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Ariela R Orkaby, Kathryn L Lunetta, Fangui J Sun, Jane A Driver, Emelia J Benjamin, Naomi M Hamburg, Gary F Mitchell, Ramachandran S Vasan, Joanne M Murabito
Background: Frailty is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Underlying mechanisms to explain the connection between frailty and cardiovascular disease are unclear. We sought to examine the association between frailty and arterial stiffness, a precursor of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of community-dwelling Framingham Heart Study Offspring and Omni participants ≥60 years of age examined in 2005-2008...
June 18, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Melanie Lucas, Mark E Wagshul, Meltem Izzetoglu, Roee Holtzer
Objectives: Using multi-modal neuroimaging methods the current study was designed to examine the relationship between white matter microstructural integrity (WMI) and changes in prefrontal cortex (PFC) oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO2) during active walking in older adults. Consistent with neural inefficiency, we hypothesized that worse WMI would be associated with a greater increase in PFC HbO2 from single- to dual-task walking in the context of worse or similar gait performance. Method: 55 cognitively-healthy older adults (mean age=74...
June 18, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Paolo A Grasso, Elisabetta Làdavas, Caterina Bertini, Serena Caltabiano, Gregor Thut, Stephanie Morand
Motion information can reach V5/MT through two parallel routes: one conveying information at early latencies through a direct subcortical route and the other reaching V5 later via recurrent projections through V1. Here, we tested the hypothesis that input via the faster direct pathway depends on motion characteristics. To this end, we presented motion stimuli to healthy human observers at different velocities (4.4°/sec vs. 23°/sec) with static stimuli as controls while applying transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) pulses over V5 or V1...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Emily W Baker, Holly A Kinder, Jessica M Hutcheson, Kylee Jo J Duberstein, Simon R Platt, Elizabeth W Howerth, Franklin D West
A number of preclinical rodent models have been developed in an effort to recapitulate injury mechanisms and identify potential therapeutics for traumatic brain injury (TBI), which is a major cause of death and long-term disability in the United States. However, the lack of restorative treatments for TBI has led to considerable criticism of current preclinical therapeutic development strategies, namely the translatability of widely-used rodent models to human patients. The use of large animal models, such as the pig, with more comparable brain anatomy and physiology to humans may enhance the translational capacity of current preclinical animal models...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Joost van Kordelaar, Jantsje H Pasma, Massimo Cenciarini, Alfred C Schouten, Herman van der Kooij, Christoph Maurer
The vestibular system is involved in gaze stabilization and standing balance control. However, it is unclear whether vestibular dysfunction affects both processes to a similar extent. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine how the reliance on vestibular information during standing balance control is related to gaze stabilization deficits in patients with vestibular dysfunction. Eleven patients with vestibular dysfunction and twelve healthy subjects were included. Gaze stabilization deficits were established by spontaneous nystagmus examination, caloric test, rotational chair test, and head impulse test...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
L Touazi, B Aberkane, Y Bellik, N Moula, M Iguer-Ouada
Aim: This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of Rosmarinus officinalis (L.) essential oil on rooster sperm motility during 4°C short-term storage. Materials and Methods: R. officinalis essential oil was analyzed using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry to identify the active components. 10 of 45-week-old Hubbard commercial broilers were subjected to biweekly semen collections during 3 weeks. At each collection, sperm was pooled and divided into four aliquots and then diluted with Tris extender supplemented with 870, 87, or 8...
May 2018: Veterinary World
Sylwia M Kolenderska, Bastian Bräuer, Frédérique Vanholsbeeck
Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) was originally conceived as a volumetric imaging method. Quickly, OCT images went beyond structural data and started to provide functional information about an object enabling for example visualization of blood flow or tissue elasticity. Minimal or no need for system alterations make functional OCT techniques useful in performing multimodal imaging, where differently contrasted images are produced in a single examination. We propose a method that further extends the current capabilities of OCT and requires no modifications to the system...
June 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Harutoyo Hirano, Renjo Takama, Ryo Matsumoto, Hiroshi Tanaka, Hiroki Hirano, Zu Soh, Teiji Ukawa, Tsuneo Takayanagi, Haruka Morimoto, Ryuji Nakamura, Noboru Saeki, Haruki Hashimoto, Shogo Matsui, Shinji Kishimoto, Nozomu Oda, Masato Kajikawa, Tatsuya Maruhashi, Masashi Kawamoto, Masao Yoshizumi, Yukihito Higashi, Toshio Tsuji
This paper proposes a novel non-invasive method for assessing the vascular endothelial function of lower-limb arteries based on the dilation rate of air-cuff plethysmograms measured using the oscillometric approach. The principle of evaluating vascular endothelial function involves flow-mediated dilation. In the study conducted, blood flow in the dorsal pedis artery was first monitored while lower-limb cuff pressure was applied using the proposed system. The results showed blood flow was interrupted when the level of pressure was at least 50 mmHg higher than the subject's lower-limb systolic arterial pressure and that blood flow velocity increased after cuff release...
June 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Lyndsey E DuBose, Laura L Boles Ponto, David J Moser, Emily Harlynn, Leah Reierson, Gary L Pierce
Greater aortic stiffness and pulse pressure are associated with cerebrovascular remodeling, reduced white matter microstructure, and cognitive performance with aging in humans. However, it is unclear whether aortic stiffness and pulse pressure are associated with reduced basal global cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebrovascular reserve among older adults. Global CBF was quantified in 205 adults (range, 19-87 years; mean±SE: 30.6±1.3 years) using quantitative [15 O]water brain positron emission tomography imaging...
June 18, 2018: Hypertension
Russell J Everett, Lionel Tastet, Marie-Annick Clavel, Calvin W L Chin, Romain Capoulade, Vassilios S Vassiliou, Jacek Kwiecinski, Miquel Gomez, Edwin J R van Beek, Audrey C White, Sanjay K Prasad, Eric Larose, Christopher Tuck, Scott Semple, David E Newby, Philippe Pibarot, Marc R Dweck
BACKGROUND: Aortic stenosis is accompanied by progressive left ventricular hypertrophy and fibrosis. We investigated the natural history of these processes in asymptomatic patients and their potential reversal post-aortic valve replacement (AVR). METHODS: Asymptomatic and symptomatic patients with aortic stenosis underwent repeat echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging. Changes in peak aortic-jet velocity, left ventricular mass index, diffuse fibrosis (indexed extracellular volume), and replacement fibrosis (late gadolinium enhancement [LGE]) were quantified...
June 2018: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
Yoav Beck, Talia Herman, Marina Brozgol, Nir Giladi, Anat Mirelman, Jeffrey M Hausdorff
BACKGROUND: Impairments in biomechanics and neural control can disrupt the timing and muscle pattern activation necessary for smooth gait. Gait is one of the most affected motor characteristics in Parkinson's disease (PD), but its smoothness has not been well-studied. This work applies the recently proposed spectral arc length measure (SPARC) to study, for the first time, gait in patients with PD. We hypothesized that the gait of patients with PD would be less smooth than that of healthy controls, as reflected in the SPARC measures...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
Fereshteh Ghaderi, Hossein Samim, Faeze Keihanian, Seyed Ali Danesh Sani
BACKGROUND: It is well recognized that cardio- vascular risk factors lead to histological and functional changes in aorta, and aortic stiffness is the best predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In this study we evaluated the relation of a less evaluated echocardiographic parameter of aortic stiffness, aortic propagation velocity (APV) with the presence and severity of CAD. METHODS: This cross sectional study was conducted from May 2015 to March 2016 in Imam Reza hospital, Mashhad, Iran...
June 19, 2018: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
Jeong-Min Lee, Jae-Yeon Hwang, Jihyun Bae, Mae Ran Kim, Yong-Woo Kim, Su Eun Park, Jeong A Yeom, Jieun Roh
Purpose: This study evaluated the feasibility of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography and characterized the sonographic features of lymph nodes (LNs) with Kikuchi disease in pediatric patients. Methods: Seventy-six cervical LN biopsies were performed for the diagnosis of cervical lymphadenopathy. ARFI imaging was performed, and the characteristic ultrasound features of the biopsied LNs and the contralateral LNs were analyzed. We also reviewed clinical and conventional ultrasonographic findings...
April 24, 2018: Ultrasonography
Josiah Yoder, Stanley Baek, Hyukseong Kwon, Daniel Pack
It is well known that in a Kalman filtering framework, all sensor observations or measurements contribute toward improving the accuracy of state estimation, but, as observations become older, their impact toward improving estimations becomes smaller to the point that they offer no practical benefit. In this paper, we provide an practical technique for determining the merit of an old observation using system parameters. We demonstrate that the benefit provided by an old observation decreases exponentially with the number of observations captured and processed after it...
June 15, 2018: Sensors
Markus Theurl, Daniela Lener, Karin Albrecht-Schgoer, Arno Beer, Wilfried Schgoer, Yu Liu, Ursula Stanzl, Reiner Fischer-Colbrie, Rudolf Kirchmair
The pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy remains enigmatic. Damage to the vasa nervorum may be responsible for this disorder. Recently, we showed that secretoneurin (SN) induces angiogenesis in hindlimb and myocardial ischemia. Moreover, beneficial effects were observed in wound healing. We therefore hypothesized that SN therapy may ameliorate diabetic neuropathy. We used db/db mice as animal model for neuropathy. Gene therapy was accomplished by intramuscular injection of SN plasmid along the sciatic nerve...
April 13, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Johannes Lützenkirchen, Tim Scharnweber, Tuan Ho, Alberto Striolo, Marialore Sulpizi, Ahmed Abdelmonem
We present a measurement cell that allows simultaneous measurement of second harmonic generation (SHG) and streaming potential (SP) at mineral-water interfaces with flat specimen that are suitable for non-linear optical (NLO) studies. The set-up directly yields SHG data for the interface of interest and can also be used to obtain information concerning the influence of flow on NLO signals from that interface. The streaming potential is at present measured against a reference substrate (PTFE). The properties of this inert reference can be independently determined for the same conditions...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Mustafa Erkan Özgür, Sevgi Balcıoğlu, Ahmet Ulu, İmren Özcan, Fatih Okumuş, Süleyman Köytepe, Burhan Ateş
In recent years, titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) nanoparticles (NPs) as metal oxide nanoparticles are widely used in industry, agriculture, personal care products, cosmetics, sun protection and toothpaste, electronics, foodstuffs and food packaging. This use of nano-TiO2 has been associated with environmental toxicity concerns. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro effect of different doses of TiO2 NPs (∼30-40 nm) (0.01, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 10 and 50 mg/L) at 4oC for 3 h on the sperm cell kinematics as velocities of Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum, 1792) sperm cells...
June 12, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Björn Jörges, Lena Slupinski, Joan López-Moliner
Evidence suggests that humans rely on an earth gravity prior for sensory-motor tasks like catching or reaching. Even under earth-discrepant conditions, this prior biases perception and action towards assuming a gravitational downwards acceleration of 9.81 m/s2 . This can be particularly detrimental in interactions with virtual environments employing earth-discrepant gravity conditions for their visual presentation. The present study thus investigates how well humans discriminate visually presented gravities and which cues they use to extract gravity from the visual scene...
June 15, 2018: Vision Research
Nikki Rommers, Mireille Mostaert, Lennert Goossens, Roel Vaeyens, Erik Witvrouw, Matthieu Lenoir, Eva D'Hondt
This study investigated differences in generic and soccer specific motor coordination, as well as speed and agility depending on age and maturity in elite youth soccer players (U10-U15, N = 619). Measurements included body height, body weight and sitting height to estimate age at peak height velocity (APHV); three Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder subtests (i.e. jumping sideways (JS), moving sideways (MS), balancing backwards (BB)) to assess generic motor coordination; the UGent dribbling test for soccer specific motor coordination; a 5m/30m sprint and T-test for speed and agility, respectively...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Val Mikos, Shih-Cheng Yen, Arthur Tay, Chun-Huat Heng, Chloe Lau Ha Chung, Sylvia Hui Xin Liew, Dawn May Leng Tan, Wing Lok Au
BACKGROUND: Deviation in gait performance from normative data of healthy cohorts is used to quantify gait ability. However, normative data is influenced by anthropometry and such differences among subjects impede accurate assessment. De-correlation of anthropometry from gait parameters and mobility measures is therefore desirable. METHODS: 87 (42 male) healthy subjects varying form 21 to 84 years of age were assessed on gait parameters (cadence, ankle velocity, stride time, stride length) and mobility measures (the 3-meter/7-meter Timed Up-and-Go, 10-meter Walk Test)...
2018: PloS One
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