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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667510/air-quality-modeling-for-effective-environmental-management-in-the-mining-region
#1
Zunaira Asif, Zhi Chen, Yi Han
Air quality in the mining sector is a serious environmental concern and associated with many health issues. The air quality management in mining region has been facing many challenges due to lack of understanding of atmospheric factors and physical removal mechanism. A modeling approach called mining air dispersion model (MADM) is developed to predict air pollutants concentration in the mining region while considering the deposition effect. The model is taken into account through the planet's boundary conditions and assuming that the eddy diffusivity depends on the downwind distance...
April 18, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667400/magnetically-characterized-molecular-lubrication-between-bio-functionalized-surfaces
#2
Xinghao Hu, Sri Ramulu Torati, Jonghwan Yoon, Byeonghwa Lim, Kunwoo Kim, CheolGi Kim
We demonstrate an efficient approach for quantifying frictional forces (sub-pN) at nano-bio interfaces by controlled magnetic forces, which is based on simultaneous measurements of critical frequencies for streptavidin-coupled magnetic particles. The maximum phase angle, being corresponded with the critical frequency, is formulated in terms of magnetic, frictional and viscous forces of the particles on DNA and SiO2 functionalized micromagnet arrays. The streptavidin/DNA interface shows lower friction as an enhanced lubrication than the streptavidin/SiO2 interface, which is indicated by the lower transition field of quasi-static motion, the larger ratio of dynamic particles, and also the higher velocity of the particles...
April 18, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667282/cardiac-gated-phase-contrast-magnetic-resonance-angiography-is-a-reliable-and-reproducible-technique-for-quantifying-blood-flow-in-canine-major-cranial-abdominal-vessels
#3
Francesca Del Chicca, Andrea Schwarz, Paula Grest, Florian Willmitzer, Matthias Dennler, Patrick R Kircher
Blood flow changes in cranial abdominal vessels are important contributing factors for canine hepatic disease. This prospective, experimental, pilot study aimed to evaluate cardiac-gated, phase contrast magnetic resonance angiography (PCMRA) as a method for characterizing blood flow in canine major cranial abdominal vessels. Eleven, healthy, adult beagle dogs were sampled. Cardiac-gated, phase contrast magnetic resonance angiography of the cranial abdomen was performed in each dog and blood flow was independently measured in each of the major cranial abdominal vessels by three observers, with two observers recording blood flow values once and one observer recording blood flow values three times...
April 17, 2018: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667078/impact-of-different-coarctation-therapies-on-aortic-stiffness-phase-contrast-mri-study
#4
Michal Schäfer, Gareth J Morgan, Max B Mitchell, Michael Ross, Alex J Barker, Kendall S Hunter, Brian Fonseca, Michael DiMaria, Daniel Vargas, D Dunbar Ivy, Neil Wilson, Lorna P Browne
Coarctation of the aorta has been associated with increased thoracic aortic stiffness in adolescents and young adults. However, the effects of different therapeutic strategies on aortic stiffness in a young population is unknown. This study aimed to non-invasively assess aortic stiffness between different repair or intervention strategies in patients with coarctation of the aorta. Forty-nine coarctation patients who underwent either surgery (n = 26), balloon angioplasty (n = 14), or stent implantation (n = 12), and 26 age- and size-matched normotensive healthy controls underwent evaluation of thoracic aortic stiffness and flow hemodynamics via phase-contrast cardiac magnetic resonance...
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667039/perception-of-time-to-contact-of-slow-and-fast-moving-objects-using-monocular-and-binocular-motion-information
#5
Aaron J Fath, Mats Lind, Geoffrey P Bingham
The role of the monocular-flow-based optical variable τ in the perception of the time to contact of approaching objects has been well-studied. There are additional contributions from binocular sources of information, such as changes in disparity over time (CDOT), but these are less understood. We conducted an experiment to determine whether an object's velocity affects which source is most effective for perceiving time to contact. We presented participants with stimuli that simulated two approaching squares...
April 17, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666930/role-of-side-slip-flight-in-target-pursuit-blue-tailed-damselflies-ischnura-elegans-avoid-body-rotation-while-approaching-a-moving-perch
#6
Ziv Kassner, Gal Ribak
Visually guided flight control requires processing changes in the visual panorama (optic-flow) resulting from self-movement relative to stationary objects, as well as from moving objects passing through the field of view. We studied the ability of the blue-tailed damselfly, Ischnura elegans, to successfully land on a perch moving unpredictably. We tracked the insects landing on a vertical pole moved linearly 6 cm back and forth with sinusoidal changes in velocity. When the moving perch changed direction at frequencies higher than 1 Hz, the damselflies engaged in manoeuvres that typically involved sideways flight, with minimal changes in body orientation relative to the stationary environment...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666862/dual-marangoni-effects-and-detection-of-traces-of-surfactants
#7
M Arangalage, X Li, F Lequeux, L Talini
We report controlled and tunable Marangoni flows resulting from concentration gradients that are induced by placing a droplet of volatile solute above the surface of a liquid. Condensation of the solute at the liquid surface results in a surface tension gradient that drives a permanent flow of surface velocity up to a few centimeters per second. Depending on the sign of the variation of surface tension with solute concentration, inward or outward surface flows can be obtained. We show that, in the region close to the vertical axis of the droplet, the flow rate varies with the droplet height following a power law, whose exponent depends on the nature of the transfer of the solute in air...
April 18, 2018: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666237/goamazon2014-5-campaign-points-to-deep-inflow-approach-to-deep-convection-across-scales
#8
Kathleen A Schiro, Fiaz Ahmed, Scott E Giangrande, J David Neelin
A substantial fraction of precipitation is associated with mesoscale convective systems (MCSs), which are currently poorly represented in climate models. Convective parameterizations are highly sensitive to the assumptions of an entraining plume model, in which high equivalent potential temperature air from the boundary layer is modified via turbulent entrainment. Here we show, using multiinstrument evidence from the Green Ocean Amazon field campaign (2014-2015; GoAmazon2014/5), that an empirically constrained weighting for inflow of environmental air based on radar wind profiler estimates of vertical velocity and mass flux yields a strong relationship between resulting buoyancy measures and precipitation statistics...
April 17, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666235/mass-and-heat-transfer-between-evaporation-and-condensation-surfaces-atomistic-simulation-and-solution-of-boltzmann-kinetic-equation
#9
Vasily V Zhakhovsky, Alexei P Kryukov, Vladimir Yu Levashov, Irina N Shishkova, Sergey I Anisimov
Boundary conditions required for numerical solution of the Boltzmann kinetic equation (BKE) for mass/heat transfer between evaporation and condensation surfaces are analyzed by comparison of BKE results with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Lennard-Jones potential with parameters corresponding to solid argon is used to simulate evaporation from the hot side, nonequilibrium vapor flow with a Knudsen number of about 0.02, and condensation on the cold side of the condensed phase. The equilibrium density of vapor obtained in MD simulation of phase coexistence is used in BKE calculations for consistency of BKE results with MD data...
April 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666111/decreasing-an-offloading-device-s-size-and-offsetting-its-imposed-limb-length-discrepancy-lead-to-improved-comfort-and-gait
#10
Ryan T Crews, Joseph Candela
OBJECTIVE: Patient adherence is a challenge in offloading diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) with removable cast walkers (RCWs). The size and weight of an RCW, changes to gait, and imposed limb length discrepancies may all discourage adherence. This study sought to determine whether RCW size and provision of a contralateral limb lift affected users' comfort and gait. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Twenty-five individuals at risk for DFUs completed several 20-m walking trials under five footwear conditions: bilateral standardized shoes, a knee-high RCW with shoe with or without an external shoe lift contralaterally, and an ankle-high RCW with shoe with or without an external shoe lift contralaterally...
April 17, 2018: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665612/differences-in-segmental-speeds-as-a-function-of-maturation-in-youth-baseball-pitchers
#11
Jessica K Washington, Gabrielle G Gilmer, Jeff W Barfield, Sarah S Gascon, Michael G Saper, Jeffrey R Dugas, James R Andrews, Gretchen D Oliver
The purpose of this study was to determine how stride length, segmental sequencing of the pelvis, trunk, humerus, and forearm velocities and accelerations, and the timing of these values change as youth mature. Thirteen youth baseball pitchers participated at three consecutive time points: visit 1 (10.7±1.3 years; 151.8±10.7 cm; 45.0±9.65 kg), visit 2 (11.5±1.6 years; 155.5±11.1 cm; 50.4±10.0 kg), and visit 3 (12.4±1.7 years; 161.5±11.7 cm; 56.4±10.8 kg). Participants executed three pitches for a strike to a catcher...
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665005/myelination-of-the-developing-lateral-olfactory-tract-and-anterior-commissure
#12
L N Collins, D L Hill, P C Brunjes
Both the lateral olfactory tract (LOT) and anterior limb of the anterior commissure (AC) carry olfactory information. The LOT forms the projection from the olfactory bulb to the ipsilateral olfactory cortices, while the AC carries odor information across the midline to the contralateral olfactory cortex and bulb. The LOT and AC differ on a number of dimensions, including early development and functional onset. The present work, examining their myelination in mice, reveals additional important differences. For example, the LOT initiates myelination 3-4 days earlier than the AC, evidenced by both an earlier increase in myelin basic protein staining seen with immunohistochemistry and an earlier appearance of myelinated fibers using electron microscopy...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664938/reliability-analysis-of-a-sensitive-and-independent-stabilometry-parameter-set
#13
Gergely Nagymáté, Zsanett Orlovits, Rita M Kiss
Recent studies have suggested reduced independent and sensitive parameter sets for stabilometry measurements based on correlation and variance analyses. However, the reliability of these recommended parameter sets has not been studied in the literature or not in every stance type used in stabilometry assessments, for example, single leg stances. The goal of this study is to evaluate the test-retest reliability of different time-based and frequency-based parameters that are calculated from the center of pressure (CoP) during bipedal and single leg stance for 30- and 60-second measurement intervals...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664810/childhood-pulse-pressure-predicts-subclinical-vascular-damage-in-adulthood-the-beijing-blood-pressure-cohort-study
#14
Dongqing Hou, Yinkun Yan, Junting Liu, Xiaoyuan Zhao, Hong Cheng, Jie Mi
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate associations of childhood pulse pressure (PP) and change in PP status with adult subclinical vascular damage. METHODS: Data were obtained from a population-based cohort of children aged 6-18 years started in 1987. The study constituted 1254 participants who were followed up in 2010-2011 (aged 28-42 years). Carotid arteriosclerosis and aortic stiffness were assessed by carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (PWV), respectively...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664652/elasticity-in-bubble-rupture
#15
Daniele Tammaro, Rossana Pasquino, M M Villone, Gaetano D'Avino, Vincenzo Ferraro, Ernesto Di Maio, Antonio Langella, Nino Grizzuti, Pier Luca Maffettone
When a Newtonian bubble ruptures, the film retraction dynamics is controlled by the interplay of surface, inertial and viscous forces. In case a viscoelastic liquid is considered, the scenario is enriched by the appearance of a new significant contribution, namely, the elastic force. In this paper, we investigate experimentally the retraction of viscoelastic bubbles inflated at different blowing rates, showing that the amount of elastic energy stored by the liquid film enclosing the bubble depends on the inflation history and, in turn, affects the velocity of film retraction when the bubble is punctured...
April 17, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664637/frontal-polymerization-of-dicyclopentadiene-a-numerical-study
#16
Elyas Goli, Ian D Robertson, Philippe H Geubelle, Jeffrey S Moore
As frontal polymerization is being considered as a faster and more energy efficient manufacturing technique for polymer-matrix fiber-reinforced composites, we perform a finite-element-based numerical study of the initiation and propagation of a polymerization front in dicyclopentadiene (DCPD). The transient thermochemical simulations are complemented by an analytical study of the steady-state propagation of the polymerization front, allowing to draw a direct link between the cure kinetics model and the key characteristics of the front, i...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664405/longitudinal-assessment-of-vascular-function-with-sunitinib-in-patients-with-metastatic-renal-cell-carcinoma
#17
Anna B Catino, Rebecca A Hubbard, Julio A Chirinos, Ray Townsend, Stephen Keefe, Naomi B Haas, Igor Puzanov, James C Fang, Neeraj Agarwal, David Hyman, Amanda M Smith, Mary Gordon, Theodore Plappert, Virginia Englefield, Vivek Narayan, Steven Ewer, Chantal ElAmm, Daniel Lenihan, Bonnie Ky
BACKGROUND: Sunitinib, used widely in metastatic renal cell carcinoma, can result in hypertension, left ventricular dysfunction, and heart failure. However, the relationships between vascular function and cardiac dysfunction with sunitinib are poorly understood. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a multicenter prospective study of 84 metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients, echocardiography, arterial tonometry, and BNP (B-type natriuretic peptide) measures were performed at baseline and at 3...
March 2018: Circulation. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664085/a-distinct-correlation-between-the-vibrational-and-thermal-transport-properties-of-group-va-monolayer-crystals
#18
Tuğbey Kocabaş, Deniz Çakır, Oğuz Gülseren, Feridun Ay, Nihan Kosku Perkgöz, Cem Sevik
The investigation of thermal transport properties of novel two-dimensional materials is crucially important in order to assess their potential to be used in future technological applications, such as thermoelectric power generation. In this respect, the lattice thermal transport properties of the monolayer structures of group VA elements (P, As, Sb, Bi, PAs, PSb, PBi, AsSb, AsBi, SbBi, P3As1, P3Sb1, P1As3, and As3Sb1) with a black phosphorus like puckered structure were systematically investigated by first-principles calculations and an iterative solution of the phonon Boltzmann transport equation...
April 17, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663994/-predictive-value-of-early-phrase-echocardiography-and-cardiac-biological-markers-in-patients-with-severe-sepsis-a-five-year-single-center-retrospective-study
#19
Xuefeng Zang, Wei Chen, Bo Sheng, Lei Zhao, Xuyun Gu, Jie Zhen, Ping Liu
OBJECTIVE: To assess the predictive value of early phrase echocardiography and cardiac biomarkers in patients with severe sepsis. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of severe septic patients (patients with acute coronary syndrome and end stage renal disease were excluded) in department of intensive care unit of Capital Medical University Affiliated Beijing Shijitan Hospital from January 2013 to December 2017 was conducted. The acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) score, N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), cardiac troponin I (cTnI), myoglobin (MYO), creatine kinase (CK), MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase (CK-MB) within 6 hours after admission, and bedside echocardiography indexes [left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), the ratio of the peak blood flow velocity in the early stage of the mitral valve and the peak blood flow rate of the mitral valve (E/A ratio)] within 6 hours after diagnosis were recorded...
April 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663838/discriminant-ability-and-criterion-validity-of-the-trunk-impairment-scale-for-cerebral-palsy
#20
Sílvia Leticia Pavão, Davi Adiwardana Maeda, Carolina Corsi, Mariana Martins Dos Santos, Carolina Souza N da Costa, Ana Carolina de Campos, Nelci Adriana Cicuto Ferreira Rocha
AIMS: To compare the performance of children with mild and moderate-to-severe cerebral palsy (CP) on the Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS), Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM), and on center-of-pressure variables; to establish the discriminant ability of these tools to predict severity of motor impairment in CP; and to investigate the criterion validity of the TIS. METHODS: Children with mild (n = 18, 11 males, 7 females, mean age = 9.5 ± 2.9 years, Gross Motor Function Classification System I-II) and moderate-to-severe (n = 18, 11 males, 7 females, mean age = 9...
April 17, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
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