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Weight change AND death

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087891/physical-activity-and-exercise-for-chronic-pain-in-adults-an-overview-of-cochrane-reviews
#1
REVIEW
Louise J Geneen, R Andrew Moore, Clare Clarke, Denis Martin, Lesley A Colvin, Blair H Smith
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is defined as pain lasting beyond normal tissue healing time, generally taken to be 12 weeks. It contributes to disability, anxiety, depression, sleep disturbances, poor quality of life, and healthcare costs. Chronic pain has a weighted mean prevalence in adults of 20%.For many years, the treatment choice for chronic pain included recommendations for rest and inactivity. However, exercise may have specific benefits in reducing the severity of chronic pain, as well as more general benefits associated with improved overall physical and mental health, and physical functioning...
January 14, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077331/physiological-behavioral-changes-induced-by-a-fraction-with-antitumor-cleronade-diterpenes-from-an-atlantic-forest-brazilian-plant-and-computational-intermolecular-interactions-with-neuron-receptors
#2
Éverton José Ferreira de Araújo, Antônia Amanda Cardoso de Almeida, Oskar Almeida Silva, Iwyson Henrique Fernandes da Costa, Luis Mário Rezende Júnior, Francisco das Chagas Alves Lima, Luciano da Silva Lopes, Alberto José Cavalheiro, Paulo Michel Pinheiro Ferreira
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Casearia sylvestris is a medicinal plant traditionally used to treat snakebites, wounds, inflammation and gastric ulcers and scientific supports for have demonstrated its antitumor, antihyperlipidemic and antiparasitic properties. AIM OF THE STUDY: To assess the effects of a fraction with casearins (FC) on adult mice using classical experimental models of animal behavior and theoretical calculations to verify the interaction of Casearin X (Cas X) with neuron receptors...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068342/neuropathogenesis-of-zika-virus-in-a-highly-susceptible-immunocompetent-mouse-model-after-antibody-blockade-of-type-i-interferon
#3
Darci R Smith, Bradley Hollidge, Sharon Daye, Xiankun Zeng, Candace Blancett, Kyle Kuszpit, Thomas Bocan, Jeff W Koehler, Susan Coyne, Tim Minogue, Tara Kenny, Xiaoli Chi, Soojin Yim, Lynn Miller, Connie Schmaljohn, Sina Bavari, Joseph W Golden
Animal models are needed to better understand the pathogenic mechanisms of Zika virus (ZIKV) and to evaluate candidate medical countermeasures. Adult mice infected with ZIKV develop a transient viremia, but do not demonstrate signs of morbidity or mortality. Mice deficient in type I or a combination of type I and type II interferon (IFN) responses are highly susceptible to ZIKV infection; however, the absence of a competent immune system limits their usefulness for studying medical countermeasures. Here we employ a murine model for ZIKV using wild-type C57BL/6 mice treated with an antibody to disrupt type I IFN signaling to study ZIKV pathogenesis...
January 9, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067212/estimation-of-the-qt-rr-relation-trade-off-between-goodness-of-fit-and-extrapolation-accuracy
#4
Alain Vinet, Bruno Dubé, Réginald Nadeau, Omar Mahiddine, Vincent Jacquemet
Correction of the QT interval in the ECG for changes in heart rate (RR interval) is needed to compare groups of patients and assess the risk of sudden cardiac death. The QTc represents the QT interval at 60 bpm, although most patients typically have a faster heart rate, thus requiring extrapolation of the QT-RR relationship. This paper investigates the ability of QT-RR models with increasing number of parameters to fit beat-to-beat variations in the QT interval and provide a reliable estimate of the QTc. One-, two- and three-parameter functions generalising the Bazett and Fridericia formulas were used in combination with hysteresis reduction (memory) obtained by time-averaging the history of RR intervals with exponentially-decaying weights...
January 9, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056429/weight-change-after-initiation-of-oral-hypoglycemic-monotherapy-for-diabetes-predicts-5-year-mortality-an-observational-study
#5
Beverly M Kocarnik, Kathryn P Moore, Nicholas L Smith, Edward J Boyko
PURPOSE: To investigate whether weight change in the first year after initiating an oral hypoglycemic agent (OHA) for type 2 diabetes treatment is associated with mortality in a national cohort. PROCEDURES: We prospectively followed Veterans Health Administration patients with type 2 diabetes initiating treatment with an OHA and not receiving any other diabetes pharmacotherapy for at least one year. Information on OHAs, weight, co-morbidities, other medications, demographics, and laboratory measurements was obtained from electronic medical records...
December 5, 2016: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046068/relationship-between-hemoglobin-levels-corrected-by-interdialytic-weight-gain-and-mortality-in-japanese-hemodialysis-patients-miyazaki-dialysis-cohort-study
#6
Tatsunori Toida, Takashi Iwakiri, Yuji Sato, Hiroyuki Komatsu, Kazuo Kitamura, Shouichi Fujimoto
BACKGROUND: Although hemoglobin (Hb) levels are affected by a change in the body fluid status, the relationship between Hb levels and mortality while taking interdialytic weight gain (IDWG) at blood sampling into account has not yet been examined in hemodialysis patients. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: Data from the Miyazaki Dialysis cohort study, including 1375 prevalent hemodialysis patients (median age (interquartile range), 69 (60-77) years, 42...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045465/methylomic-profiling-of-cortex-samples-from-completed-suicide-cases-implicates-a-role-for-psors1c3-in-major-depression-and-suicide
#7
T M Murphy, B Crawford, E L Dempster, E Hannon, J Burrage, G Turecki, Z Kaminsky, J Mill
Major depressive disorder (MDD) represents a major social and economic health issue and constitutes a major risk factor for suicide. The molecular pathology of suicidal depression remains poorly understood, although it has been hypothesised that regulatory genomic processes are involved in the pathology of both MDD and suicidality. In this study, genome-wide patterns of DNA methylation were assessed in depressed suicide completers (n=20) and compared with non-psychiatric, sudden-death controls (n=20) using tissue from two cortical brain regions (Brodmann Area 11 (BA11) and Brodmann Area 25 (BA25))...
January 3, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043299/-mechanism-of-protective-effects-of-tumor-necrosis-factor-receptor-associated-protein-1-on-hypoxic-cardiomyocytes-of-rats
#8
F Xiang, D X Zhang, S Y Ma, Y S Huang
Objective: To investigate the mechanism of protective effects of tumor necrosis factor receptor associated protein 1 (TRAP1) on hypoxic cardiomyocytes of rats. Methods: Primary cultured cardiomyocytes were obtained from neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats (aged 1 to 3 days) and then used in the following experiments. (1) Cells were divided into group TRAP1 and control group according to the random number table (the same grouping method below), and then the total protein of cells was extracted. Total protein of cells in group TRAP1 was added with mouse anti-rat TRAP1 monoclonal antibody, while that in control group was added with the same type of IgG from mouse...
December 20, 2016: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040390/reduction-of-animal-suffering-in-rabies-vaccine-potency-testing-by-introduction-of-humane-endpoints
#9
Mutsuyo Takayama-Ito, Chang-Kweng Lim, Kazuo Nakamichi, Satsuki Kakiuchi, Madoka Horiya, Guillermo Posadas-Herrera, Ichiro Kurane, Masayuki Saijo
Potency controls of inactivated rabies vaccines for human use are confirmed by the National Institutes of Health challenge test in which lethal infection with severe neurological symptoms should be observed in approximately half of the mice inoculated with the rabies virus. Weight loss, decreased body temperature, and the presence of rabies-associated neurological signs have been proposed as humane endpoints. The potential for reduction of animal suffering by introducing humane endpoints in the potency test for inactivated rabies vaccine for human use was investigated...
December 28, 2016: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035474/technical-note-early-post-mortem-changes-of-human-bone-in-taphonomy-with-%C3%AE-ct
#10
Erwan Le Garff, Vadim Mesli, Yann Delannoy, Thomas Colard, Xavier Demondion, Anne Becart, Valéry Hedouin
Post-mortem interval (PMI) estimation is an important issue in forensic medicine, particularly for criminal purposes and legal limitation periods. The goal of the present study is to examine the evolution of the trabecular cranial vault bone after 4 weeks of conservation in a controlled environment with micro-tomography (μCT) analyses.Four bone samples were extracted from a fresh human cranial vault (a donation to science according to the French law) and conserved in an air-controlled environment. The samples were weighed and μCT scanned at a 10-μm resolution every week after death for a month...
December 29, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027519/estimation-of-net-survival-for-cancer-patients-relative-survival-setting-more-robust-to-some-assumption-violations-than-cause-specific-setting-a-sensitivity-analysis-on-empirical-data
#11
Robin Schaffar, Bernard Rachet, Aurélien Belot, Laura M Woods
Net survival is the survival that would be observed if the only possible underlying cause of death was the disease under study. It can be estimated with either cause-specific or relative survival data settings, if the informative censoring is properly considered. However, net survival estimators are prone to specific biases related to the data setting itself. We examined which data setting was the most robust against violation of key assumptions (erroneous cause of death and inappropriate life tables). We identified 4285 women in the Geneva Cancer Registry, diagnosed with breast, colorectal, lung cancer and melanoma between 1981 and 1991 and estimated net survival up to 20 years using cause-specific and relative survival settings...
December 24, 2016: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025464/tricuspid-valve-replacement-vs-repair-in-severe-tricuspid-regurgitation
#12
Hyoung Woo Chang, Dong Seop Jeong, Yang Hyun Cho, Kiick Sung, Wook Sung Kim, Young Tak Lee, Pyo Won Park
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare early and late outcomes of tricuspid valve replacement (TVR) and tricuspid valve repair (TVr) for severe tricuspid regurgitation (TR).Methods and Results:From 1994 to 2012, 360 patients (mean age, 58±13 years) with severe TR underwent TVR (n=97, 27%) or TVr (n=263, 73%). Among them, 282 patients (78%) had initial rheumatic etiology, and 307 patients (85%) had preoperative atrial fibrillation. The TVR group had higher total bilirubin, higher baseline central venous pressure, and higher incidence of previous cardiac operation...
December 27, 2016: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008305/magnesium-sulfate-prevents-placental-ischemia-induced-increases-in-brain-water-content-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-cytokines-in-pregnant-rats
#13
Linda W Zhang, Junie P Warrington
Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) is the most widely used therapy in the clinic to prevent the progression of preeclampsia, a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, to eclampsia. Eclampsia, manifested as unexplained seizures and/or coma during pregnancy or postpartum, accounts for ~13% of maternal deaths worldwide. While MgSO4 continues to be used in the clinic, the mechanisms by which it exerts its protective actions are not well understood. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that MgSO4 protects against placental ischemia-induced increases in brain water content and cerebrospinal fluid cytokines...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008289/a-phase-i-study-evaluating-the-effect-of-age-and-weight-on-the-pharmacokinetics-of-an-injectable-formulation-of-diclofenac-solubilized-with-hydroxypropyl-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin
#14
Ronald Goldwater, William G Kramer, Douglas A Hamilton, Eric Lang, Jianyuan Wang, Donna E Madden, Peter G Lacouture, Atulkumar Ramaiya, Daniel B Carr
PURPOSE: The analgesic and opioid-sparing effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can be beneficial in postoperative populations. Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD)-diclofenac is an injectable formulation of diclofenac solubilized with HPβCD that is administered as a low-volume intravenous bolus. This open-label, single-dose study examined the effects of age and weight on the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of HPβCD-diclofenac. METHODS: Eighty-eight adult volunteers were enrolled...
2016: Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008247/new-silver-nanoparticles-induce-apoptosis-like-process-in-e-coli-and-interfere-with-mammalian-copper-metabolism
#15
Iurii A Orlov, Tatiana P Sankova, Polina S Babich, Ilya M Sosnin, Ekaterina Yu Ilyechova, Demid A Kirilenko, Pavel N Brunkov, Gennadii L Ataev, Alexey E Romanov, Ludmila V Puchkova
Silver nanoparticles (SNPs) are new functional materials that are widely used in biomedical and industrial technologies. Two main features that make SNPs valuable are their strong antibacterial effects and low toxicity to eukaryotes. In this study, SNPs were synthesized using a modified method of reducing the metal ions to their atomic state followed by crystallization. SNPs were characterized by UV/vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The SNPs were spherically shaped with an average linear dimension of 20 nm...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007570/dysfunctional-oleoylethanolamide-signaling-in-a-mouse-model-of-prader-willi-syndrome
#16
Miki Igarashi, Vidya Narayanaswami, Virginia Kimonis, Pietro M Galassetti, Fariba Oveisi, Kwang-Mook Jung, Daniele Piomelli
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), the leading genetic cause of obesity, is characterized by a striking hyperphagic behavior that can lead to obesity, type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and death. The molecular mechanism underlying impaired satiety in PWS is unknown. Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is a lipid mediator involved in the control of feeding, body weight and energy metabolism. OEA produced by small-intestinal enterocytes during dietary fat digestion activates type-α peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR-α) to trigger an afferent signal that causes satiety...
December 19, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006698/type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-african-women
#17
REVIEW
Julia H Goedecke, Asanda Mtintsilana, Siphiwe N Dlamini, Andre Pascal Kengne
Compared to global estimates, Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has the highest projected rates of increase in type 2 diabetes (T2D) over the next 25years. This is attributed to the ageing population, increasing urbanisation and the associated lifestyle changes. Although the prevalence does not differ by gender, deaths attributable to T2D in SSA are greater in women, likely due to differences in beliefs and access to care. Women in SSA also have greater risk factor burden for T2D than men, in particular obesity, which is explained in part by sociocultural factors...
December 5, 2016: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004974/vitamin-d3-protects-against-prednisolone-induced-liver-injury-associated-with-the-impairment-of-the-hepatic-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-inos-no-pathway
#18
Olha Lisakovska, Ihor Shymanskyy, Anna Mazanova, Anna Khomenko, Mykola Veliky
The study was carried out to define whether prednisolone-induced damage to hepatic cells is accompanied by excessive nitric oxide (NO) levels associated with nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)/inducible NO synthase (iNOS) activation and evaluate the efficacy of the treatment with vitamin D3. Histopathological examination, activities of liver transaminases (alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase), and cell death assays consistently showed that prednisolone (5 mg/kg body weight, 30 days) induces chronic liver injury in female Wistar rats...
July 14, 2016: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002198/relation-between-weight-loss-and-causes-of-death-in-patients-with-cardiovascular-disease-finding-from-the-scout-trial
#19
Aldo P Maggioni, Ian D Caterson, Renato Urso, Walmir Coutinho, Nick Finer, Luc Van Gaal, Udo F Legler, Arya M Sharma, Radhika V Seimon, Arianne Sweeting, Christian Torp-Pedersen, William Philip T James
AIMS: Obesity is associated with an increased incidence of mortality. The Sibutramine Cardiovascular Outcomes (SCOUT) trial can provide the first evidence of the effect of intentional weight loss on mortality in an obese population at high risk. METHODS: SCOUT was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial testing sibutramine vs. placebo. Eligibility for the trial required both men and women aged at least 55 years, with BMI of at least 27 kg/m and 45 kg/m or less...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998147/chitosan-coated-diatom-silica-as-hemostatic-agent-for-hemorrhage-control
#20
Chao Feng, Jing Li, Guang Sheng Wu, Yu Zhi Mu, Ming Kong, Chang Qing Jiang, Xiao Jie Cheng, Ya Liu, Xi Guang Chen
Uncontrolled hemorrhage leads to high death risk both in military and civilian trauma. Current hemostatic agents still have various limitations and side effects. In this study, natural diatom silica obtained from diatomite and diatom culture was purified and developed for hemorrhage control. To improve the biocompatibility and hemostatic performance of diatom silica, a series of chitosan-coated diatom (CS-diatom) was developed. The composition of CS-diatom prepared was optimized by in vitro hemocompatibility and blood coagulation evaluation for that prepared with 0...
December 21, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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