keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Spectrin

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227552/microfluidics-assisted-tirf-imaging-to-study-single-actin-filament-dynamics
#1
Shashank Shekhar
Dynamic assembly of actin filaments is essential for many cellular processes. The rates of assembly and disassembly of actin filaments are intricately controlled by regulatory proteins that interact with the ends and the sides of filaments and with actin monomers. TIRF-based single-filament imaging techniques have proven instrumental in uncovering mechanisms of actin regulation. In this unit, novel single-filament approaches using microfluidics-assisted TIRF imaging are described. These methods can be used to grow anchored actin filaments aligned in a flow, thus making the analysis much easier as compared to open flow cell approaches...
December 11, 2017: Current Protocols in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221897/comparative-mechanical-unfolding-studies-of-spectrin-domains-r15-r16-and-r17
#2
Anna V Glyakina, Ilya V Likhachev, Nikolay K Balabaev, Oxana V Galzitskaya
Spectrins belong to repetitive three-helix bundle proteins that have vital functions in multicellular organisms and are of potential value in nanotechnology. To reveal the unique physical features of repeat proteins we have studied the structural and mechanical properties of three repeats of chicken brain α-spectrin (R15, R16 and R17) at the atomic level under stretching at constant velocities (0.01, 0.05 and 0.1Å·ps-1) and constant forces (700 and900pN) using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations at T = 300K...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207108/integrated-analysis-of-gene-expression-and-copy-number-variations-in-met-proto%C3%A2-oncogene%C3%A2-transformed-human-primary-osteoblasts
#3
Ru-Jiang Jia, Chun-Gen Lan, Xiu-Chao Wang, Chun-Tao Gao
The aim of the present study was to screen the potential osteosarcoma (OS)‑associated genes and to obtain additional insight into the pathogenesis of OS. Transcriptional profile (ID: GSE28256) and copy number variations (CNV) profile were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between MET proto‑oncogene‑transformed human primary osteoblast (MET‑HOB) samples and the control samples were identified using the Linear Models for Microarray Data package. Subsequently, CNV areas and CNVs were identified using cut‑off criterion of >30%‑overlap within the cases using detect_cnv...
November 22, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203228/mild-fluid-percussion-injury-induces-diffuse-axonal-damage-and-reactive-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-mouse-olfactory-bulb
#4
Melissa A Powell, Raiford T Black, Terry L Smith, Thomas M Reeves, Linda L Phillips
Despite the regenerative capacity of the olfactory bulb (OB), head trauma causes olfactory disturbances in up to 30% of patients. While models of olfactory nerve transection, olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) ablation, or direct OB impact have been used to examine OB recovery, these models are severe and not ideal for study of OB synaptic repair. We posited that a mild fluid percussion brain injury (mFPI), delivered over mid-dorsal cortex, would produce diffuse OB deafferentation without confounding pathology...
December 1, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199132/brainphys%C3%A2-increases-neurofilament-levels-in-cns-cultures-and-facilitates-investigation-of-axonal-damage-after-a-mechanical-stretch-injury-in-vitro
#5
Travis C Jackson, Shawn E Kotermanski, Edwin K Jackson, Patrick M Kochanek
Neurobasal®/B27 is a gold standard culture media used to study primary neurons in vitro. An alternative media (BrainPhys®/SM1) was recently developed which robustly enhances neuronal activity vs. Neurobasal® or DMEM. To the best of our knowledge BrainPhys® has not been explored in the setting of neuronal injury. Here we characterized the utility of BrainPhys® in a model of in vitro mechanical-stretch injury. METHODS/RESULTS: Primary rat cortical neurons were maintained in classic Neurobasal®, or sequentially maintained in Neurocult® followed by BrainPhys® (hereafter simply referred to as "BrainPhys® maintained neurons")...
November 30, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196973/a-novel-homozygous-mutation-in-sptbn2-leads-to-spinocerebellar-ataxia-in-a-consanguineous-family-report-of-a-new-infantile-onset-case-and-brief-review-of-the-literature
#6
Mohammad A Al-Muhaizea, Faten AlMutairi, Rawan Almass, Safinaz AlHarthi, Mazhor S Aldosary, Maysoon Alsagob, Ali AlOdaib, Dilek Colak, Namik Kaya
The objective of this study was the identification of likely genes and mutations associated with an autosomal recessive (AR) rare spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) phenotype in two patients with infantile onset, from a consanguineous family. Using genome-wide SNP screening, autozygosity mapping, targeted Sanger sequencing and nextgen sequencing, family segregation analysis, and comprehensive neuropanel, we discovered a novel mutation in SPTBN2. Next, we utilized multiple sequence alignment of amino acids from various species as well as crystal structures provided by protein data bank (PDB# 1WYQ and 1WJM) to model the mutation site and its effect on β-III-spectrin...
December 1, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188495/protein-biomarkers-and-neuroproteomics-characterization-of-microvesicles-exosomes-from-human-cerebrospinal-fluid-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#7
Rachna Manek, Ahmed Moghieb, Zhihui Yang, Dhwani Kumar, Firas Kobessiy, George Anis Sarkis, Vijaya Raghavan, Kevin K W Wang
Recently, there have been emerging interests in the area of microvesicles and exosome (MV/E) released from brain cells in relation to neurodegenerative diseases. However, only limited studies focused on MV/E released post-traumatic brain injury (TBI) as they highlight on the mechanistic roles of released proteins. This study sought to examine if CSF samples from severe TBI patients contain MV/E with unique protein contents. First, nanoparticle tracking analysis determined MV/E from TBI have a mode of 74-98 nm in diameter, while control CSF MV/E have a mode of 99-104 nm...
November 29, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167561/automated-quantification-of-protein-periodic-nanostructures-in-fluorescence-nanoscopy-images-abundance-and-regularity-of-neuronal-spectrin-membrane-associated-skeleton
#8
Federico M Barabas, Luciano A Masullo, Martín D Bordenave, Sebastián A Giusti, Nicolás Unsain, Damián Refojo, Alfredo Cáceres, Fernando D Stefani
Fluorescence nanoscopy imaging permits the observation of periodic supramolecular protein structures in their natural environment, as well as the unveiling of previously unknown protein periodic structures. Deciphering the biological functions of such protein nanostructures requires systematic and quantitative analysis of large number of images under different experimental conditions and specific stimuli. Here we present a method and an open source software for the automated quantification of protein periodic structures in super-resolved images...
November 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163198/ankyrins-and-spectrins-in-cardiovascular-biology-and-disease
#9
REVIEW
Mona M El Refaey, Peter J Mohler
Ankyrins are adaptor proteins critical for the expression and targeting of cardiac membrane proteins, signaling molecules, and cytoskeletal elements. Findings in humans and animal models have highlighted the in vivo roles for ankyrins in normal physiology and in cardiovascular disease, most notably in cardiac arrhythmia. For example, human ANK2 loss-of-function variants are associated with a complex array of electrical and structural phenotypes now termed "ankyrin-B syndrome," whereas alterations in the ankyrin-G pathway for Nav channel targeting are associated with human Brugada syndrome...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152136/postnatal-calpain-inhibition-elicits-cerebellar-cell-death-and-motor-dysfunction
#10
Junyao Li, Sanjuan Yang, Guoqi Zhu
Calpain-1 deletion elicits neurodevelopmental disorders, such as ataxia. However, the function of calpain in postnatal neurodevelopment and its mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we revealed that postnatal intraperitoneal injection of various calpain inhibitors attenuated cerebellar cytosolic calpain activity. Moreover, postnatal application of calpeptin (2 mg/kg) apparently reduced spectrin breakdown, promoted suprachiasmatic nucleus circadian oscillatory protein (SCOP) accumulation in cerebellar tissue...
October 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128512/the-role-of-%C3%AE-ii-spectrin-in-cardiac-health-and-disease
#11
REVIEW
Mohamed H Derbala, Aaron S Guo, Peter J Mohler, Sakima A Smith
Spectrins are large, flexible proteins comprised of α-β dimers that are connected head-to-head to form the canonical heterotetrameric spectrin structure. Spectrins were initially believed to be exclusively found in human erythrocytic membrane and are highly conserved among different species. βII spectrin, the most common isoform of non-erythrocytic spectrin, is found in all nucleated cells and forms larger macromolecular complexes with ankyrins and actins. Not only is βII spectrin a central cytoskeletal scaffolding protein involved in preserving cell structure but it has also emerged as a critical protein required for distinct physiologic functions such as posttranslational localization of crucial membrane proteins and signal transduction...
November 9, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126932/docosahexaenoic-acid-dha-enhances-the-therapeutic-potential-of-neonatal-neural-stem-cell-transplantation-post-traumatic-brain-injury
#12
Hussein Ghazale, Naify Ramadan, Sara Mantash, Kazem Zibara, Sally El-Sitt, Hala Darwish, Farah Chamaa, Rose Mary Boustany, Stefania Mondello, Wassim Abou-Kheir, Jihane Soueid, Firas Kobeissy
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability worldwide with 1.5 million people inflicted yearly. Several neurotherapeutic interventions have been proposed including drug administration as well as cellular therapy involving neural stem cells (NSCs). Among the proposed drugs is docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a polyunsaturated fatty acid, exhibiting neuroprotective properties. In this study, we utilized an innovative intervention of neonatal NSCs transplantation in combination with DHA injections in order to ameliorate brain damage and promote functional recovery in an experimental model of TBI...
November 7, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116080/structural-basis-for-high-affinity-actin-binding-revealed-by-a-%C3%AE-iii-spectrin-sca5-missense-mutation
#13
Adam W Avery, Michael E Fealey, Fengbin Wang, Albina Orlova, Andrew R Thompson, David D Thomas, Thomas S Hays, Edward H Egelman
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 5 (SCA5) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by mutations in the cytoskeletal protein β-III-spectrin. Previously, a SCA5 mutation resulting in a leucine-to-proline substitution (L253P) in the actin-binding domain (ABD) was shown to cause a 1000-fold increase in actin-binding affinity. However, the structural basis for this increase is unknown. Here, we report a 6.9 Å cryo-EM structure of F-actin complexed with the L253P ABD. This structure, along with co-sedimentation and pulsed-EPR measurements, demonstrates that high-affinity binding caused by the CH2-localized mutation is due to opening of the two CH domains...
November 7, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115457/identification-of-biomarkers-for-childhood-obesity-based-on-expressional-correlation-and-functional-similarity
#14
Zheng-Lun Zhu, Qiu-Meng Yang, Chen Li, Jun Chen, Min Xiang, Ming-Min Chen, Min Yan, Zheng-Gang Zhu
The aim of the current study was to identify potential biomarkers of childhood obesity, and investigate molecular mechanisms and candidate agents in order to improve therapeutic strategies for childhood obesity. The GSE9624 gene expression profile was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in omental adipose tissues were analyzed with limma package by comparing samples from obese and normal control children. Two‑way hierarchical clustering was applied using the pheatmap package...
October 27, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115431/genetic-diagnosis-and-pathogenic-analysis-of-an-atypical-hereditary-spherocytosis-combined-with-ugt1a1-partial-deficiency-a-case-report
#15
Yan Yi, Xiqiang Dang, Yonggui Li, Chenyu Zhao, Haiyan Tang, Xiaoliu Shi
Patients with combined hereditary spherocytosis (HS) and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) deficiency have been reported sporadically. A discrepancy between the level of elevated serum bilirubin concentration and the degree of anemia may suggest the possibility of a coexistence of these conditions. In the present case report, a 20‑year‑old female presented with congenital jaundice and anemia, but did not present with the discrepancy between hyperbilirubinemia and anemia in the patient's childhood, and was not previously diagnosed with either HS or UGT1A1 deficiency...
October 25, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109170/l1-coupling-to-ankyrin-and-the-spectrin-actin-cytoskeleton-modulates-ethanol-inhibition-of-l1-adhesion-and-ethanol-teratogenesis
#16
Xiaowei Dou, Carrie Menkari, Rei Mitsuyama, Tatiana Foroud, Leah Wetherill, Peter Hammond, Michael Suttie, Xiaopan Chen, Shao-Yu Chen, Michael E Charness
Ethanol causes fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) partly by inhibiting cell adhesion mediated by the L1 neural cell adhesion molecule. Ethanol interacts with an alcohol binding pocket in the L1 extracellular domain (ECD), and dephosphorylation of S1248 in the L1 cytoplasmic domain (CD) renders L1 adhesion insensitive to inhibition by ethanol (L1 insensitive). The mechanism underlying this inside-out signaling is unknown. Here we show that phosphorylation of the human L1-CD at S1152, Y1176, S1181, and S1248 renders L1 sensitive to ethanol by promoting L1 coupling with ankyrin-G and the spectrin-actin cytoskeleton...
November 6, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104429/role-of-melatonin-in-reducing-amphetamine-induced-degeneration-in-substantia-nigra-of-rats-via-calpain-and-calpastatin-interaction
#17
Jirapa Chetsawang, Sujira Mukda, Rachneekorn Srimokra, Piyarat Govitrapong, Banthit Chetsawang
Excessive intracellular calcium levels induce calpain activation, thereby triggering the cell death cascade. Several lines of evidence have demonstrated the neuroprotective role of the overexpression of calpain inhibitor, calpastatin. In this study, amphetamine-induced degeneration in the substantia nigra of rats was determined by evaluating the decrease in the levels of tyrosine hydroxylase phosphorylation. Amphetamine significantly decreased calpastatin levels but increased calpain levels. An induction in calpain activity was demonstrated by an increase in the formation of calpain spectrin breakdown products...
2017: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104086/an-easy-to-use-fret-protein-substrate-to-detect-calpain-cleavage-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#18
Christian-Scott E McCartney, James A MacLeod, Peter A Greer, Peter L Davies
Calpain-1 and -2 are Ca(2+)-activated intracellular cysteine proteases that regulate a wide range of cellular functions through the cleavage of their protein substrates. Unlike degradative proteases, calpains make limited, transformative cleavages, typically in accessible sequences linking discrete subdomains, to irreversibly alter substrate functions. The biological roles of calpain and their interplay with calcium signaling are of significant biomedical interest as biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets in a growing number of diseases including Alzheimer's, cancer and fibrosis...
November 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094334/quantitative-mass-spectrometry-of-human-reticulocytes-reveal-proteome-wide-modifications-during-maturation
#19
Trang T T Chu, Ameya Sinha, Benoit Malleret, Rossarin Suwanarusk, Jung E Park, Renugah Naidu, Rupambika Das, Bamaprasad Dutta, Seow Theng Ong, Navin K Verma, Jerry K Chan, François Nosten, Laurent Rénia, Siu K Sze, Bruce Russell, Rajesh Chandramohanadas
Erythropoiesis is marked by progressive changes in morphological, biochemical and mechanical properties of erythroid precursors to generate red blood cells (RBC). The earliest enucleated forms derived in this process, known as reticulocytes, are multi-lobular and spherical. As reticulocytes mature, they undergo a series of dynamic cytoskeletal re-arrangements and the expulsion of residual organelles, resulting in highly deformable biconcave RBCs (normocytes). To understand the significant, yet neglected proteome-wide changes associated with reticulocyte maturation, we undertook a quantitative proteomics approach...
November 2, 2017: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078305/%C3%AE-iii-spectrin-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-5-mutation-reveals-a-dominant-cytoskeletal-mechanism-that-underlies-dendritic-arborization
#20
Adam W Avery, David D Thomas, Thomas S Hays
A spinocerebellar ataxia type 5 (SCA5) L253P mutation in the actin-binding domain (ABD) of β-III-spectrin causes high-affinity actin binding and decreased thermal stability in vitro. Here we show in mammalian cells, at physiological temperature, that the mutant ABD retains high-affinity actin binding. Significantly, we provide evidence that the mutation alters the mobility and recruitment of β-III-spectrin in mammalian cells, pointing to a potential disease mechanism. To explore this mechanism, we developed a Drosophila SCA5 model in which an equivalent mutant Drosophila β-spectrin is expressed in neurons that extend complex dendritic arbors, such as Purkinje cells, targeted in SCA5 pathogenesis...
October 31, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
keyword
keyword
76072
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"