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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333829/acute-traumatic-coagulopathy-the-elephant-in-a-room-of-blind-scientists
#1
Michael A Meledeo, Maryanne C Herzig, James A Bynum, Xiaowu Wu, Anand K Ramasubramanian, Daniel N Darlington, Kristin M Reddoch, Andrew P Cap
Acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC) is the failure of coagulation homeostasis that can rapidly arise following traumatic injury, hemorrhage, and shock; it is associated with higher injury severity, coagulation abnormalities, and increased blood transfusions. ATC has historically been defined by a prolonged prothrombin time (PT), although newer, more informative measurements of hemostatic function have been employed to improve diagnosis and support clinical decision making. The underlying biochemical mechanisms of and best practice therapeutics for ATC remain under active investigation because of its significant correlation to poor outcomes...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333037/cerebral-hemodynamic-with-intra-aortic-balloon-pump-business-as-usual
#2
Juliana Caldas, Ronney B Panerai, Edson Bor-Seng-Shu, Juliano Almeida, Graziela Ferreira, Ligia Cunha, Ricardo Nogueira, Marcelo Oliveira, Fabio Jatene, Thompson Robinson, Ludhmila Hajjar
Intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) is commonly used as mechanical support after cardiac surgery or cardiac shock. Although its benefits for cardiac function have been well documented, its effects on cerebral circulation are still controversial. We hypothesized that transfer function analysis (TFA) and continuous estimates of dynamic cerebral autoregulation (CA) provide consistent results in the assessment of cerebral autoregulation in patients with IABP. Continuous recordings of blood pressure (BP, intra-arterial line), end-tidal CO2, heart rate and cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV, transcranial Doppler) were obtained i) 5 minutes with IABP ratio 1:3, ii) 5 minutes, starting 1 minute with the IABP-ON, and continuing for another 4 minutes without pump assistance (IABP-OFF)...
March 23, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325005/dynamic-modeling-of-apnea-induced-concurrent-variations-in-arterial-blood-pressure-and-cerebral-blood-flow-velocity
#3
Raichel Alex, Rong Zhang, Donald E Watenpaugh, Khosrow Behbehani
Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is characterized by partial (hypopnea) or complete cessation (apnea) of airflow to the lungs during sleep. It has been previously reported that apnea episodes lead to significant rise in instantaneous blood pressure concomitant with a rise in cerebral blood flow velocity, indicating loss of cerebral autoregulation during the episodes. In this study, we have used Auto Regressive Moving Average model (ARMA (na, nb, nk)) to quantify OSA induced dynamic changes in cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) with beat to beat blood pressure (BP) as an input...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320272/neurotrophic-factors-bdnf-and-gdnf-and-the-serotonergic-system-of-the-brain
#4
REVIEW
N K Popova, T V Ilchibaeva, V S Naumenko
Neurotrophic factors play a key role in development, differentiation, synaptogenesis, and survival of neurons in the brain as well as in the process of their adaptation to external influences. The serotonergic (5-HT) system is another major factor in the development and neuroplasticity of the brain. In the present review, the results of our own research as well as data provided in the corresponding literature on the interaction of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) with the 5-HT-system of the brain are considered...
March 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316994/multiple-factors-involved-in-the-pathogenesis-of-white-matter-lesions
#5
REVIEW
Jing Lin, Dilong Wang, Linfang Lan, Yuhua Fan
White matter lesions (WMLs), also known as leukoaraiosis (LA) or white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), are characterized mainly by hyperintensities on T2-weighted or fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images. With the aging of the population and the development of imaging technology, the morbidity and diagnostic rates of WMLs are increasing annually. WMLs are not a benign process. They clinically manifest as cognitive decline and the subsequent development of dementia. Although WMLs are important, their pathogenesis is still unclear...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315005/effect-of-nitric-oxide-on-renal-autoregulation-during-hypothermia-in-the-rat
#6
Lars Mikael Broman, Mattias Carlström, Örjan Källskog, Mats Wolgast
Hypothermia-induced reduction of metabolic rate is accompanied by depression of both glomerular perfusion and filtration. The present study investigated whether these changes are linked to changes in renal autoregulation and nitric oxide (NO) signalling. During hypothermia, renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were reduced and urine production was increased, and this was linked with reduced plasma cGMP levels and increased renal vascular resistance. Although stimulation of NO production decreased vascular resistance, blood pressure and urine flow, intravenous infusion of the NO precursor L-arginine or the NO donor sodium nitroprusside did not alter RBF or GFR...
March 17, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306631/thermoregulate-autoregulate-and-ventilate-brain-directed-critical-care-for-pediatric-cardiac-arrest
#7
Jonathan E Kurz, Craig M Smith, Mark S Wainwright
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cardiac arrest in childhood is associated with a high risk for mortality and poor long-term functional outcome. This review discusses the current evidence for neuroprotective therapies and goals for postarrest care in the context of the pathophysiology of hypoxic-ischemic injury, modalities for neurologic prognostication in these children and potential future monitoring paradigms for maximizing cerebral perfusion in the postarrest period. RECENT FINDINGS: The recent publication of the in-hospital and out-of-hospital Therapeutic Hypothermia After Cardiac Arrest trials demonstrated a lack of statistically significant benefit for the use of postarrest therapeutic hypothermia...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302943/cerebral-hemodynamics-and-metabolism-during-cardiac-arrest-and-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-using-hyperspectral-near-infrared-spectroscopy
#8
Reyhaneh Nosrati, Steve Lin, Andrew Ramadeen, Dena Monjazebi, Paul Dorian, Vladislav Toronov
BACKGROUND: Maintaining cerebral oxygen delivery and metabolism during cardiac arrest (CA) through resuscitation is essential to improve the survival rate while avoiding brain injury. The effect of CA and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) on cerebral and muscle oxygen delivery and metabolism is not clearly quantified.Methods and Results:A novel hyperspectral near-infrared spectroscopy (hNIRS) technique was developed and evaluated to measure cerebral oxygen delivery and aerobic metabolism during ventricular fibrillation (VF) CA and CPR in 14 pigs...
March 10, 2017: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302914/new-insights-into-mechanisms-of-small-vessel-disease-stroke-from-genetics
#9
REVIEW
Rhea Tan, Matthew Traylor, Loes Rutten-Jacobs, Hugh Markus
Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is a common cause of lacunar strokes, vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) and vascular dementia. SVD is thought to result in reduced cerebral blood flow, impaired cerebral autoregulation and increased blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying SVD are incompletely understood. Recent studies in monogenic forms of SVD, such as cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), and 'sporadic' SVD have shed light on possible disease mechanisms in SVD...
April 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301439/efficacy-of-the-repetitions-in-reserve-based-rating-of-perceived-exertion-for-the-bench-press-in-experienced-and-novice-benchers
#10
Michael J Ormsbee, Joseph P Carzoli, Alex Klemp, Brittany R Allman, Michael C Zourdos, Jeong-Su Kim, Lynn B Panton
Autoregulation (AR) is the practice of adjusting training variables in response to athlete feedback. One component of AR postulated to enhance resistance training adaptations involves implementing a resistance training-specific rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale measuring repetitions in reserve (RIR). The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of this method using the bench press exercise. METHODS: Twenty-seven college-aged men were assigned to one of two groups based upon training age: experience benchers (EB) (n=14, training age: 4...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299725/defining-the-relationship-between-hypertension-cognitive-decline-and-dementia-a-review
#11
REVIEW
Keenan A Walker, Melinda C Power, Rebecca F Gottesman
Hypertension is a highly prevalent condition which has been established as a risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. Although the understanding of the relationship between cardiocirculatory dysfunction and brain health has improved significantly over the last several decades, it is still unclear whether hypertension constitutes a potentially treatable risk factor for cognitive decline and dementia. While it is clear that hypertension can affect brain structure and function, recent findings suggest that the associations between blood pressure and brain health are complex and, in many cases, dependent on factors such as age, hypertension chronicity, and antihypertensive medication use...
March 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292883/the-real-culprit-behind-diabetic-nephropathy-impaired-renal-autoregulation
#12
EDITORIAL
Ruisheng Liu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291094/predictors-of-outcome-with-cerebral-autoregulation-monitoring-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Lucia Rivera-Lara, Andres Zorrilla-Vaca, Romer Geocadin, Wendy Ziai, Ryan Healy, Richard Thompson, Peter Smielewski, Marek Czosnyka, Charles W Hogue
OBJECTIVE: To compare cerebral autoregulation indices as predictors of patient outcome and their dependence on duration of monitoring. DATA SOURCES: Systematic literature search and meta-analysis using PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library from January 1990 to October 2015. STUDY SELECTION: We chose articles that assessed the association between cerebral autoregulation indices and dichotomized or continuous outcomes reported as standardized mean differences or correlation coefficients (R), respectively...
April 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289838/a-stochastic-analysis-of-autoregulation-of-gene-expression
#14
Renaud Dessalles, Vincent Fromion, Philippe Robert
This paper analyzes, in the context of a prokaryotic cell, the stochastic variability of the number of proteins when there is a control of gene expression by an autoregulation scheme. The goal of this work is to estimate the efficiency of the regulation to limit the fluctuations of the number of copies of a given protein. The autoregulation considered in this paper relies mainly on a negative feedback: the proteins are repressors of their own gene expression. The efficiency of a production process without feedback control is compared to a production process with an autoregulation of the gene expression assuming that both of them produce the same average number of proteins...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289809/imaging-characteristics-associated-with-clinical-outcomes-in-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome
#15
Andrew D Schweitzer, Neal S Parikh, Gulce Askin, Ajay Nemade, John Lyo, Sasan Karimi, Anna Knobel, Babak B Navi, Robert J Young, Ajay Gupta
PURPOSE: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a disorder of cerebrovascular autoregulation that can result in brain edema, hemorrhage, and infarction. We sought to investigate whether certain imaging characteristics in PRES are associated with clinically significant patient outcomes. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all cases of PRES occurring between 2008 and 2014 at two major academic medical centers. Demographic, clinical, and radiographic data were collected...
March 13, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284189/changes-in-intraocular-pressure-and-optic-nerve-sheath-diameter-in-patients-undergoing-robotic-assisted-laparoscopic-prostatectomy-in-steep-45%C3%A2-trendelenburg-position
#16
Sebastian Blecha, Marion Harth, Felix Schlachetzki, Florian Zeman, Christiane Blecha, Pierre Flora, Maximilian Burger, Stefan Denzinger, Bernhard M Graf, Horst Helbig, Michael T Pawlik
BACKGROUND: To evaluate changes in intraocular pressure (IOP) and intracerebral pressure (ICP) reflected by the optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) in patients undergoing robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) in permanent 45° steep Trendelenburg position (STP). METHODS: Fifty-one patients undergoing RALP under a standardised anaesthesia. IOP was perioperatively measured in awake patients (T0) and IOP and ONSD 20 min after induction of anaesthesia (T1), after insufflation of the abdomen in supine position (T2), after 30 min in STP (T3), when controlling Santorini's plexus in STP (T4) and before awakening while supine (T5)...
March 11, 2017: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278709/microrna-185-5p-restores-glucocorticoid-sensitivity-by-suppressing-the-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-complex-mtorc-signaling-pathway-to-enhance-glucocorticoid-receptor-autoregulation
#17
Peisong Chen, Ting Shen, Huimin Wang, Zhiyong Ke, Yaru Liang, Juan Ouyang, Tang Jiang
Overexpression of microRNA-185-5p (miR-185-5p) in glucocorticoid (GC)-sensitive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) was identified using a microarray and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and was further confirmed in ALL cell lines. A reporter assay confirmed that the Rictor-one component of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) is a target of miR-185-5p. Decreased mTORC activity was also confirmed in GC-sensitive patients. Overexpression of miR-185-5p significantly enhanced GC sensitivity in CEM-C1 cells (GC resistance) by increasing the rate of cell apoptosis and cycle arrest, and decreasing cell survival, accompanied by a decrease in mTORC activity and an increase in GC-induced glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression...
February 28, 2017: Leukemia & Lymphoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270412/relationship-between-hypotension-and-cerebral-ischemia-during-hemodialysis
#18
Clare MacEwen, Sheera Sutherland, Jonathan Daly, Christopher Pugh, Lionel Tarassenko
The relationship between BP and downstream ischemia during hemodialysis has not been characterized. We studied the dynamic relationship between BP, real-time symptoms, and cerebral oxygenation during hemodialysis, using continuous BP and cerebral oxygenation measurements prospectively gathered from 635 real-world hemodialysis sessions in 58 prevalent patients. We examined the relationship between BP and cerebral ischemia (relative drop in cerebral saturation >15%) and explored the lower limit of cerebral autoregulation at patient and population levels...
March 7, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268423/dynamic-cerebral-autoregulation-in-young-athletes-following-concussion
#19
Kyriaki Kostoglou, Alexander D Wright, Jonathan D Smirl, Kelsey Bryk, Paul van Donkelaar, Georgios D Mitsis
The purpose of this study was to examine cerebral autoregulation (CA) in young athletes experiencing concussion. The subjects were monitored and repeatedly tested 72 hours, 2 weeks and 1 month post-injury. Mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PETCO2) and cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) in the middle and posterior cerebral arteries were monitored during mental activation paradigms. In order to characterize CA we employed autoregressive models with exogenous inputs (ARX) and impulse response models based on the Laguerre expansion technique (LET)...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268070/post-carotid-endarterectomy-hypertension-part-1-association-with-pre-operative-clinical-imaging-and-physiological-parameters
#20
J E Newman, M J Bown, R D Sayers, J P Thompson, T G Robinson, B Williams, R Panerai, P Lacy, A R Naylor
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Post-endarterectomy hypertension (PEH) is a well recognised, but poorly understood, phenomenon after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) that is associated with post-operative intracranial haemorrhage, hyperperfusion syndrome, and cardiac complications. The aim of the current study was to identify pre-operative clinical, imaging, and physiological parameters associated with PEH. METHODS: In total, 106 CEA patients undergoing CEA under general anaesthesia underwent pre-operative evaluation of 24 hour ambulatory arterial blood pressure (BP), baroreceptor sensitivity, cerebral autoregulation, and transcranial Doppler measurement of cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv) and pulsatility index...
March 3, 2017: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
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