoskeletal matrix assembled at the AZ (CAZ). In the present study, we have identified a novel binding partner for the CAZ proteins Piccolo and Bassoon. This interacting protein, Trio, is a member of the Dbl family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) known to regulate the dynamic assembly of actin and growth factor dependent axon guidance and synaptic growth...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881663/periodic-actin-structures-in-neuronal-axons-are-required-to-maintain-microtubules
#16
Yue Qu, Ines Hahn, Stephen Webb, Simon P Pearce, Andreas Prokop
Axons are the cable-like neuronal processes wiring the nervous system. They contain parallel bundles of microtubules as structural backbones, surrounded by regularly-spaced actin rings termed the periodic membrane skeleton (PMS). Despite being an evolutionarily-conserved, ubiquitous, highly-ordered feature of axons, the function of PMS is unknown. Here we studied PMS abundance, organisation and function, combining versatile Drosophila genetics with super-resolution microscopy and various functional readouts...
November 23, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863449/il6-mediated-inflammatory-loop-reprograms-normal-to-emt-metastatic-cscs-in-pre-neoplastic-liver-of-tgf%C3%AE-deficient-%C3%AE-2sp-mice
#17
Abhisek Mitra, Jun Yan, Xueqing Xia, Shouhao Zhou, Jian Chen, Lopa Mishra, Shulin Li
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second-leading cause of cancer-related deaths world-wide with poor survival rate. As many as 40% of HCCs are clonal, with alteration of key tumor suppressor pathways in stem cells is the primary cause of HCC initiation. However, mechanisms that generate metastatic stem cells in pre-neoplastic liver tissue are not well understood. We hypothesized that chronic inflammation is a major driver of the transformation of genetically defective liver stem cells (LSCs) into highly metastatic liver cancer cells in premalignant liver tissue...
November 18, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857681/early-cytoskeletal-protein-modifications-precede-overt-structural-degeneration-in-the-dba-2j-mouse-model-of-glaucoma
#18
Gina N Wilson, Matthew A Smith, Denise M Inman, Christine M Dengler-Crish, Samuel D Crish
Axonal transport deficits precede structural loss in glaucoma and other neurodegenerations. Impairments in structural support, including modified cytoskeletal proteins, and microtubule-destabilizing elements, could be initiating factors in glaucoma pathogenesis. We investigated the time course of changes in protein levels and post-translational modifications in the DBA/2J mouse model of glaucoma. Using anterograde tract tracing of the retinal projection, we assessed major cytoskeletal and transported elements as a function of transport integrity in different stages of pathological progression...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856737/global-transformation-of-erythrocyte-properties-via-engagement-of-an-sh2-like-sequence-in-band-3
#19
Estela Puchulu-Campanella, Francesco M Turrini, Yen-Hsing Li, Philip S Low
Src homology 2 (SH2) domains are composed of weakly conserved sequences of ∼100 aa that bind phosphotyrosines in signaling proteins and thereby mediate intra- and intermolecular protein-protein interactions. In exploring the mechanism whereby tyrosine phosphorylation of the erythrocyte anion transporter, band 3, triggers membrane destabilization, vesiculation, and fragmentation, we discovered a SH2 signature motif positioned between membrane-spanning helices 4 and 5. Evidence that this exposed cytoplasmic sequence contributes to a functional SH2-like domain is provided by observations that: (i) it contains the most conserved sequence of SH2 domains, GSFLVR; (ii) it binds the tyrosine phosphorylated cytoplasmic domain of band 3 (cdb3-PO4) with Kd = 14 nM; (iii) binding of cdb3-PO4 to erythrocyte membranes is inhibited both by antibodies against the SH2 signature sequence and dephosphorylation of cdb3-PO4; (iv) label transfer experiments demonstrate the covalent transfer of photoactivatable biotin from isolated cdb3-PO4 (but not cdb3) to band 3 in erythrocyte membranes; and (v) phosphorylation-induced binding of cdb3-PO4 to the membrane-spanning domain of band 3 in intact cells causes global changes in membrane properties, including (i) displacement of a glycolytic enzyme complex from the membrane, (ii) inhibition of anion transport, and (iii) rupture of the band 3-ankyrin bridge connecting the spectrin-based cytoskeleton to the membrane...
November 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836504/nuclear-mechanical-resilience-but-not-stiffness-is-modulated-by-%C3%AE-ii-spectrin
#20
Travis J Armiger, Stephen T Spagnol, Kris Noel Dahl
Spectrins are multi-domain, elastic proteins that provide elasticity to the plasma membrane of erythrocytes and select nucleated cells. Spectrins have also been found in the nucleus of non-erythrocytes, but their function remains to be uncovered. It has been hypothesized that a spring-like spectrin network exists within the lamina nucleoskeleton, however, experiments testing a spectrin network׳s mechanical impact on the nucleus are lacking. Here, we knock-down levels of nuclear αII-spectrin with the goal of disrupting this nucleoskeletal spectrin network...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
keyword
keyword
76072
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"