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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768250/metabolic-regulation-of-synaptic-activity
#1
Sergei V Fedorovich, Tatyana V Waseem
Brain tissue is bioenergetically expensive. In humans, it composes approximately 2% of body weight and accounts for approximately 20% of calorie consumption. The brain consumes energy mostly for ion and neurotransmitter transport, a process that occurs primarily in synapses. Therefore, synapses are expensive for any living creature who has brain. In many brain diseases, synapses are damaged earlier than neurons start dying. Synapses may be considered as vulnerable sites on a neuron. Ischemic stroke, an acute disturbance of blood flow in the brain, is an example of a metabolic disease that affects synapses...
May 16, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764543/-experimental-research-on-individual-specific-rapid-potassium-supplementation-strategy-for-fatal-severe-hypokalemia
#2
Yu Du, Yi Mou, Jin Liu
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effectiveness and safety of the individual-specific rapid potassium supplementation strategy, and to provide experimental basis for treating fatal severe hypokalemia. METHODS: An acute fatal severe hypokalemia model was reproduced in 20 healthy adult Japanese big ear white rabbits with half lethal dose (LD50) of barium chloride (BaCl2 ) solution 168 mg×5 mL-1 ×kg-1 . The rabbits were divided into conventional potassium supplementation group and individual-specific rapid potassium supplementation group according to random number table method with 10 rabbits in each group...
May 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764225/initial-combination-therapy-with-vildagliptin-plus-metformin-in-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-with-t2dm-a-24-week-real-life-study-from-asia
#3
Manoj Chawla, Tae Ho Kim, Roberto C Mirasol, Pathan Faruque, Kathryn Cooke, Peggy Hours-Zesiger, Abhijit Shete
AIMS: To assess the effectiveness and safety of vildagliptin/metformin initial combination therapy in drug-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: INITIAL was a 24-week prospective, observational study in T2DM patients with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥7.5%, and prescribed vildagliptin/metformin as initial combination therapy. The primary endpoint was change in HbA1c from baseline to week 24. Key secondary endpoints were HbA1c change from baseline to week 12, proportion of patients achieving HbA1c ≤7...
May 15, 2018: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763769/associations-of-body-weight-and-weight-change-with-cardiovascular-events-and-mortality-in-patients-with-coronary-heart-disease
#4
Sheng-Yong Dong, Shuang-Tong Yan, Man-Liu Wang, Zhi-Bing Li, Lian-Qing Fang, Qiang Zeng
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: It is recommended that patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) pursue a normal body weight, while the effects of body weight and weight change on prognosis are still controversial. The present study was to assess these effects using a large-scale population with CHD in China. METHODS: A total of 5276 patients with CHD were included from Jan 2000 to Dec 2014. Baseline and endpoint weights were measured. Outcomes including mortality and cardiovascular events were obtained...
May 5, 2018: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762555/global-transcriptome-analysis-identifies-weight-regain-induced-activation-of-adaptive-immune-responses-in-white-adipose-tissue-of-mice
#5
D S Kyung, H R Sung, Y J Kim, K D Kim, S Y Cho, J H Choi, Y-H Lee, I Y Kim, J K Seong
OBJECTIVE: Studies have indicated that weight regain following weight loss predisposes obese individuals to metabolic disorders; however, the molecular mechanism of this potential adverse effect of weight regain is not fully understood. Here we investigated global transcriptome changes and the immune response in mouse white adipose tissue caused by weight regain. DESIGN: We established a diet switch protocol to compare the effects of weight regain with those of weight gain without precedent weight loss, weight loss maintenance and chow diet...
December 7, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760296/hydroxytyrosol-and-olive-leaf-extract-exert-cardioprotective-effects-by-inhibiting-grp78-and-chop-expression
#6
Lixing Wu, Yuyu Xu, Zhijian Yang, Qing Feng
Myocardial infarction triggers massive biochemical changes, even cardiac cell death. Endoplasmic reticulum stress is involved in the pathology of myocardial infarction-mediated apoptosis. In the present study, myocardial cell line H9c2 cells were treated with cobalt chloride (CoCl2 ) to induce hypoxia. Isoproterenol was used for two successive days to induce myocardial infarction in SD rats. The cardioprotective effect of olive leaf extract (OLE) and its main constituent hydroxytyrosol and the underlying mechanisms were evaluated...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752194/sex-specific-relevance-of-diabetes-to-occlusive-vascular-and-other-mortality-a-collaborative-meta-analysis-of-individual-data-from-980-793-adults-from-68-prospective-studies
#7
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown that diabetes confers a higher relative risk of vascular mortality among women than among men, but whether this increased relative risk in women exists across age groups and within defined levels of other risk factors is uncertain. We aimed to determine whether differences in established risk factors, such as blood pressure, BMI, smoking, and cholesterol, explain the higher relative risks of vascular mortality among women than among men. METHODS: In our meta-analysis, we obtained individual participant-level data from studies included in the Prospective Studies Collaboration and the Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration that had obtained baseline information on age, sex, diabetes, total cholesterol, blood pressure, tobacco use, height, and weight...
May 8, 2018: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747745/the-potential-effect-of-garlic-extract-and-curcumin-nanoparticles-against-complication-accompanied-with-experimentally-induced-diabetes-in-rats
#8
Afaf D Abdel-Mageid, Mohamed E S Abou-Salem, Nancy M H A Salaam, Hoda A S El-Garhy
BACKGROUND: Modified herbal medicines implicate the combination of several therapeutic practices of native systems of medicine that may extend many earlier generations, which frequently afford valuable therapeutic benefits. PURPOSE: In this study, the role of nano-curcumin and aged garlic extract (AGE) as two modified phytomedicines on alleviating both of advanced glycation end products (AGEPs) and oxidative stress (OS) in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats were investigated during this study...
April 1, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737543/temozolomide-regresses-a-doxorubicin-resistant-undifferentiated-spindle-cell-sarcoma-patient-derived-orthotopic-xenograft-pdox-precision-oncology-nude-mouse-model-matching-the-patient-with-effective-therapy
#9
Kentaro Igarashi, Kei Kawaguchi, Tasuku Kiyuna, Kentaro Miyake, Masuyo Miyake, Yunfeng Li, Scott D Nelson, Sarah M Dry, Arun S Singh, Irmina A Elliott, Tara A Russell, Mark A Eckardt, Norio Yamamoto, Katsuhiro Hayashi, Hiroaki Kimura, Shinji Miwa, Hiroyuki Tsuchiya, Fritz C Eilber, Robert M Hoffman
Undifferentiated spindle-cell sarcoma (USCS) is a recalcitrant cancer, resistant to conventional chemotherapy. A patient with high-grade USCS from a striated muscle was implanted orthotopically in the right biceps femoris muscle of mice to establish a patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) model. The PDOX models were randomized into the following groups when tumor volume reached 100 mm3 : G1, control without treatment; G2, doxorubicin (DOX) (3 mg/kg, intraperitoneal [i.p.] injection, weekly, for 2 weeks); G3, temozolomide (TEM) (25 mg/kg, p...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733897/effects-of-low-level-sarin-and-cyclosarin-exposure-on-hippocampal-microstructure-in-gulf-war-veterans
#10
Linda L Chao, Yu Zhang
In early March 1991, shortly after the end of the Gulf War (GW), a munitions dump was destroyed at Khamisiyah, Iraq. Later, in 1996, the dump was found to have contained the organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents sarin and cyclosarin. We previously reported evidence of smaller hippocampal volumes in GW veterans with predicted exposure to the Khamisiyah plume compared to unexposed GW veterans. To investigate whether these macroscopic hippocampal volume changes are accompanied by microstructural alterations in the hippocampus, the current study acquired diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI), T1-, and T2-weighted images from 170 GW veterans (mean age: 53 ± 7 years), 81 of whom had predicted exposure to the Khamisiyah plume according to Department of Defense (DOD) plume modeling...
May 4, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731723/would-you-use-it-with-a-seal-of-approval-important-attributes-of-2-4-dinitrophenol-2-4-dnp-as-a-hypothetical-pharmaceutical-product
#11
Emma E Bleasdale, Sam N Thrower, Andrea Petróczi
Background: 2,4-Dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP) is an effective but highly dangerous fat burner, not licensed for human consumption. Death cases reported for 2,4-DNP overdose, particularly among young adults, have raised concerns about the ineffective regulatory control, lack of education and risks associated with impurity, and the unknown concentration of 2,4-DNP purchased on the Internet. Methods: Using a sequential mixed method design and based on a hypothetical scenario as if 2,4-DNP was a licensed pharmaceutical drug, first we conducted a qualitative study to explore what product attributes people consider when buying a weight-loss aid...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728346/the-effectiveness-of-smartphone-apps-for-lifestyle-improvement-in-noncommunicable-diseases-systematic-review-and-meta-analyses
#12
REVIEW
Pernille Lunde, Birgitta Blakstad Nilsson, Astrid Bergland, Kari Jorunn Kværner, Asta Bye
BACKGROUND: Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) account for 70% of all deaths in a year globally. The four main NCDs are cardiovascular diseases, cancers, chronic pulmonary diseases, and diabetes mellitus. Fifty percent of persons with NCD do not adhere to prescribed treatment; in fact, adherence to lifestyle interventions is especially considered as a major challenge. Smartphone apps permit structured monitoring of health parameters, as well as the opportunity to receive feedback. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to review and assess the effectiveness of app-based interventions, lasting at least 3 months, to promote lifestyle changes in patients with NCDs...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723850/the-favored-mechanism-for-coping-with-acute-cold-stress-upregulation-of-mir-210-in-rats
#13
Wenjin Guo, Shuai Lian, Li Zhen, Shucheng Zang, Yan Chen, Limin Lang, Bin Xu, Jingru Guo, Hong Ji, Jianfa Wang, Shoupeng Fu, Liping Zhang, Huanmin Yang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The main aim of this study was to determine the mechanisms by which rno-miR-210-3p affects changes in gene expression, metabolism, apoptosis and proliferation of cells under acute cold stress (ACS) conditions. METHODS: The treatment group (n=6, weight 340±20 g) was exposed to ACS (temperature 4±0.5°C, relative humidity 45±0.5%) and the control group (n=6, weight 340±20 g) to normal temperature (NT) (temperature 24±0.5°C, relative humidity 45±0...
April 28, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718705/influence-of-ex-vivo-perfusion-on-the-biomolecular-profile-of-rat-lungs
#14
Caterina Lonati, Giulia A Bassani, Daniela Brambilla, Patrizia Leonardi, Andrea Carlin, Alice Faversani, Stefano Gatti, Franco Valenza
Despite increasing clinical adoption, biologic influences of ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) remain insufficiently elucidated. The aim of the current study was to investigate biomolecular changes induced by EVLP in rat lungs. EVLP was maintained for 180 min. Hyaluronan, mediators, and cells were assessed in the perfusate. Gene expression, signaling pathways, and ATP content were investigated in lung tissue. EVLP induced the release of medium-high molecular weight hyaluronan and transcription of hyaluronan synthases ( P < 0...
May 2, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709300/foot-longitudinal-arches-in-obese-overweight-and-normal-weight-females-who-differ-in-age
#15
Agnieszka Jankowicz-Szymańska, Katarzyna Wódka, Małgorzata Kołpa, Edyta Mikołajczyk
Nowadays, excessive body weight is the cause of death of more people than malnutrition. Obesity is a growing health problem worldwide, which also results in a considerable number of movement dysfunctions, including degenerative changes and foot pain. The study aimed to assess the effect of overweight and obesity on the height of foot arches in females aged 10-84 years, as well as to establish which factor - age or BMI - affected the height of medial longitudinal arch (MLA) to a greater extent. Three groups of females (96 pupils, 86 young adults and 88 seniors) were selected to participate in the study...
March 27, 2018: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706605/hypermetabolism-in-als-is-associated-with-greater-functional-decline-and-shorter-survival
#16
Frederik J Steyn, Zara A Ioannides, Ruben P A van Eijk, Susan Heggie, Kathryn A Thorpe, Amelia Ceslis, Saman Heshmat, Anjali K Henders, Naomi R Wray, Leonard H van den Berg, Robert D Henderson, Pamela A McCombe, Shyuan T Ngo
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of hypermetabolism, relative to body composition, in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and its relationship with clinical features of disease and survival. METHODS: Fifty-eight patients with clinically definite or probable ALS as defined by El Escorial criteria, and 58 age and sex-matched control participants underwent assessment of energy expenditure. Our primary outcome was the prevalence of hypermetabolism in cases and controls...
April 29, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703008/effectiveness-of-testosterone-therapy-in-obese-men-with-low-testosterone-levels-for-losing-weight-controlling-obesity-complications-and-preventing-cardiovascular-events-protocol-of-a-systematic-review-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#17
Amanda S Mangolim, Leonardo A R Brito, Vania S Nunes-Nogueira
BACKGROUND: The use of testosterone replacement therapy in obese men with low testosterone levels has been controversial. This review aims to analyze the effectiveness of testosterone therapy for weight loss and preventing cardiovascular complications in obese men with low testosterone levels. METHODS: We will perform a systematic review according to Cochrane Methodology of randomized studies, including crossover studies, wherein patients are allocated into one of the two groups: testosterone therapy and control (no treatment or placebo)...
April 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701541/response-of-high-leaf-oil-arabidopsis-thaliana-plant-lines-to-biotic-or-abiotic-stress
#18
Olga Yurchenko, Athen Kimberlin, Marina Mehling, Abraham J Koo, Kent D Chapman, Robert T Mullen, John M Dyer
Recent studies have shown that it is possible to engineer substantial increases in triacylglycerol (TAG) content in plant vegetative biomass, which offers a novel approach for increasing the energy density of food, feed, and bioenergy crops or for creating a sink for the accumulation of unusual, high-value fatty acids. However, whether or not these changes in lipid metabolism affect plant responses to biotic and/or abiotic stresses is an open question. Here we show that transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plant lines engineered for elevated leaf oil content, as well as lines engineered for accumulation of unusual conjugated fatty acids in leaf oil, had similar short-term responses to heat stress (e...
April 27, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700768/proteomic-analysis-of-cerebral-cortex-extracts-from-sus-scrofa-with-induced-hemorrhagic-stroke
#19
Alexander A Sidyakin, Anna L Kaysheva, Artur T Kopylov, Alexander V Lobanov, Sergei G Morozov
Cerebrovascular diseases, including stroke and micro stroke, are the main causes of death in contemporary society. Hemorrhagic stroke is the fast emerging defficiency in the brain function resulting from disturbance of blood supply to the brain caused by the rapture of blood vessels (Lopez et al. in Proteomics Clin Appl 6:190-200, 2012). The influence of a model hemorrhagic stroke on white pigs with the change in the protein profile of their cortical samples 24 h and 2 months after the stroke was examined using mass-spectrometric analysis...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696086/investigating-the-bioavailability-of-graphene-quantum-dots-in-lung-tissues-via-fourier-transform-infrared-spectroscopy
#20
Tanveer A Tabish, Liangxu Lin, Muhammad Ali, Farhat Jabeen, Muhammad Ali, Rehana Iqbal, David W Horsell, Paul G Winyard, Shaowei Zhang
Biomolecular fractions affect the fate and behaviour of quantum dots (QDs) in living systems but how the interactions between biomolecules and QDs affect the bioavailability of QDs is a major knowledge gap in risk assessment analysis. The transport of QDs after release into a living organism is a complex process. The majority accumulate in the lungs where they can directly affect the inhalation process and lung architecture. Here, we investigate the bioavailability of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) to the lungs of rats by measuring the alterations in macromolecular fractions via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)...
June 6, 2018: Interface Focus
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