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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822331/evidence-of-low-dose-effects-of-the-antidepressant-fluoxetine-and-the-fungicide-prochloraz-on-the-behavior-of-the-keystone-freshwater-invertebrate-gammarus-pulex
#1
N De Castro-Català, I Muñoz, J L Riera, A T Ford
In recent years, behavior-related endpoints have been proposed as rapid and reliable ecotoxicological tools for risk assessment. In particular, the use of detritivores to test the toxicity of pollutants through feeding is currently becoming a well-known method. Experiments combining feeding with other behavioral endpoints can provide relevant information about direct and indirect toxicological effects of chemicals. We carried out a feeding experiment with the shredder Gammarus pulex in order to detect indirect (through leaf conditioning) and direct effects (through water exposure) of two pollutants at environmentally relevant concentrations: the fungicide prochloraz (6 μg/L) and the antidepressant fluoxetine (100 ng/L)...
August 16, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822330/effect-of-the-microstructure-on-the-propagation-velocity-of-ultrasound-in-magnetic-powders
#2
Francisco Ruiz Botello, Miguel A S Quintanilla, Antonio Castellanos, Elena F Grekova, Vincent Tournat
We analyze experimentally and theoretically the sound propagation velocity of P-waves in granular media made of micrometer-size magnetite particles under an external magnetic field. The sound velocity is measured in a coherent (long-wavelength) regime of propagation after a controlled sample preparation consisting of a fluidization and the application of a magnetic field. Several different procedures are applied and result in different but reproducible particle arrangements and preferential contact orientations affecting the measured sound velocity...
August 1, 2017: Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822327/improvements-in-balance-control-in-individuals-with-pcs-detected-following-vestibular-training-a-case-study
#3
Alyssa Prangley, Mathew Aggerholm, Michael Cinelli
Concussed individuals have been found to experience balance deficits in the anterior-posterior (AP) direction as indicated by greater Center of Pressure (COP) displacement and velocity. One possible reason for this change in balance control could be due to damage to the lateral vestibulospinal tract which sends signals to control posterior muscles, specifically ankle extensors leading to compensatory torques about the ankle. The purpose of the study was to quantify balance assessments in individuals experiencing persistent post-concussion symptoms (PCS) to determine balance control changes following a vestibular training intervention...
August 8, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822302/new-insight-in-spiral-drawing-analysis-methods-application-to-action-tremor-quantification
#4
André Pierre Legrand, Isabelle Rivals, Aliénor Richard, Emmanuelle Apartis, Emmanuel Roze, Marie Vidailhet, Sabine Meunier, Elodie Hainque
OBJECTIVE: Spiral drawing is one of the standard tests used to assess tremor severity for the clinical evaluation of medical treatments. Tremor severity is estimated through visual rating of the drawings by movement disorders experts. Different approaches based on the mathematical signal analysis of the recorded spiral drawings were proposed to replace this rater dependent estimate. The objective of the present study is to propose new numerical methods and to evaluate them in terms of agreement with visual rating and reproducibility...
July 17, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822141/applicability-of-quantitative-optical-imaging-techniques-for-intraoperative-perfusion-diagnostics-a-comparison-of-laser-speckle-contrast-imaging-sidestream-dark-field-microscopy-and-optical-coherence-tomography
#5
Sanne M Jansen, Daniel M de Bruin, Dirk J Faber, Iwan J G G Dobbe, Erik Heeg, Dan M J Milstein, Simon D Strackee, Ton G van Leeuwen
Patient morbidity and mortality due to hemodynamic complications are a major problem in surgery. Optical techniques can image blood flow in real-time and high-resolution, thereby enabling perfusion monitoring intraoperatively. We tested the feasibility and validity of laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI), optical coherence tomography (OCT), and sidestream dark-field microscopy (SDF) for perfusion diagnostics in a phantom model using whole blood. Microvessels with diameters of 50, 100, and 400  μm were constructed in a scattering phantom...
August 2017: Journal of Biomedical Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821991/transcranial-doppler-in-autonomic-testing-standards-and-clinical-applications
#6
REVIEW
Lucy Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Brahyan Galindo-Mendez, Ana-Lucia Garcia-Guarniz, Estibaliz Villarreal-Vitorica, Vera Novak
When cerebral blood flow falls below a critical limit, syncope occurs and, if prolonged, ischemia leads to neuronal death. The cerebral circulation has its own complex finely tuned autoregulatory mechanisms to ensure blood supply to the brain can meet the high metabolic demands of the underlying neuronal tissue. This involves the interplay between myogenic and metabolic mechanisms, input from noradrenergic and cholinergic neurons, and the release of vasoactive substrates, including adenosine from astrocytes and nitric oxide from the endothelium...
August 18, 2017: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821956/effects-of-ageing-on-pro-arrhythmic-ventricular-phenotypes-in-incrementally-paced-murine-pgc-1%C3%AE-hearts
#7
Shiraz Ahmad, Haseeb Valli, Charlotte E Edling, Andrew A Grace, Kamalan Jeevaratnam, Christopher L-H Huang
A range of chronic clinical conditions accompany cardiomyocyte energetic dysfunction and constitute independent risk factors for cardiac arrhythmia. We investigated pro-arrhythmic and arrhythmic phenotypes in energetically deficient C57BL mice with genetic ablation of the mitochondrial promoter peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1β (Pgc-1β), a known model of ventricular arrhythmia. Pro-arrhythmic and cellular action potential (AP) characteristics were compared in intact Langendorff-perfused hearts from young (12-16 week) and aged (> 52 week), wild-type (WT) and Pgc-1β (-/-) mice...
August 18, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821878/shock-formation-and-structure-in-magnetic-reconnection-with-a-streaming-flow
#8
Liangneng Wu, Zhiwei Ma, Haowei Zhang
The features of magnetic reconnection with a streaming flow have been investigated on the basis of compressible resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model. The super-Alfvenic streaming flow largely enhances magnetic reconnection. The maximum reconnection rate is almost four times larger with super-Alfvenic streaming flow than sub-Alfvénic streaming flow. In the nonlinear stage, it is found that there is a pair of shocks observed in the inflow region, which are manifested to be slow shocks for sub-Alfvénic streaming flow, and fast shocks for super-Alfvénic streaming flow...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821743/cherenkov-radiation-control-via-self-accelerating-wave-packets
#9
Yi Hu, Zhili Li, Benjamin Wetzel, Roberto Morandotti, Zhigang Chen, Jingjun Xu
Cherenkov radiation is a ubiquitous phenomenon in nature. It describes electromagnetic radiation from a charged particle moving in a medium with a uniform velocity larger than the phase velocity of light in the same medium. Such a picture is typically adopted in the investigation of traditional Cherenkov radiation as well as its counterparts in different branches of physics, including nonlinear optics, spintronics and plasmonics. In these cases, the radiation emitted spreads along a "cone", making it impractical for most applications...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821737/combining-%C3%AE%C2%B5-near-zero-behavior-and-stopped-light-energy-bands-for-ultra-low-reflection-and-reduced-dispersion-of-slow-light
#10
Frank Bello, A Freddie Page, Andreas Pusch, Joachim M Hamm, John F Donegan, Ortwin Hess
We investigate media which exhibits epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) behavior while simultaneously sustaining stopped light energy bands which contain multiple points of zero group velocity (ZGV). This allows the merging of state-of-the-art phenomena that was hitherto attainable in media that demonstrated these traits separately. Specifically, we demonstrate the existence of Ferrell-Berreman (FB) modes within frequency bands bounded by points of ZGV with the goal to improve the coupling efficiency and localization of light in the media...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821661/attenuated-activity-across-multiple-cell-types-and-reduced-monosynaptic-connectivity-in-the-aged-perirhinal-cortex
#11
A P Maurer, S N Burke, K Diba, C A Barnes
The perirhinal cortex (PER), which is critical for associative memory and stimulus discrimination, has been described as a wall of inhibition between the neocortex and hippocampus. With advanced age, rats show deficits on PER-dependent behavioral tasks and fewer PER principal neurons are activated by stimuli, but the role of PER interneurons in these altered circuit properties in old age has not been characterized. In the present study, PER neurons were recorded while rats traversed a circular track bi-directionally in which the track was either empty or contained 8 novel objects evenly spaced around the track...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821647/plasticity-beyond-v1-reinforcement-of-motion-perception-upon-binocular-central-retinal-lesions-in-adulthood
#12
Kalina Burnat, Tjing-Tjing Hu, Małgorzata Kossut, Ulf T Eysel, Lutgarde Arckens
Induction of a central retinal lesion in both eyes of adult mammals is a model for macular degeneration and leads to retinotopic map reorganization in the primary visual cortex (V1). Here we characterized the spatio-temporal dynamics of molecular activity levels in the central and peripheral representation of five higher order visual areas, V2/18, V3/19, V4/21a,V5/PMLS, area 7, and V1/17, in adult cats with central 10° retinal lesions (both sexes), by means of real-time PCR for the neuronal activity reporter gene zif268...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821572/rolling-neutrophils-form-tethers-and-slings-under-physiologic-conditions-in-vivo
#13
Alex Marki, Konrad Buscher, Zbigniew Mikulski, Axel Pries, Klaus Ley
Human and mouse neutrophils are known to form tethers when rolling on selectins in vitro. Tethers are ∼0.2 μm thin, ∼5-10 μm-long structures behind rolling cells that can swing around to form slings that serve as self-adhesive substrates. Here, we developed a mouse intravital imaging method, where the neutrophil surface is labeled by injecting fluorescently labeled mAb to Ly-6G. Venules in the cremaster muscle of live mice were imaged at a high frame rate using a confocal microscope equipped with a fast resonant scanner...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821470/design-of-the-drepagreffe-trial-a-prospective-controlled-multicenter-study-evaluating-the-benefit-of-genoidentical-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-over-chronic-transfusion-in-sickle-cell-anemia-children-detected-to-be-at-risk-of-stroke-by-transcranial
#14
Sylvie Chevret, Suzanne Verlhac, Elisabeth Ducros-Miralles, Jean-Hugues Dalle, Regis Peffault de Latour, Mariane de Montalembert, Malika Benkerrou, Corinne Pondarré, Isabelle Thuret, Corinne Guitton, Emmanuelle Lesprit, Maryse Etienne-Julan, Gisèle Elana, Jean-Pierre Vannier, Patrick Lutz, Bénédicte Neven, Claire Galambrun, Catherine Paillard, Camille Runel, Charlotte Jubert, Cécile Arnaud, Annie Kamdem, Valentine Brousse, Florence Missud, Marie Petras, Lydia Doumdo-Divialle, Claire Berger, Françoise Fréard, Olivier Taieb, Elise Drain, Monique Elmaleh, Manuela Vasile, Yacine Khelif, Myriam Bernaudin, Philippe Chadebech, France Pirenne, Gérard Socié, Françoise Bernaudin
BACKGROUND: Children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) have an 11% risk of stroke by the age of 18. Chronic transfusion applied in patients detected to be at risk by transcranial Doppler allows a significant reduction of stroke risk. However, chronic transfusion exposes to several adverse events, including alloimmunization and iron overload, and is not curative. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation allows termination of the transfusion program, but its benefit has not been demonstrated...
August 15, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821437/particle-sizing-of-pharmaceutical-aerosols-via-direct-imaging-of-particle-settling-velocities
#15
Rami Fishler, Frank Verhoeven, Wilbur de Kruijf, Josué Sznitman
We present a novel method for characterizing in near real-time the aerodynamic particle size distributions from pharmaceutical inhalers. The proposed method is based on direct imaging of airborne particles followed by a particle-by-particle measurement of settling velocities using image analysis and particle tracking algorithms. Due to the simplicity of the principle of operation, this method has the potential of circumventing potential biases of current real-time particle analyzers (e.g. Time of Flight analysis), while offering a cost effective solution...
August 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819203/differential-diagnostic-performance-of-acoustic-radiation-force-impulse-imaging-in-small-%C3%A2-20%C3%A2-mm-breast-cancers-is-it-valuable
#16
Si-Da Wang, Lei Wang, Zhi-Xian Li, Kang-Lai Wei, Xin-Hong Liao, Yuan-Yuan Chen, Xue Huang
To evaluate acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) inthe differential diagnosis of small (≤20 mm) solid breast lesions and identify the most efficient ARFI parameters. Conventional ultrasonography and ARFIwere performed in 120 patients with 121 small solid breast lesions. The area ratios (ARs) of the lesion on virtual touch tissue compared to B-mode were calculated. The shear wave velocity of the inner (SWVi) and boundary (SWVb) of the lesions and surrounding fatty tissue (SWVf) was measured. The ratio of SWVi to SWVf (SWVrat) was calculated...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819130/a-multielectrode-array-microchannel-platform-reveals-both-transient-and-slow-changes-in-axonal-conduction-velocity
#17
Rouhollah Habibey, Shahrzad Latifi, Hossein Mousavi, Mattia Pesce, Elmira Arab-Tehrany, Axel Blau
Due to their small dimensions, electrophysiology on thin and intricate axonal branches in support of understanding their role in normal and diseased brain function poses experimental challenges. To reduce experimental complexity, we coupled microelectrode arrays (MEAs) to bi-level microchannel devices for the long-term in vitro tracking of axonal morphology and activity with high spatiotemporal resolution. Our model allowed the long-term multisite recording from pure axonal branches in a microscopy-compatible environment...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819086/measurement-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-flow-dynamics-using-phase-contrast-mr-imaging-with-bilateral-jugular-vein-compression-a-feasibility-study-in-healthy-volunteers
#18
Shintaro Ichikawa, Utaroh Motosugi, Akihiro Okumura, Tatsuya Shimizu, Hiroshi Onishi
We measured the changes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow dynamics after compression of the bilateral jugular veins using phase contrast-magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI). PC-MRI was performed in 10 healthy male volunteers using a 3T clinical scanner with a two-dimensional gradient echo sequence. We successfully measured the changes in CSF flow velocity using PC-MRI with and without compression of the bilateral jugular veins. The relative velocity range decreased by about 30% when the bilateral jugular veins were compressed...
August 16, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences: MRMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818943/zones-spots-and-planetary-scale-waves-beating-in-brown-dwarf-atmospheres
#19
D Apai, T Karalidi, M S Marley, H Yang, D Flateau, S Metchev, N B Cowan, E Buenzli, A J Burgasser, J Radigan, E Artigau, P Lowrance
Brown dwarfs are massive analogs of extrasolar giant planets and may host types of atmospheric circulation not seen in the solar system. We analyzed a long-term Spitzer Space Telescope infrared monitoring campaign of brown dwarfs to constrain cloud cover variations over a total of 192 rotations. The infrared brightness evolution is dominated by beat patterns caused by planetary-scale wave pairs and by a small number of bright spots. The beating waves have similar amplitudes but slightly different apparent periods because of differing velocities or directions...
August 18, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818942/an-unusual-white-dwarf-star-may-be-a-surviving-remnant-of-a-subluminous-type-ia-supernova
#20
S Vennes, P Nemeth, A Kawka, J R Thorstensen, V Khalack, L Ferrario, E H Alper
Subluminous Type Ia supernovae, such as the Type Iax-class prototype SN 2002cx, are described by a variety of models such as the failed detonation and partial deflagration of an accreting carbon-oxygen white dwarf star or the explosion of an accreting, hybrid carbon-oxygen-neon core. These models predict that bound remnants survive such events with, according to some simulations, a high kick velocity. We report the discovery of a high proper motion, low-mass white dwarf (LP 40-365) that travels at a velocity greater than the Galactic escape velocity and whose peculiar atmosphere is dominated by intermediate-mass elements...
August 18, 2017: Science
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