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autoregulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533156/identification-and-characterization-of-lbpa-an-indigoidine-biosynthetic-gene-in-the-%C3%AE-butyrolactone-signaling-system-of-streptomyces-lavendulae-fri-5
#1
Ivy Grace Umadhay Pait, Shigeru Kitani, Yohanes Novi Kurniawan, Maeda Asa, Takashi Iwai, Haruo Ikeda, Takuya Nihira
Streptomyces lavendulae FRI-5 produces the blue pigment indigoidine and other secondary metabolites (d-cycloserine and nucleoside antibiotics). The production of these useful compounds is controlled by a signaling cascade mediated by the γ-butyrolactone autoregulator IM-2. Previously we revealed that the far regulatory island includes the IM-2 receptor, the IM-2 biosynthetic enzyme, and several transcriptional regulators, and that it contributes to the regulation of indigoidine production in response to the signaling molecule...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522231/large-amount-of-cannabis-ingestion-resulting-in-spontaneous-intracerebral-hemorrhage-a-case-report
#2
Kunakorn Atchaneeyasakul, Luis F Torres, Amer M Malik
Although multiple cases of cannabis-associated ischemic stroke have been reported, there are only 2 reported cases of hemorrhagic stroke with an associated cerebral vasoconstriction. To our knowledge, we present the first case of basal ganglia hemorrhage after a large-volume oral ingestion of cannabis without other identified risk factors. In our case, cerebral digital subtraction angiography within 24 hours of presentation did not reveal vasoconstriction leading to a possible alternative explanation for hemorrhagic stroke, including cannabis-induced transient arterial hypertension and autoregulation disruption...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512154/glucose-autoregulation-is-the-dominant-component-of-the-hormone-independent-counterregulatory-response-to-hypoglycemia-in-the-conscious-dog
#3
Justin M Gregory, Noelia Rivera, Guillaume Kraft, Jason J Winnick, Ben Farmer, Eric J Allen, E Patrick Donahue, Marta S Smith, Dale S Edgerton, Phillip E Williams, Alan D Cherrington
The contribution of hormone-independent counterregulatory signals in defense of insulin-induced hypoglycemia were determined in adrenalectomized, overnight-fasted conscious dogs receiving hepatic portal vein insulin infusions at a rate 20-fold basal. Either euglycemia was maintained (group 1) or hypoglycemia (≈45 mg/dL) was allowed to occur. There were 3 hypoglycemic groups: one in which hepatic autoregulation against hypoglycemia occurred in the absence of sympathetic nervous system input (group 2), autoregulation in the presence of norepinephrine (NE) signaling to fat and muscle (group 3), and autoregulation in the presence of NE signaling to fat, muscle, and liver (group 4)...
May 16, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505727/multiple-binding-sites-for-transcriptional-repressors-can-produce-regular-bursting-and-enhance-noise-suppression
#4
Iván M Lengyel, Luis G Morelli
Cells may control fluctuations in protein levels by means of negative autoregulation, where transcription factors bind DNA sites to repress their own production. Theoretical studies have assumed a single binding site for the repressor, while in most species it is found that multiple binding sites are arranged in clusters. We study a stochastic description of negative autoregulation with multiple binding sites for the repressor. We find that increasing the number of binding sites induces regular bursting of gene products...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505046/south-asians-why-are-they-at-a-higher-risk-for-cardiovascular-disease
#5
Anjly Jain, Rajeev Puri, Devaki R Nair
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We comment on the high prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in South Asians (SA). The effect of various risk factors, for example biochemical, genetic, lifestyle, socioeconomic factors and psychosocial stress on CVD risk is discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: 'Prediabetes' is common in SA, but its relationship with coronary artery disease (CAD) is not significant unlike for the white population. At the same time, 'prediabetes' in SA is associated with an increased risk for cerebrovascular disease (CeVD)...
May 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501304/speculations-on-salt-and-the-genesis-of-arterial-hypertension
#6
REVIEW
Jens Titze, Friedrich C Luft
Blood pressure salt sensitivity and salt resistance are mechanistically imperfectly explained. A prescient systems medicine approach by Guyton and colleagues-more than 50 years ago-suggested how salt intake might influence blood pressure. They proposed that a high-salt diet engenders sodium accumulation, volume expansion, cardiac output adjustments, and then autoregulation for flow maintenance. The autoregulation in all vascular beds increases systemic vascular resistance, causing the kidneys to excrete more salt and water, thus reducing systems to normal and minimizing any changes in blood pressure...
June 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497934/cerebral-autoregulation-monitoring-in-acute-traumatic-brain-injury-what-s-the-evidence
#7
Leanne A Calviello, Joseph Donnelly, Frederick A Zeiler, Eric P Thelin, Peter Smielewski, Marek Czosnyka
Cerebral autoregulation is conceptualized as a vascular self-regulatory mechanism within the brain. Controlled by elusive relationships between various biophysical processes, it functions to protect the brain against potential damages caused by sudden changes in cerebral perfusion pressures and flow. Following events such as traumatic brain injuries (TBI), autoregulation may be compromised, potentially leading to an unfavorable outcome. In spite of its complexity, autoregulation has been able to be quantified non-invasively within the neuro-critical care setting with the aid of transcranial Doppler...
May 12, 2017: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495842/the-impact-of-ocular-hemodynamics-and-intracranial-pressure-on-intraocular-pressure-during-acute-gravitational-changes
#8
Emily S Nelson, Lealem Mulugeta, Andrew Feola, Julia Raykin, Jerry G Myers, Brian C Samuels, C Ross Ethier
Exposure to microgravity causes a bulk fluid shift toward the head, with concomitant changes in blood volume/pressure, intraocular pressure (IOP), and intracranial pressure (ICP). These and other factors are thought to contribute to Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure syndrome, a significant health concern for astronauts, characterized by degradation of visual function and ocular anatomical changes. Here we describe a lumped-parameter numerical model to simulate volume/pressure alterations in the eye during gravitational changes...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486883/monitoring-of-optimal-cerebral-perfusion-pressure-in-traumatic-brain-injured-patients-using-a-multi-window-weighting-algorithm
#9
Xiuyun Liu, Natasha M Maurits, Marcel J H Aries, Marek Czosnyka, Ari Ercole, Joseph Donnelly, Danilo Cardim, Dong-Joo Kim, Celeste Dias, Manuel Cabeleira, Peter Smieleweski
Methods to identify an autoregulation guided 'optimal' cerebral perfusion pressure (CPPopt) for traumatic brain injury patients (TBI) have been reported through several studies. An important drawback of existing methodology is that CPPopt can be calculated only in approximately 50-60% of the monitoring time. In this study, we hypothesized that the CPPopt yield and the continuity can be improved significantly through application of a multi-window and weighting calculation algorithm, without adversely affecting preservation of its prognostic value...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483564/the-influence-of-nuclear-compartmentalisation-on-stochastic-dynamics-of-self-repressing-gene-expression
#10
Marc Sturrock, Shiyu Li, Vahid Shahrezaei
Gene expression is an inherently noisy process. This noise is generally thought to be deleterious as precise internal regulation of biochemical reactions is essential for cell growth and survival. Self-repression of gene expression, which is the simplest form of a negative feedback loop, is commonly believed to be employed by cellular systems to decrease the stochastic fluctuations in gene expression. When there is some delay in autoregulation, it is also believed that this system can generate oscillations...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482921/the-autocrine-role-of-proteoglycan-4-prg4-in-modulating-osteoarthritic-synoviocyte-proliferation-and-expression-of-matrix-degrading-enzymes
#11
Ali Alquraini, Maha Jamal, Ling Zhang, Tannin Schmidt, Gregory D Jay, Khaled A Elsaid
BACKGROUND: Lubricin/proteoglycan 4 (PRG4) is a mucinous glycoprotein secreted by synovial fibroblasts and superficial zone chondrocytes. Recently, we showed that recombinant human PRG4 (rhPRG4) is a putative ligand for CD44 receptor. rhPRG4-CD44 interaction inhibits cytokine-induced rheumatoid arthritis synoviocyte proliferation. The objective of this study is to decipher the autocrine function of PRG4 in regulating osteoarthritic synoviocyte proliferation and expression of catabolic and pro-inflammatory mediators under basal and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β)-stimulated conditions...
May 8, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479402/tight-neurovascular-coupling-in-the-spinal-cord-during-nociceptive-stimulation-in-intact-and-spinal-rats
#12
Mathieu Piché, Thierry Paquette, Hugues Leblond
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is based on neurovascular coupling, which allows inferring neuronal activity from hemodynamic changes. Spinal fMRI has been used to examine pain processes, although spinal neurovascular coupling has never been investigated. In addition, fluctuations in mean arterial pressure (MAP) occur during nociceptive stimulation and this may affect neurovascular coupling. The objective of this study was to examine neurovascular coupling in the rat spinal cord during nociceptive stimulation while MAP was manipulated by cervical spinal transection, which prevents nociception-related MAP increases...
May 4, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478956/the-relationship-between-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-levels-insulin-sensitivity-and-insulin-secretion-in-women-3-years-after-delivery
#13
Tímea Tänczer, Rita Magenheim, Ágnes Fürst, Beatrix Domján, Zsófia Janicsek, Eszter Szabó, Viktória Ferencz, Ádám G Tabák
OBJECTIVES: There is a direct correlation between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels and insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, women with gestational diabetes (GDM) may have lower levels of 25(OH)D compared to controls. The present study intended to investigate 25(OH)D levels and their association with insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in women with prior GDM and in controls 3.2 years after delivery. METHODS: A total of 87 patients with prior GDM and 45 randomly selected controls (age range, 22 to 44 years) with normal glucose tolerance during pregnancy nested within a cohort of all deliveries at Saint Margit Hospital, Budapest, between January 1 2005, and December 31 2006, were examined...
May 3, 2017: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476922/sarcolemmal-distribution-of-ica-and-incx-and-ca-autoregulation-in-mouse-ventricular-myocytes
#14
Hanne C Gadeberg, Cherrie H T Kong, Simon M Bryant, Andrew F James, Clive H Orchard
The balance of Ca influx and efflux regulates the Ca load of cardiac myocytes, a process known as autoregulation. Previous work has shown that Ca influx, via L-type Ca current (ICa), and efflux, via Na-Ca exchange (NCX), occur predominantly at t-tubules; however the role of t-tubules in autoregulation is unknown. We therefore investigated the sarcolemmal distribution of ICa and INCX, and autoregulation, in mouse ventricular myocytes using whole cell voltage-clamp and simultaneous Ca measurement in intact and detubulated (DT) cells...
May 5, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475214/the-angiotensin-ii-receptor-type-1b-is-the-primary-sensor-of-intraluminal-pressure-in-cerebral-artery-smooth-muscle-cells
#15
Paulo W Pires, Eun-A Ko, Harry A T Pritchard, Michael Rudokas, Evan Yamasaki, Scott Earley
Myogenic vasoconstriction, which reflects the intrinsic ability of smooth muscle cells to contract in response to increases in intraluminal pressure, is critically important for the autoregulation of blood flow. In SMC from cerebral arteries, increasing intraluminal pressure engages a signalling cascade that stimulates cation influx through transient receptor potential (TRP) melastatin 4 (TRPM4) channels to cause membrane depolarization and vasoconstriction. Substantial evidence indicates that the angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1 R) is inherently mechanosensitive and initiates this signalling pathway...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471439/relationships-between-cerebral-autoregulation-and-markers-of-kidney-and-liver-injury-in-neonatal-encephalopathy-and-therapeutic-hypothermia
#16
J K Lee, J Perin, C Parkinson, M O'Connor, M M Gilmore, M Reyes, J Armstrong, J M Jennings, F J Northington, R Chavez-Valdez
OBJECTIVE: We studied whether cerebral blood pressure autoregulation and kidney and liver injuries are associated in neonatal encephalopathy (NE). STUDY DESIGN: We monitored autoregulation of 75 newborns who received hypothermia for NE in the neonatal intensive care unit to identify the mean arterial blood pressure with optimized autoregulation (MAPOPT). Autoregulation parameters and creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were analyzed using adjusted regression models...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463046/the-influence-of-hyperthermia-on-intracranial-pressure-cerebral-oximetry-and-cerebral-metabolism-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#17
Lena Nyholm, Tim Howells, Anders Lewén, Lars Hillered, Per Enblad
BACKGROUND: Hyperthermia is a common secondary insult in traumatic brain injury (TBI). The aim was to evaluate the relationship between hyperthermia and intracranial pressure (ICP), and if intracranial compliance and cerebral blood flow (CBF) pressure autoregulation affected that relationship. The relationships between hyperthermia and cerebral oximetry (BtipO2) and cerebral metabolism were also studied. METHODS: A computerized multimodality monitoring system was used for data collection at the neurointensive care unit...
May 2, 2017: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457885/genome-engineering-of-stem-cells-for-autonomously-regulated-closed-loop-delivery-of-biologic-drugs
#18
Jonathan M Brunger, Ananya Zutshi, Vincent P Willard, Charles A Gersbach, Farshid Guilak
Chronic inflammatory diseases such as arthritis are characterized by dysregulated responses to pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). Pharmacologic anti-cytokine therapies are often effective at diminishing this inflammatory response but have significant side effects and are used at high, constant doses that do not reflect the dynamic nature of disease activity. Using the CRISPR/Cas9 genome-engineering system, we created stem cells that antagonize IL-1- or TNF-α-mediated inflammation in an autoregulated, feedback-controlled manner...
May 9, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455377/lmx1b-targeted-cis-regulatory-modules-involved-in-limb-dorsalization
#19
Endika Haro, Billy A Watson, Jennifer M Feenstra, Luke Tegeler, Charmaine U Pira, Subburaman Mohan, Kerby C Oberg
Lmx1b is a homeodomain transcription factor responsible for limb dorsalization. Despite striking double-ventral (loss-of-function) and double-dorsal (gain-of-function) limb phenotypes, no direct gene targets in the limb have been confirmed. To determine direct targets, we performed a chromatin immunoprecipitation against Lmx1b at E12.5 followed by next generation sequencing (ChIP-seq). Nearly 84% (n=617) of the Lmx1b-bound genomic intervals (LBIs) identified overlap with chromatin regulatory marks indicative of potential cis-regulatory modules (PCRMs)...
April 28, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443830/paco-sub-2-sub-measurement-in-cerebral-haemodynamics-face-mask-or-nasal-cannulae
#20
Jatinder Singh Minhas, Thompson Robinson, Ronney Panerai
Objective PaCO2 affects cerebral blood flow (CBF) and its regulatory mechanisms, but the effects of CO2 measurement technique on cerebrovascular parameters are unknown. In order to determine if the two most commonly used approaches, face mask (FM) or nasal cannulae (NC), are interchangeable or not, we tested the hypothesis that the use of FM versus NC does not lead to significant differences in CO2-related systemic and cerebrovascular parameters. Approach Recordings of CBF velocity (CBFV), blood pressure (BP), heart rate, and end-tidal CO2 (EtCO2) were performed in 42 subjects during normocapnia (FM or NC) and 5% CO2 inhalation (FM) or hyperventilation (NC)...
April 26, 2017: Physiological Measurement
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