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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494946/tropomodulins-and-leiomodins-actin-pointed-end-caps-and-nucleators-in-muscles
#1
REVIEW
Velia M Fowler, Roberto Dominguez
Cytoskeletal structures characterized by actin filaments with uniform lengths, including the thin filaments of striated muscles and the spectrin-based membrane skeleton, use barbed and pointed-end capping proteins to control subunit addition/dissociation at filament ends. While several proteins cap the barbed end, tropomodulins (Tmods), a family of four closely related isoforms in vertebrates, are the only proteins known to specifically cap the pointed end. Tmods are ∼350 amino acids in length, and comprise alternating tropomyosin- and actin-binding sites (TMBS1, ABS1, TMBS2, and ABS2)...
May 9, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476036/adducin-in-tumorigenesis-and-metastasis
#2
REVIEW
Cong Luo, Jiayu Shen
Adducin is a membrane-skeletal protein localized at spectrin-actin junctions, involving in the formation of the network of cytoskeleton, cellular signal transduction, ionic transportation, cell motility and cell proliferation. While previous researches focused mainly on the relationship between adducin and hypertension, there are few studies focusing on the role of adducin in tumor. Previous studies showed that adducin played a role in the evolution and progression of neoplasm. This review makes a brief summary on the structure, function and mechanism of adducin and how adducin functions in tumorigenesis and metastasis...
April 18, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469474/in-vitro-neurotoxicity-resulting-from-exposure-of-cultured-neural-cells-to-several-types-of-nanoparticles
#3
REVIEW
Stephen F Larner, Jonathan Wang, Jared Goodman, Megan B O'Donoghue Altman, Meiguo Xin, Kevin K W Wang
Laboratory and industrial production of various nanoparticles, single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs), fullerene (C60), cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots, carbon black (CB), and dye-doped silica nanospheres (NSs), has greatly increased in the past 15 years. However, little research has been done to analyze the toxicity of these materials. With recent studies showing that nano-substances can cross the blood-brain barrier, we examined the neurotoxicity of these manufactured nanoparticles. By employing the rat PC-12 neuronal-like cell line as the basis for our studies, we were able to evaluate the toxicity caused by these five nanoparticles...
2017: Journal of Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455372/regulation-of-neuromuscular-junction-organization-by-rab2-and-its-effector-ica69-in-drosophila
#4
Bhagaban Mallik, Manish Kumar Dwivedi, Zeeshan Mushtaq, Manisha Kumari, Praveen Kumar Verma, Vimlesh Kumar
Mechanisms underlying synaptic differentiation, which involves neuronal membrane and cytoskeletal remodeling, are not completely understood. We performed a targeted RNAi-mediated screen of Drosophila BAR-domain proteins and identified islet cell autoantigen 69 kDa (dICA69) as one of the key regulators of morphological differentiation of larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ). We show that Drosophila ICA69 colocalizes with α-Spectrin at the NMJ. The conserved N-BAR domain of dICA69 deforms liposomes in vitro Full length and ICAC but not the N-BAR domain of dICA69 induces filopodia in cultured cells...
April 28, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447420/red-cell-membrane-disorders
#5
REVIEW
J Narla, N Mohandas
Significant advances have been made in our understanding of the structural basis for altered cell function in various inherited red cell membrane disorders with reduced red cell survival and resulting hemolytic anemia. The current review summarizes these advances as they relate to defining the molecular and structural basis for disorders involving altered membrane structural organization (hereditary spherocytosis [HS] and hereditary elliptocytosis [HE]) and altered membrane transport function (hereditary overhydrated stomatocytosis and hereditary xerocytosis)...
May 2017: International Journal of Laboratory Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432466/calpain-inhibition-prevents-flotillin-re-ordering-and-src-family-activation-during-capacitation
#6
Deneb Maldonado-García, Monica L Salgado-Lucio, Ana L Roa-Espitia, Tania Reyes-Miguel, Enrique O Hernández-González
Prior to fertilization, mammalian sperm undergo several molecular, biochemical and physiological changes in a process termed capacitation. However, the mechanisms explaining the involvement of cytoskeletal remodeling and membrane re-ordering in each process prior to fertilization remain poorly understood. We found that the migration of both flotillin microdomains and Src family kinases towards the apical ridge of guinea pig sperm occurs under capacitating conditions. This re-ordering is associated with spectrin cleavage by calpain...
April 22, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393279/non-equilibrium-hydrogen-exchange-for-determination-of-h-bond-strength-and-water-accessibility-in-solid-proteins
#7
Kristof Grohe, Kumar Tekwani Movellan, Suresh Kumar Vasa, Karin Giller, Stefan Becker, Rasmus Linser
We demonstrate measurement of non-equilibrium backbone amide hydrogen-deuterium exchange rates (HDX) for solid proteins. The target of this study are the slowly exchanging residues in solid samples, which are associated with stable secondary-structural elements of proteins. These hydrogen exchange processes escape methods measuring equilibrium exchange rates of faster processes. The method was applied to a micro-crystalline preparation of the SH3 domain of chicken α-spectrin. Therefore, from a 100% back-exchanged micro-crystalline protein preparation, the supernatant buffer was exchanged by a partially deuterated buffer to reach a final protonation level of approximately 20% before packing the sample in a 1...
April 9, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular NMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390868/small-nucleolar-noncoding-rna-snora23-upregulated-in-human-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma-regulates-expression-of-syne2-to-promote-growth-and-metastasis-of-xenograft-tumors-in-mice
#8
Lin Cui, Kenji Nakano, Sumalee Obchoei, Kiyoko Setoguchi, Masaki Matsumoto, Tsuyoshi Yamamoto, Satoshi Obika, Kazuaki Shimada, Nobuyoshi Hiraoka
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Small nucleolar noncoding RNAs (snoRNAs) regulate function of ribosomes, and specific snoRNAs are dysregulated in some cancer cells. We investigated dysregulation of snoRNAs in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells. METHODS: We investigated snoRNA expression in PDAC cell lines by cDNA microarray and quantitative reverse transcription (qRT)-PCR. In PDAC (n=133), intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN, n=16), mucinous cystic neoplasm-associated PDAC (n=1), and non-tumor pancreas (n=8) and liver (n=3) tissues from subjects who underwent surgical resection, levels of snoRNA were measured by qRT-PCR and compared with clinicopathological parameters and survival times determined by Kaplan Meier analysis...
April 5, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386021/camsap3-accumulates-in-the-pericentrosomal-area-and-accompanies-microtubules-release-from-the-centrosome-via-katanin
#9
Congcong Dong, Honglin Xu, Rui Zhang, Nobutoshi Tanaka, Masatoshi Takeichi, Wenxiang Meng
The epithelium has apico-basal axis polarity that plays an important role in absorption, excretion and other physiological functions. In epithelial cells, a substantial number of noncentrosomal microtubules (MTs) are scattered in the cytoplasm with an apico-basal polarity to adapt to these complex functions. Several previous studies have found that noncentrosomal MTs are nucleated at the centrosome, and then released and translocated elsewhere. However, the detailed process and molecular mechanism remains largely unknown...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373029/effect-of-ph-on-stability-conformation-and-chaperone-activity-of-erythroid-non-erythroid-spectrin
#10
Dipayan Bose, Malay Patra, Abhijit Chakrabarti
Spectrin, a major component of the eukaryotic membrane skeleton, has been shown to have chaperone like activity. Here we investigate the pH induced changes in the structure and stability of erythroid and brain spectrin by spectroscopic methods. We also correlate these changes with modulations of chaperone potential at different pH. We have followed the pH induced structural changes by circular dichroism spectroscopy and intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence. It is seen that lowering the pH from 9 has little effect on structure of the proteins till about pH6...
June 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364024/angiotensin-ii-peptide-vaccine-protects-ischemic-brain-through-reducing-oxidative-stress
#11
Kouji Wakayama, Munehisa Shimamura, Jun-Ichi Suzuki, Ryo Watanabe, Hiroshi Koriyama, Hiroshi Akazawa, Hironori Nakagami, Hideki Mochizuki, Mitsuaki Isobe, Ryuichi Morishita
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Medication nonadherence is one of major risk factors for the poor outcome in ischemic stroke. Vaccination is expected to solve such a problem because of its long-lasting effects, but its effect on ischemic brain damage is still unknown. Here, we focused on vaccination for renin-angiotensin system and examined the effects of angiotensin II (Ang II) peptide vaccine in permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion model in rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were exposed to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion after 3× injections of Ang II peptide vaccine, and the serum or brain level of anti-Ang II antibody was examined...
March 31, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342966/time-courses-of-post-injury-mitochondrial-oxidative-damage-and-respiratory-dysfunction-and-neuronal-cytoskeletal-degradation-in-a-rat-model-of-focal-traumatic-brain-injury
#12
Rachel L Hill, Indrapal N Singh, Juan A Wang, Edward D Hall
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in rapid reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and oxidative damage to essential brain cellular components leading to neuronal dysfunction and cell death. It is increasingly appreciated that a major player in TBI-induced oxidative damage is the reactive nitrogen species (RNS) peroxynitrite (PN) which is produced in large part in injured brain mitochondria. Once formed, PN decomposes into highly reactive free radicals that trigger membrane lipid peroxidation (LP) of polyunsaturated fatty acids (e...
March 23, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342965/effects-of-i2-imidazoline-receptor-ir-alkylating-bu99006-in-the-mouse-brain-upregulation-of-nischarin-i1-ir-and-%C3%AE-opioid-receptor-proteins-and-modulation-of-associated-signalling-pathways
#13
Benjamin Keller, Jesús A García-Sevilla
5-isothiocyanato-2-benzofuranyl-2-imidazoline (BU99006) was shown to selectively and irreversibly bind to I2-imidazoline receptors (IRs) in vitro and in vivo, but cell signalling consequences of I2-IR alkylation have not been reported previously. This study assessed by Western blot the effects of BU99006 on nischarin (candidate I1-IR), μ-OR (regulated by nischarin) and associated signalling mediators in the mouse brain. Acute treatment with BU99006 (20 mg/kg, i.p., 1-3 h) led to fast (peak at 1 h) and shortlasting (decline up to 3 h) upregulation of nischarin and μ-OR contents in the hippocampus (less or non-significant effects in cortex) and altered the expression of cytoskeletal β-actin (reduced contents at 3 h)...
March 23, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320404/tryptophan-rich-domains-of-plasmodium-falciparum-surfin4-2-and-plasmodium-vivax-pvstp2-interact-with-membrane-skeleton-of-red-blood-cell
#14
Xiaotong Zhu, Yang He, Yifan Liang, Osamu Kaneko, Liwang Cui, Yaming Cao
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum dramatically alters the morphology and properties of the infected red blood cells (iRBCs). A large group of exported proteins participate in these parasite-host interactions occurring at the iRBC membrane skeleton. SURFIN4.2 is one of iRBC surface protein that belongs to surface-associated interspersed protein (SURFIN) family. Although the intracellular tryptophan-rich domain (WRD) was proposed to be important for the translocation of SURFINs from Maurer's clefts to iRBC surface, the molecular basis of this observation has yet to be defined...
March 20, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318976/assembly-of-cns-nodes-of-ranvier-in-myelinated-nerves-is-promoted-by-the-axon-cytoskeleton
#15
Veronica Brivio, Catherine Faivre-Sarrailh, Elior Peles, Diane L Sherman, Peter J Brophy
Nodes of Ranvier in the axons of myelinated neurons are exemplars of the specialized cell surface domains typical of polarized cells. They are rich in voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav) and thus underpin rapid nerve impulse conduction in the vertebrate nervous system [1]. Although nodal proteins cluster in response to myelination, how myelin-forming glia influence nodal assembly is poorly understood. An axoglial adhesion complex comprising glial Neurofascin155 and axonal Caspr/Contactin flanks mature nodes [2]...
April 3, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290154/the-role-of-calpains-in-ventilator-induced-diaphragm-atrophy
#16
Xiaoping Zhu, Hieronymus W H van Hees, Leo Heunks, Feifei Wang, Lei Shao, Jiaru Huang, Lei Shi, Shaolin Ma
BACKGROUND: Controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV) is associated with diaphragm dysfunction. Dysfunction results from muscle atrophy and injury of diaphragm muscle fibers. Enhanced proteolysis and reduced protein synthesis play an important role in the development of atrophy. The current study is to evaluate the effects of the calpains inhibitor calpeptin on the development of diaphragm atrophy and activation of key enzymes of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in rats under CMV. METHODS: Three groups of rats were studied: control animals (CON, n = 8), rats subjected to 24 h of MV (CMV, n = 8), and rats subjected to 24 h of MV after administration of the calpain inhibitor calpeptin (CMVC, n = 8)...
December 2017: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290147/temporal-profile-and-severity-correlation-of-a-panel-of-rat-spinal-cord-injury-protein-biomarkers
#17
Zhihui Yang, Helen M Bramlett, Ahmed Moghieb, Dongnan Yu, Ping Wang, Fan Lin, Carl Bauer, Tyler M Selig, Emily Jaalouk, Amanda S Weissman, Disa S Rathore, Pammela Romo, Zhiqun Zhang, Ronald L Hayes, Michael Y Wang, W Dalton Dietrich, Kevin K W Wang
In the USA, there are approximately 12,000 new cases of spinal cord injury (SCI) each year and some 1.2 million people living with paralysis due to SCI. Seven percent of them are paralyzed due to an accident or injury occurring while serving in the military. Here, we report a systematic study on protein biomarker candidates in a rat SCI model with either moderate or severe injury. Tissue, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and serum samples were obtained at 4 h, 24 h, and 7 days post-injury. The candidate biomarkers included axonal injury markers αII-spectrin breakdown products (SBDP150/145/120), neuronal cell body injury marker ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1), astrogliosis/astroglial injury markers S100 calcium-binding protein-β (S100β), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and GFAP breakdown products (GBDPs), demyelination marker myelin basic protein (MBP), axonal injury marker phosphorylated neurofilament-H (pNF-H), and neuroinflammation marker interleukin-6 (IL-6)...
March 13, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283886/protein-characterization-of-extracellular-microvesicles-exosomes-released-from-cytotoxin-challenged-rat-cerebrocortical-mixed-culture-and-mouse-n2a-cells
#18
Dhwani Kumar, Rachna Manek, Vijaya Raghavan, Kevin K Wang
A number of neuronal and glial proteins were previously found to be released in free-standing soluble form from cultured brain cells into cell-conditioned media. Here, we sought to examine if similar proteins are also contained in neural and astroglial cell-released extracellular microvesicles/exosomes (MV/E). In this study, MV/E were isolated from cell-conditioned media from control and cytotoxin-challenged rat cerebrocortical mixed culture (CTX) and mouse neuroblastoma N2a cells. Cytotoxin challenges included pro-necrosis calcium ionophore A23187, pro-apoptosis staurosporine (STS), and excitotoxin N-methyl-D-aspartate...
March 10, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241082/modeling-of-the-axon-membrane-skeleton-structure-and-implications-for-its-mechanical-properties
#19
Yihao Zhang, Krithika Abiraman, He Li, David M Pierce, Anastasios V Tzingounis, George Lykotrafitis
Super-resolution microscopy recently revealed that, unlike the soma and dendrites, the axon membrane skeleton is structured as a series of actin rings connected by spectrin filaments that are held under tension. Currently, the structure-function relationship of the axonal structure is unclear. Here, we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to show that the stiffness of the axon plasma membrane is significantly higher than the stiffnesses of dendrites and somata. To examine whether the structure of the axon plasma membrane determines its overall stiffness, we introduced a coarse-grain molecular dynamics model of the axon membrane skeleton that reproduces the structure identified by super-resolution microscopy...
February 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237317/a-calpain-inhibitor-ameliorates-seizure-burden-in-an-experimental-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#20
Philip M Lam, Jessica Carlsen, Marco I González
In this study, we used the pilocarpine model of epilepsy to evaluate the involvement of calpain dysregulation on epileptogenesis. Detection of spectrin breakdown products (SBDPs, a hallmark of calpain activation) after induction of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) and before appearance of spontaneous seizure suggested the existence of sustained calpain activation during epileptogenesis. Acute treatment with a cell permeable inhibitor of calpain, MDL-28170, resulted in a partial but significant reduction on seizure burden...
June 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
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