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Ryuya Hashimoto, Tetsuya Sugiyama, Makoto Ubuka, Takatoshi Maeno
PURPOSE: To investigate optic nerve head (ONH) blood flow changes resulting from intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation in subjects without systemic disorders. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen eyes of 18 patients who underwent vitrectomy to treat an epiretinal membrane or macular hole at Toho University Sakura Medical Center were included. Following standard 25-gauge microincision vitreous surgery, mean blur rate (MBR) in tissue (MT), an index of ONH blood flow, was measured using laser speckle flowgraphy...
October 21, 2016: Current Eye Research
Daniel Silva de Azevedo, Angela Salomao Macedo Salinet, Marcelo de Lima Oliveira, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, Edson Bor-Seng-Shu, Ricardo de Carvalho Nogueira
Cerebral microcirculation is gradually compromised during sepsis, with significant reductions in the function of capillaries and blood perfusion in small vessels. Transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) has been used to assess cerebral circulation in a typical clinical setting. This study was to systematically review TCD studies, assess their methodological quality, and identify trends that can be associated with the temporal evolution of sepsis and its clinical outcome. A meta-analysis of systematic reviews was conducted according to the PRISMA statement...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
Clive Rosendorff
Many guidelines for the management of hypertension have recommended that the goal of antihypertensive treatment in the elderly (usually specified as 80 years or above) should be less than 150/90 mmHg. SPRINT included subjects 50 years or above, and a substantial proportion of subjects 75 years and older. These are individuals at high risk for adverse cardiovascular events because of high prevalence of hypertension and atherosclerotic disease. The less stringent BP goals have been based on a percieved danger of lowering BP to levels that threaten vital organ pefusion (myocardium, brain, kidney)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Solomon Kadiri
Hypertension prevalence rates in most urbanized areas of Africa range from 20-30%, with a recent systematic review reporting 16.2% for sub-Saharan Africa. These rates are lower than those in the West but the age standardized rates are higher than in other regions of the world. The attendant morbidity and mortality are disproportionately high. For example, failure of nocturnal dipping and microalbuminuria, predictive of vascular disease, occur relatively early in the course of hypertension and predispose to early vascular disease...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Nolan S Hartkamp, Reinoud P H Bokkers, M J P van Osch, Gert J de Borst, Jeroen Hendrikse
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To assess the effect of unilateral large vessel disease upon the cerebral hemodynamic autoregulatory status in the basal ganglia of patients with steno-occlusive internal carotid artery (ICA) disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-five healthy volunteers and 38 patients with a unilateral symptomatic steno-occlusive ICA lesion and were investigated; 20 with a stenosis >50% and 18 with an occlusion. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) were assessed with pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging before and after administration of acetazolamide...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
Charles L Francoeur, Stephan A Mayer
For patients who survive the initial bleeding event of a ruptured brain aneurysm, delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is one of the most important causes of mortality and poor neurological outcome. New insights in the last decade have led to an important paradigm shift in the understanding of DCI pathogenesis. Large-vessel cerebral vasospasm has been challenged as the sole causal mechanism; new hypotheses now focus on the early brain injury, microcirculatory dysfunction, impaired autoregulation, and spreading depolarization...
October 14, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Sarah E Bigby, Jennifer E Carter, Sébastien Bauquier, Thierry Beths
Anesthesia protocols for patients with intracranial lesions need to provide hemodynamic stability, preserve cerebrovascular autoregulation, avoid increases in intracranial pressure, and facilitate a rapid recovery. Propofol total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) maintains cerebral blood flow autoregulation and is considered superior to inhalant agents as an anesthetic protocol for patients with intracranial lesions. A propofol-based TIVA subsequent to premedication with medetomidine and diazepam was used in a king penguin ( Aptenodytes patagonicus ) undergoing magnetic resonance imaging of the brain after a new onset of seizures...
September 2016: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
Utpal S Bhalala, Elumalai Appachi, Muhammad Ali Mumtaz
Many known risk factors for adverse cardiovascular and neurological outcomes in children with congenital heart defects (CHD) are not modifiable; however, the temperature and blood flow during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), are two risk factors, which may be altered in an attempt to improve long-term neurological outcomes. Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest, traditionally used for aortic arch repair, has been associated with short-term and long-term neurologic sequelae. Therefore, there is a rising interest in using moderate hypothermia with selective antegrade cerebral blood flow on CPB during aortic arch repair...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0161408.].
2016: PloS One
Michael A Hill, Andrew P Braun
Local blood flow autoregulation in response to intraluminal pressure requires small artery myogenic vasoconstriction, the extent of which is thought to be governed by a feedback process that depends on Ca(2+) signaling. In this issue of Science Signaling, Khavandi et al suggest a role for cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase G Iα (PKGIα) activated by oxidants in a cGMP-independent manner.
October 11, 2016: Science Signaling
Алексей В Богданов, Юлия М Гришко, Виталий А Костенко
INTRODUCTION: intake of inorganic nitrates is typically accompanied by production of excessive amount of nitric oxide (NO), which level is maintained by the mechanism of autoregulation known as the NO cycle. Hypothetically, this process may be disrupted with fluorides that are able to suppress arginase pathway of L-arginine metabolism, which competes with NO-synthase pathway. AIM: to study mechanisms of disregulation of oxidative (NO-synthase) and non-oxidative (arginase) metabolic pathways of L-arginine in the tissues of periodontium under combined excessive sodium nitrate and fluoride intake...
2016: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Nidhi Shah, Natasha Klaponski, Carrie Selin, Rachel Rudney, W G Dilantha Fernando, Mark F Belmonte, Teresa R de Kievit
In vitro inhibition of the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum by Pseudomonas chlororaphis PA23 is reliant upon a LysR-type transcriptional regulator (LTTR) called PtrA. In the current study, we show that Sclerotinia stem rot and leaf infection are significantly increased in canola plants inoculated with the ptrA-mutant compared to the wild type, establishing PtrA as an essential regulator of PA23 biocontrol. LTTRs typically regulate targets that are upstream of and divergently transcribed from the LTTR locus...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Sarah D Ahadome, David J Abraham, Suryanarayana Rayapureddi, Valerie P Saw, Daniel R Saban, Virginia L Calder, Jill T Norman, Markella Ponticos, Julie T Daniels, John K Dart
Mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP) is a systemic mucosal scarring disease, commonly causing blindness, for which there is no antifibrotic therapy. Aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1 (ALDH1) is upregulated in both ocular MMP (OMMP) conjunctiva and cultured fibroblasts. Application of the ALDH metabolite, retinoic acid (RA), to normal human conjunctival fibroblasts in vitro induced a diseased phenotype. Conversely, application of ALDH inhibitors, including disulfiram, to OMMP fibroblasts in vitro restored their functionality to that of normal controls...
August 4, 2016: JCI Insight
Tal Keren-Kaplan, Lee Zeev Peters, Olga Levin-Kravets, Ilan Attali, Oded Kleifeld, Noa Shohat, Shay Artzi, Ori Zucker, Inbar Pilzer, Noa Reis, Michael H Glickman, Shay Ben-Aroya, Gali Prag
Ubiquitin receptors decode ubiquitin signals into many cellular responses. Ubiquitin receptors also undergo coupled monoubiquitylation, and rapid deubiquitylation has hampered the characterization of the ubiquitylated state. Using bacteria that express a ubiquitylation apparatus, we purified and determined the crystal structure of the proteasomal ubiquitin-receptor Rpn10 in its ubiquitylated state. The structure shows a novel ubiquitin-binding patch that directs K84 ubiquitylation. Superimposition of ubiquitylated-Rpn10 onto electron-microscopy models of proteasomes indicates that the Rpn10-conjugated ubiquitin clashes with Rpn9, suggesting that ubiquitylation might be involved in releasing Rpn10 from the proteasome...
October 4, 2016: Nature Communications
Lisa E Kelly, Reyna I Martinez-De Luna, Heithem M El-Hodiri
The Retinal homeobox (rax) gene is expressed in vertebrate retinal progenitor and stem cells and is essential for retinal development. In frogs, rax is expressed in the ciliary marginal zone (CMZ), a region containing retinal progenitor and stem cells at the anterior of the eye. Little is known regarding regulation of rax transcription and regulation of transcription of rax targets. We found that three ultra-conserved genomic elements (UCEs) flanking the rax coding region regulate expression of a rax promoter-GFP transgene in Xenopus tadpoles...
October 3, 2016: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
Hannes Breddermann, Karin Schnetz
LeuO is a conserved and pleiotropic transcription regulator, antagonist of the nucleoid-associated silencer protein H-NS, and important for pathogenicity and multidrug resistance in Enterobacteriaceae. Regulation of transcription of the leuO gene is complex. It is silenced by H-NS and its paralog StpA, and it is autoregulated. In addition, in Escherichia coli leuO is antagonistically regulated by the heterodimeric transcription regulator BglJ-RcsB and by LeuO. BglJ-RcsB activates leuO, while LeuO inhibits activation by BglJ-RcsB...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Michaela Willi, Kyung Hyun Yoo, Chaochen Wang, Zlatko Trajanoski, Lothar Hennighausen
Cytokines utilize the transcription factor STAT5 to control cell-specific genes at a larger scale than universal genes, with a mechanistic explanation yet to be supplied. Genome-wide studies have identified putative STAT5-based mammary-specific and universal enhancers, an opportunity to investigate mechanisms underlying their differential response to cytokines. We have now interrogated the integrity and function of both categories of regulatory elements using biological and genetic approaches. During lactation, STAT5 occupies mammary-specific and universal cytokine-responsive elements...
September 30, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Qingxiang Zhou, Linlin Yu, Markus Friedrich, Francesca Pignoni
Drosophila has three types of visual organs, the larval eyes or Bolwig's organs (BO), the ocelli (OC) and the compound eyes (CE). In all, the bHLH protein Atonal (Ato) functions as the proneural factor for photoreceptors and effects the transition from progenitor cells to differentiating neurons. In this work, we investigate the regulation of ato expression in the BO primordium (BOP). Surprisingly, we find that ato transcription in the BOP is entirely independent of the shared regulatory DNA for the developing CE and OC...
September 29, 2016: Developmental Biology
Roberta Rosas Petrocinio, Elga Dias Gomes
BACKGROUND: High altitude retinopathy (HAR) includes a number of diseases related to high altitude such as acute mountain sickness (AMS), high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) and high altitude cerebral edema (HACE). High altitude retinopathy is mainly characterized by retinal hemorrhages, usually sparing the macular region, a condition specifically known as high altitude retinal hemorrhages (HARH). The pathogenesis of HARH is unclear. Many studies show that lack of oxygen causes an inadequate autoregulation of retinal circulation, causing vascular incompetence...
2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Patrick Conlon, Rita Gelin-Licht, Ambhighainath Ganesan, Jin Zhang, Andre Levchenko
In response to pheromones, yeast cells activate a MAPK pathway to direct processes important for mating, including gene induction, cell-cycle arrest, and polarized cell growth. Although a variety of assays have been able to elucidate signaling activities at multiple steps in the pathway, measurements of MAPK activity during the pheromone response have remained elusive, and our understanding of single-cell signaling behavior is incomplete. Using a yeast-optimized FRET-based mammalian Erk-activity reporter to monitor Fus3 and Kss1 activity in live yeast cells, we demonstrate that overall mating MAPK activity exhibits distinct temporal dynamics, rapid reversibility, and a graded dose dependence around the KD of the receptor, where phenotypic transitions occur...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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