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Chunmiao Yuan, Jingzhi Cai, Paul Amyotte, Chang Li, Yajie Bu, Kangfu Liu, Gang Li
Metallic dust layers are highly sensitive to ignition from common ignition sources, even when mixed with high percentages of inert solids. In turn, dust layer fires are a potential ignition source for dust explosions or other damaging fires. Flame spread velocity (FSV), as a potential parameter for evaluating fire hazard, was investigated for titanium powder layers mixed with inert nano TiO2 powder in both natural convection and in forced airflow conditions. Increased mass percentage of nano TiO2 powder decreased FSV of Ti powder mixtures as expected...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Lei Wang, Kathryn A Stevens, Paul Haupt-Renaud, R Kenneth Marcus
A new, trilobal shaped capillary-channeled polymer fiber is under development to address the issues of poor A-term performance of the previous eight-channeled form. The trilobal geometry should provide better packing homogeneity due to the fewer potential orientations of the symmetric fiber geometry. Comparisons of separation efficiency and peak shape were made between the two fiber shapes through several dynamic parameters. Column hydrodynamics were investigated with two marker compounds, uracil and bovine serum albumin, with van Deemter plots of those two compounds revealing differences in the packing qualities between the different fiber shapes...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
Mustafa Sarimollaoglu, Amanda J Stolarz, Dmitry A Nedosekin, Brittney R Garner, Terry W Fletcher, Ekaterina I Galanzha, Nancy J Rusch, Vladimir P Zharov
The lymphatic system contributes to body homeostasis by clearing fluid, lipids, plasma proteins, and immune cells from the interstitial space. Many studies have been performed to understand lymphatic function under normal conditions and during disease. Nevertheless, a further improvement in quantification of lymphatic behavior is needed. Here, we present advanced bright-field microscopy for in vivo imaging of lymph vessels and automated quantification of lymphatic function at temporal resolution of 2 ms. Full frame videos were compressed and recorded continuously at up to 540 frames per second...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
Liu Cui, Sanqiang Shi, Gaosheng Wei, Xiaoze Du
Graphene-based materials exhibit intriguing phononic and thermal properties. In this paper, we have investigated the heat conductance in graphene sheets under shear-strain-induced wrinkling deformation, using equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. A significant orientation dependence of the thermal conductivity of graphene wrinkles (GWs) is observed. The directional dependence of the thermal conductivity of GWs stems from the anisotropy of phonon group velocities as revealed by the G-band broadening of the phonon density of states (DOS), the anisotropy of thermal resistance as evidenced by the G-band peak mismatch of the phonon DOS, and the anisotropy of phonon relaxation times as a direct result of the double-exponential-fitting of the heat current autocorrelation function...
December 12, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Vipul Gupta, Stephen Beirne, Pavel N Nesterenko, Brett Paull
Effect of column geometry on the liquid chromatographic separations using 3D printed liquid chromatographic columns with in-column polymerised monoliths has been studied. Three different liquid chromatographic columns were designed and 3D printed in titanium as 2D serpentine, 3D spiral, and 3D serpentine columns, of equal length and I.D. Successful in-column thermal polymerisation of mechanically stable poly(BuMA-co-EDMA) monoliths was achieved within each design without any significant structural differences between each phase...
December 12, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Ling Chen, Li Xue, Shumao Li, Tao Kang, Hong Chen, Chunguang Hou
OBJECTIVE: To compare the differences in the clinical therapeutic effects on mild and moderate carpal tunnel syndrome between the combined therapy of regular acupuncture and contralateral needling technique at distal acupoints and the regular acupuncture. METHODS: Sixty patients of mild and moderate carpal tunnel syndrome were divided into an observation group and a control group according to random number table, 30 cases in each one. Laogong (PC 8), Daling (PC 7), Neiguan (PC 6), Yuji (LU 10) and Hegu (LI 4) were selected on the affected side in the two groups...
May 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
Linping Zhu, Jinping Yang, Xiyue Yang, Feng Qin, Dongping Wu, Gelang Huang
OBJECTIVE: To observe the efficacy and explore the effect mechanism on visual display terminal syndrome treated with jingjin therapy of Zhuang medicine. METHODS: Sixty-five patients of visual fatigue induced by the visual display terminal operation were treated with jingjin trigeminy therapy of Zhuang medicine, e.g. massage manipulation, acupuncture and cupping; acting on the specific stimulating areas in Zhuang medicine, relevant with orbit, temple, forehead, ear and Baihui (GV 20)...
February 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
Hangbo Zhou, Yongqing Cai, Gang Zhang, Yong-Wei Zhang
Monolayer indium selenide (InSe) possesses numerous fascinating properties, such as high electron mobility, quantum Hall effect and anomalous optical response. However, its phonon properties, thermal transport properties and the origin of its structural stability remain unexplored. Using first-principles calculations, we show that the atoms in InSe are highly polarized and such polarization causes strong long-range dipole-dipole interaction (DDI). For acoustic modes, DDI is essential for maintaining its structural stability...
December 12, 2017: Nanoscale
Amin Taheri-Garavand, Fatemeh Karimi, Mahmoud Karimi, Valiullah Lotfi, Golmohammad Khoobbakht
The aim of the study is to fit models for predicting surfaces using the response surface methodology and the artificial neural network to optimize for obtaining the maximum acceptability using desirability functions methodology in a hot air drying process of banana slices. The drying air temperature, air velocity, and drying time were chosen as independent factors and moisture content, drying rate, energy efficiency, and exergy efficiency were dependent variables or responses in the mentioned drying process...
January 1, 2017: Food Science and Technology International, Ciencia y Tecnología de Los Alimentos Internacional
Hiroshi Fujiwara, Hisakazu Nakajima, Fumio Inoue, Kitaro Kosaka, Hiroaki Asano, Kengo Yoshii
BACKGROUND: Early atherosclerotic change is found even in childhood, and there is an urgent need to clarify the factors causing childhood atherosclerosis and take preventive measures. Early detection of the contributing risk factors is crucial for preventive measures to be undertaken. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is a widely used technique method for the assessment of atherosclerosis in children. METHODS: Lifestyle questionnaire, and baPWV values and anthropometric data were obtained from junior high school students in an urban area of Japan over a period of 3 years between 2006 and 2008...
December 12, 2017: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Julie C Kendall, Lars G Hvid, Jan Hartvigsen, Azharuddin Fazalbhoy, Michael F Azari, Mathias Skjødt, Stephen R Robinson, Paolo Caserotti
BACKGROUND: In older adults, musculoskeletal pain is associated with increased concerns of falling, reduced balance and increased occurrence of falls. In younger adults, the intensity of neck pain and low back pain is associated with increased postural sway. It is not known if pain further impairs balance and concerns of falling in mobility-limited older adults, and if so, whether this is associated with different intensities of pain. OBJECTIVE: This study examined whether mobility-limited older adults with mild or intense neck pain and/or low back pain have significantly increased postural sway as measured by centre of pressure (COP) changes and concerns of falling compared to those without pain...
December 11, 2017: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
Tsumugi Oki, Hidekazu Tanaka, Takamitsu Imanishi, Yuji Nakamachi, Jun Saegusa, Seiji Kawano, Ken-Ichi Hirata, Yoshihiro Nishimura
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between right ventricular (RV) function and left ventricular (LV) diastolic function in patients with reduced LV ejection fraction (LVEF) and preserved LVEF. METHODS: A total of 139 patients who had undergone echocardiography were recruited. LV diastolic function was determined as the ratio of mitral inflow E to mitral e' lateral annular velocities (E/e'). RV function was determined as the RV index of myocardial performance (RIMP)...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Echocardiography
Matthias Schneider, Anna Maria Pistritto, Christian Gerges, Mario Gerges, Christina Binder, Irene Lang, Gerald Maurer, Thomas Binder, Georg Goliasch
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a disease with severe morbidity and mortality. Echocardiography plays an essential role in the screening of PH. The quality of the acquired continuous wave Doppler signal is the major limitation of the method and can greatly affect the accuracy of estimated pulmonary pressures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical need to image from multiple ultrasound windows in patients with suspected pulmonary hypertension. We prospectively evaluated 65 patients (43% male, mean age 67...
December 11, 2017: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
Christian Schumacher, André Seyfarth
In human and animal motor control several sensory organs contribute to a network of sensory pathways modulating the motion depending on the task and the phase of execution to generate daily motor tasks such as locomotion. To better understand the individual and joint contribution of reflex pathways in locomotor tasks, we developed a neuromuscular model that describes hopping movements. In this model, we consider the influence of proprioceptive length (LFB), velocity (VFB) and force feedback (FFB) pathways of a leg extensor muscle on hopping stability, performance and efficiency (metabolic effort)...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
Takashi Tonegawa, Eiichiro Araki, Toshinori Kimura, Takeshi Nakamura, Masaru Nakano, Kensuke Suzuki
A low-velocity zone (LVZ) has been detected by seismic exploration surveys within the Nankai accretionary prism toe off the Kii Peninsula, southwestern Japan, and is considered to be a mechanically weak volume at depth. Such mechanical heterogeneities potentially influence seismic and tsunamigenic slips on megathrust earthquakes in the subduction zone. However, the spatial distribution of the LVZ along the trough-parallel direction is still elusive. Here we show sporadic LVZs in the prism toe from one-dimensional shear wave velocity (Vs) profiles obtained at 49 cabled ocean bottom stations, which were estimated by a nonlinear inversion technique, simulated annealing, using the displacement-pressure ratios of the Rayleigh wave...
December 11, 2017: Nature Communications
T S van den Bremer, Ø Breivik
During its periodic motion, a particle floating at the free surface of a water wave experiences a net drift velocity in the direction of wave propagation, known as the Stokes drift (Stokes 1847 Trans. Camb. Philos. Soc.8, 441-455). More generally, the Stokes drift velocity is the difference between the average Lagrangian flow velocity of a fluid parcel and the average Eulerian flow velocity of the fluid. This paper reviews progress in fundamental and applied research on the induced mean flow associated with surface gravity waves since the first description of the Stokes drift, now 170 years ago...
January 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Delia Ionescu-Kruse
This paper is a survey of the short-wavelength stability method for rotating flows. Additional complications such as stratification in the flow or the presence of non-conservative body forces are considered too. This method is applied to the specific study of some exact geophysical flows. For Gerstner-like geophysical flows one can identify perturbations in certain directions as a source of instabilities with an exponentially growing amplitude, the growth rate of the instabilities depending on the steepness of the travelling wave profile...
January 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Biswajit Basu
Bounds on estimates of wave heights (valid for large amplitudes) from pressure and flow measurements at an arbitrary intermediate depth have been provided. Two-dimensional irrotational steady water waves over a flat bed with a finite depth in the presence of underlying uniform currents have been considered in the analysis. Five different upper bounds based on a combination of pressure and velocity field measurements have been derived, though there is only one available lower bound on the wave height in the case of the speed of current greater than or less than the wave speed...
January 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Anton S Becker, Andreas Boss, Markus Klarhoefer, Tim Finkenstaedt, Moritz C Wurnig, Cristina Rossi
The quantitative and non-invasive monitoring of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics and composition may have high clinical relevance in the management of CSF disorders. In this study, we propose the use of the Intravoxel Incoherent Motion (IVIM) MRI for obtaining simultaneous measurements of CSF self-diffusion and fluid circulation. The rationale for this study was that turbulent fluid and mesoscopic fluid fluctuations can be modeled in a first approximation as a fast diffusion process. In this case, we expect that the fast fluid circulation and slower molecular diffusion dynamics can be quantified, assuming a bi-exponential attenuation pattern of the diffusion-weighted signal in MRI...
December 8, 2017: NeuroImage
Adam Bush, Yaqiong Chai, So Young Choi, Lena Vaclavu, Scott Holland, Aart Nederveen, Thomas Coates, John Wood
PURPOSE: To investigate possible sources of quantification errors in global cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements by comparing pseudo continuous arterial spin labeling (PCASL) and phase contrast (PC) MRI in anemic, hyperemic subjects. METHODS: All studies were performed on a Philips 3T Achieva MRI scanner. PC and PCASL CBF examinations were performed in 10 healthy, young adult subjects and 18 young adults with chronic anemia syndromes including sickle cell disease and thalassemia...
December 8, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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