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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458114/severity-dependent-influence-of-isocapnic-hypoxia-on-reaction-time-is-independent-of-neurovascular-coupling
#1
Hannah G Caldwell, Geoff B Coombs, Michael M Tymko, Daniela Nowak-Flück, Philip N Ainslie
With exposure to acute normobaric hypoxia, global cerebral oxygen delivery is maintained via increases in cerebral blood flow (CBF); therefore, regional and localized changes in oxygen tension may explain neurocognitive impairment. Neurovascular coupling (NVC) is the close temporal and regional relationship of CBF to changes in neural activity and may aid in explaining the localized CBF response with cognitive activation. High-altitude related cognitive impairment is likely affected by hypocapnic cerebral vasoconstriction that may influence regional CBF regulation independent of hypoxia...
February 16, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458015/sulfenamide-and-sulfonamide-derivatives-of-metformin-can-exert-anti-coagulant-and-pro-fibrinolytic-properties
#2
Magdalena Markowicz-Piasecka, Kristiina M Huttunen, Łukasz Mateusiak, Elżbieta Mikiciuk-Olasik, Joanna Sikora
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterised not only by hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance but also an impaired balance between the processes of coagulation and fibrinolysis. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of metformin, a widely-used oral anti-diabetic drug, phenformin and eight sulfenamide and sulfonamide derivatives of metformin on several haemostasis parameters. Thrombin Time (TT) tests were performed according to the available commercial method. The activity of factor X was conducted based on deficient plasma factor X...
February 16, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457609/feedback-control-of-photoresponsive-fluid-interfaces
#3
Josua Grawitter, Holger Stark
Photoresponsive surfactants provide a unique microfluidic driving mechanism. Since they switch between two molecular shapes under illumination and thereby affect surface tension of fluid interfaces, Marangoni flow along the interface occurs. To describe the dynamics of the surfactant mixture at a planar interface, we formulate diffusion-advection-reaction equations for both surfactant densities. They also include adsorption from and desorption into the neighboring fluids and photoisomerization by light. We then study how the interface responds when illuminated by spots of light...
February 19, 2018: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457605/negative-pressure-therapy-in-the-regeneration-of-the-sciatic-nerve-using-vacuum-assisted-closure-in-a-rabbit-model
#4
Jian-Ping Wu, Zhen-Huan Jiang, Xiao-Jun Feng, Jian-Nong Jiang, Mao-Hua Cheng
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of negative pressure therapy in the regeneration of the rabbit sciatic nerve using vacuum assisted closure (VAC). MATERIAL AND METHODS Thirty male New Zealand white rabbits underwent surgical injury of the sciatic nerve, followed by negative pressure therapy using vacuum assisted closure (VAC), in three treatment groups: Group A: 0 kPa; Group B: -20 kPa; Group C: -40 kPa. At 12 weeks following surgery, the following factors were studied: motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV); the number of myelinated nerve fibers; the wet weight of the gastrocnemius muscle...
February 19, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457265/the-role-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-on-hypertensive-related-aortic-stiffness
#5
Edoardo Sciatti, Enrico Vizzardi, Assunta Castiello, Francesca Valentini, Ivano Bonadei, Sandro Gelsomino, Roberto Lorusso, Marco Metra
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is strongly related to arterial stiffness in a cause-effect fashion. Diabetes mellitus is also thought to determine vascular damage, mostly by means of advanced glycosylation end-products (AGEs). Aim of our study was to study the role of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) as regard ascending aortic elastic properties in hypertensive patients. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled outpatients with hypertension (n = 99) and type 2 diabetes mellitus plus hypertension (n = 42) without cardiovascular events...
February 19, 2018: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456810/minocycline-through-attenuation-of-oxidative-stress-and-inflammatory-response-reduces-the-neuropathic-pain-in-a-rat-model-of-chronic-constriction-injury
#6
Abolfazl Abbaszadeh, Saeideh Darabi, Amin Hasanvand, Hossein Amini-Khoei, Amir Abbasnezhad, Razieh Choghakhori, Asghar Aaliehpour
Objectives: Several lines of evidence showed that minocycline possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study aimed to demonstrate the effects of minocycline in rats subjected to chronic constriction injury (CCI). Materials and Methods: In this study four groups (n = 6-8) of rats were used as follows: Sham, CCI, CCI + minocycline (MIN) 10 mg/Kg (IP) and CCI + MIN 30 mg/Kg (IP). On days 3, 7, 14, and 21 post-surgery hot-plate, acetone, and von Frey tests were carried out...
February 2018: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456759/ossification-of-the-phalanges-of-the-foot-and-its-relationship-to-peak-height-velocity-and-the-calcaneal-system
#7
M R Garcia, A D Nicholson, A M Nduaguba, J O Sanders, R W Liu, D R Cooperman
Purpose: There are multiple skeletal maturity grading systems, but none of them utilizes the phalanges of the foot. To minimize radiation, it would be ideal if one could assess the skeletal maturity of a foot based on bones seen on routine foot radiographs, if guided growth is being considered as a treatment option. We developed a system that correlates changes of the appearance of the foot phalanges to peak height velocity (PHV) and the recently described calcaneal apophyseal ossification grading system...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Children's Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456758/binary-and-analogue-markers-of-skeletal-maturity-clinical-utility-of-the-thenar-and-plantar-sesamoids
#8
A D Nicholson, J O Sanders, R W Liu, D R Cooperman
Purpose: We investigate the thenar and plantar sesamoids as markers of skeletal maturity, and grade appearance using two scales, a binary system (absent or present), and an analogue system that relies upon judging regular changes in morphological appearance. Methods: We studied 94 healthy children (49 female and 45 male patients) between ages three and 18 years who had approximately 700 serially acquired sets of radiographs and physical examinations. The children had at least annual radiographs taken of the left hand and left foot...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Children's Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456354/impact-of-aging-on-nerve-conduction-velocities-and-late-responses-in-healthy-individuals
#9
Suchitra Sachin Palve, Sachin Bhaskar Palve
Background: Nerve conduction studies are performed to diagnose the disorders of the peripheral nervous system. The reference values for nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and late responses for different nerves considerably vary in different group and type of population. Physiological factors such as age, temperature, height, and gender affect the NCV. However, there are very few studies which show the age group at which these changes become significant. Aim and Objectives: The aim of the study was to establish the electrophysiological data of the specific age group at which changes in NCV as well as late responses of median common peroneal nerve and also see the late response in the form of F-waves and H-reflex...
January 2018: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456268/evidence-for-ubiquitous-preferential-particle-orientation-in-representative-oceanic-shear-flows
#10
Aditya R Nayak, Malcolm N McFarland, James M Sullivan, Michael S Twardowski
In situ measurements were undertaken to characterize particle fields in undisturbed oceanic environments. Simultaneous, co-located depth profiles of particle fields and flow characteristics were recorded using a submersible holographic imaging system and an acoustic Doppler velocimeter, under different flow conditions and varying particle concentration loads, typical of those found in coastal oceans and lakes. Nearly one million particles with major axis lengths ranging from ∼14 μm to 11.6 mm, representing diverse shapes, sizes, and aspect ratios were characterized as part of this study...
January 2018: Limnology and Oceanography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456257/irc-10-216-in-3-d-morphology-of-a-tp-agb-star-envelope
#11
M Guélin, N A Patel, M Bremer, J Cernicharo, A Castro-Carrizo, J Pety, J P Fonfría, M Agúndez, M Santander-García, G Quintana-Lacaci, L Velilla Prieto, R Blundell, P Thaddeus
During their late pulsating phase, AGB stars expel most of their mass in the form of massive dusty envelopes, an event that largely controls the composition of interstellar matter. The envelopes, however, are distant and opaque to visible and NIR radiation: their structure remains poorly known and the mass-loss process poorly understood. Millimeter-wave interferometry, which combines the advantages of longer wavelength, high angular resolution and very high spectral resolution is the optimal investigative tool for this purpose...
February 2018: Astronomy and Astrophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456256/clustering-the-orion-b-giant-molecular-cloud-based-on-its-molecular-emission
#12
Emeric Bron, Chloé Daudon, Jérôme Pety, François Levrier, Maryvonne Gerin, Pierre Gratier, Jan H Orkisz, Viviana Guzman, Sébastien Bardeau, Javier R Goicoechea, Harvey Liszt, Karin Öberg, Nicolas Peretto, Albrecht Sievers, Pascal Tremblin
Context: Previous attempts at segmenting molecular line maps of molecular clouds have focused on using position-position-velocity data cubes of a single molecular line to separate the spatial components of the cloud. In contrast, wide field spectral imaging over a large spectral bandwidth in the (sub)mm domain now allows one to combine multiple molecular tracers to understand the different physical and chemical phases that constitute giant molecular clouds (GMCs). Aims: We aim at using multiple tracers (sensitive to different physical processes and conditions) to segment a molecular cloud into physically/chemically similar regions (rather than spatially connected components), thus disentangling the different physical/chemical phases present in the cloud...
February 2018: Astronomy and Astrophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456213/association-of-serum-fibroblast-growth-factor-23-with-doppler-pulse-wave-velocity-in-hemodialysis-patients
#13
Walaa H Ibrahim, Ahmad B Ahmad, Noha G Sayed
We aimed to study the association of fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) as a novel cardiovascular risk factor with Doppler pulse wave velocity (PWV) as an arterial stiffness measuring tool in hemodialysis (HD) patients. We conducted a cross-sectional study in which blood samples from 86 HD patients were obtained to estimate FGF 23 and other parameters. Flow waveforms were obtained at two locations within right common carotid artery, and right femoral artery by Doppler ultrasound with ECG recorded in addition...
January 2018: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455891/multi-objective-path-planning-for-unmanned-surface-vehicle-with-currents-effects
#14
Yong Ma, Mengqi Hu, Xinping Yan
This paper investigates the path planning problem for unmanned surface vehicle (USV), wherein the goal is to find the shortest, smoothest, most economical and safest path in the presence of obstacles and currents, which is subject to the collision avoidance, motion boundaries and velocity constraints. We formulate this problem as a multi-objective nonlinear optimization problem with generous constraints. Then, we propose the dynamic augmented multi-objective particle swarm optimization algorithm to achieve the solution...
February 15, 2018: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455498/-radiologic-observation-of-the-blood-supply-changes-around-the-knee-with-osteoarthritis
#15
Jin-Song Liu, Zhi-Yao Li
OBJECTIVE: To compare blood supply changes around the knee joint between normal and osteoarthritis knee. METHODS: From June 2014 to June 2015, 30 patients with knee osteoarthritis and 30 healthy adults were recruited. In osteoarthritis group, there were 9 males and 21 females, with a mean age of (65.967±7.132) years old(ranged, 53 to 82 years old), and the mean arterial pressure was(93.462±7.633) mmHg. In control group, there were 9 males and 21 females, with a mean age of (62...
August 25, 2017: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455431/menstrual-phase-and-the-vascular-response-to-acute-resistance-exercise
#16
Jacqueline A Augustine, Kayla N Nunemacher, Kevin S Heffernan
INTRODUCTION: Aerobic exercise has a favorable effect on systemic vascular function, reducing both central (large elastic artery) and peripheral (smaller muscular artery) stiffness. The effects of resistance exercise (RE) on arterial stiffness are more complex. Acute RE increases central artery stiffness while decreasing peripheral stiffness. To date, the majority of studies have been performed in predominantly male participants. PURPOSE: To examine the effect of acute RE on central and peripheral arterial stiffnesses in women, a secondary purpose was to explore the influence of cyclic changes in estrogen status across the menstrual cycle on the arterial response to acute RE...
February 17, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455305/photobiomodulation-pbm-therapy-at-904-nm-mitigates-effects-of-exercise-induced-skeletal-muscle-fatigue-in-young-women
#17
Renata Luri Toma, Murilo Xavier Oliveira, Ana Cláudia Muniz Renno, E-Liisa Laakso
Muscle fatigue is a process influenced by several mechanisms such as concentration of metabolic substrates, changes in blood flow, and increases in reactive oxygen species that impair contractile muscle function. In this context, photobiomodulation has been investigated for preventing muscle fatigue, with reports of positive effects on muscle performance. This study aimed to investigate the effects of 904-nm LASER photobiomodulation on rectus femoris muscle performance in young women. Eighteen young women participated in a randomized, participant and assessor-blinded crossover trial with placebo control...
February 17, 2018: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455200/cardiovascular-and-patient-phenotype-of-extended-haemodialysis-a-critical-analysis-of-studying-a-unique-patient-population
#18
Nicos Mitsides, Tom Cornelis, Natascha J H Broers, Nanda M P Diederen, Paul Brenchley, Frank M van der Sande, Casper Schalkwijk, Jeroen P Kooman, Sandip Mitra
BACKGROUND: Extended haemodialysis (EHD) has been associated with better outcomes compared to conventional (CHD) regimes. The cardiovascular (CV) profile of these patients has not been assessed in detail. METHODS: We report baseline demographic and CV phenotype of 36 CHD and 36 EHD participants to a longitudinal multicentre study. We measured pulse wave velocity (PWV), 24-h ambulatory blood pressure, sublingual dark-field capillaroscopy and vascular biomarkers. RESULTS: EHD patients were younger (p < 0...
February 16, 2018: Blood Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455121/ozone-assisted-oxidation-of-gaseous-pcdd-fs-over-cnts-containing-composite-catalysts-at-low-temperature
#19
Qiulin Wang, Minghui Tang, Yaqi Peng, Cuicui Du, Shengyong Lu
Ozone assisted carbon nanotubes (CNTs) supported vanadium oxide/titanium dioxide (V/Ti-CNTs) or vanadium oxide-manganese oxide/titanium dioxide (V-Mn/Ti-CNTs) catalysts towards gaseous PCDD/Fs (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans) catalytic oxidations at low temperature (150 °C) were investigated. The removal efficiency (RE) and decomposition efficiency (DE) of PCDD/Fs achieved with V-Mn/Ti-CNTs alone were 95% and 45% at 150 °C under a space velocity (SV) of 14000 h-1 ; yet, these values reached 99% and 91% when catalyst and low concentration (50 ppm) ozone were used in combined...
February 3, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454929/hur-mediated-scn5a-mrna-stability-reduces-arrhythmic-risk-in-heart-failure
#20
Anyu Zhou, An Xie, Tae Yun Kim, Hong Liu, Guangbin Shi, Gyeoung-Jin Kang, Ning Jiang, Man Liu, Euy-Myoung Jeong, Bum-Rak Choi, Samuel C Dudley
BACKGROUND: Downregulated sodium currents in heart failure (HF) has been linked to increased arrhythmic risk. Reduced expression of mRNA stabilizing protein ELAVL1/HuR may be responsible for the downregulation of sodium channel gene SCN5A mRNA. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether HuR regulates SCN5A mRNA expression and whether manipulation of HuR benefits arrhythmia control in HF. METHODS: Quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) were used to investigate the expression of SCN5A...
February 15, 2018: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
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