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autoregulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330514/a-comparison-of-static-and-dynamic-cerebral-autoregulation-during-mild-whole-body-cold-stress-in-individuals-with-and-without-cervical-spinal-cord-injury-a-pilot-study
#1
Jan W van der Scheer, Yoshi-Ichiro Kamijo, Christof A Leicht, Philip J Millar, Manabu Shibasaki, Victoria L Goosey-Tolfrey, Fumihiro Tajima
STUDY DESIGN: Experimental study. OBJECTIVES: To characterize static and dynamic cerebral autoregulation (CA) of individuals with cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) compared to able-bodied controls in response to moderate increases in mean arterial pressure (MAP) caused by mild whole-body cold stress. SETTING: Japan METHODS: Five men with complete autonomic cervical SCI (sustained > 5 y) and six age-matched able-bodied men participated in hemodynamic, temperature, catecholamine and respiratory measurements for 60 min during three consecutive stages: baseline (10 min; 33 °C water through a thin-tubed whole-body suit), mild cold stress (20 min; 25 °C water), and post-cold recovery (30 min; 33 °C water)...
January 12, 2018: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323724/autoregulation-of-rank-ligand-in-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-tumor-cells
#2
Yuvaraj Sambandam, Purushoth Ethiraj, Jessica Hathway-Schrader, Chad Novince, Ezhil Panneerselvam, Kumaran Sundaram, Sakamuri V Reddy
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common malignancy among oral cancers and shows potent activity for local bone invasion. Receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (RANK) ligand (RANKL) is critical for bone-resorbing osteoclast formation. We previously demonstrated that OSCC tumor cells express high levels of RANKL. In this study, confocal microscopy demonstrated RANKL specific receptor, RANK expression in OSCC tumor cell lines (SCC1, SCC12 and SCC14a). We also confirmed the expression of RANK and RANKL in primary human OSCC tumor specimens...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319396/detrimental-effect-of-systemic-vascular-risk-factors-on-brain-hemodynamic-function-assessed-with-mri
#3
Kevin S King, Min Sheng, Peiying Liu, Christopher D Maroules, Craig D Rubin, Ron M Peshock, Roderick W McColl, Hanzhang Lu
Background and purpose Vascular risk factors have been associated with decreased cerebral blood flow (CBF) but this is etiologically nonspecific and may result from vascular insufficiency or a response to decreased brain metabolic activity. We apply new MRI techniques to measure oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO2), hypothesizing that decreased CBF related to these vascular risk factors will be associated with increased OEF, confirming a primary vascular insufficiency...
January 1, 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311754/correlation-between-cerebral-hemodynamic-and-perfusion-pressure-changes-in-non-human-primates
#4
A Ruesch, M A Smith, G Wollstein, I A Sigal, S Nelson, J M Kainerstorfer
The mechanism that maintains a stable blood flow in the brain despite changes in cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), and therefore guaranties a constant supply of oxygen and nutrients to the neurons, is known as cerebral autoregulation (CA). In a certain range of CPP, blood flow is mediated by a vasomotor adjustment in vascular resistance through dilation of blood vessels. CA is known to be impaired in diseases like traumatic brain injury, Parkinson's disease, stroke, hydrocephalus and others. If CA is impaired, blood flow and pressure changes are coupled and the oxygen supply might be unstable...
February 2017: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310486/focal-segmental-glomerulosclerosis-in-children-complicated-by-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome
#5
Magdalena Stârcea, Cristina Gavrilovici, Mihaela Munteanu, Ingrith Miron
An uncommon side effect of cyclosporine A (CsA) use is posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). PRES usually develops because of disturbed capacity of posterior cerebral blood flow to autoregulate an acute rise in blood pressure. We present the case of a 10-year-old girl who was previously diagnosed in our department with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. She was treated with CsA and developed seizures, progressive loss of consciousness, and visual disturbance on the 7th day of treatment. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed degeneration of white matter with diffuse demyelination in the parietal and posterior occipital lobes, consistent with the diagnosis of PRES...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304067/introns-provide-a-platform-for-intergenic-regulatory-feedback-of-rpl22-paralogs-in-yeast
#6
Kateřina Abrhámová, Filip Nemčko, Jiří Libus, Martin Převorovský, Martina Hálová, František Půta, Petr Folk
Ribosomal protein genes (RPGs) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are a remarkable regulatory group that may serve as a model for understanding genetic redundancy in evolutionary adaptations. Most RPGs exist as pairs of highly conserved functional paralogs with divergent untranslated regions and introns. We examined the roles of introns in strains with various combinations of intron and gene deletions in RPL22, RPL2, RPL16, RPL37, RPL17, RPS0, and RPS18 paralog pairs. We found that introns inhibited the expression of their genes in the RPL22 pair, with the RPL22B intron conferring a much stronger effect...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302799/early-abnormal-transient-hyperemic-response-test-can-predict-delayed-ischemic-neurologic-deficit-in-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#7
Hosam Al-Jehani, Mark Angle, Judith Marcoux, Jeanne Teitelbaum
BACKGROUND: Early detection of vasospasm is crucial to prevent significant delayed ischemic neurological deficit post subarachnoid hemorrhage. The standard methods of detection, including cerebral angiogram and computed tomography are invasive and not safe to be repeated, as is very often indicated clinically. Transient hyperemic response test has been previously used to predict autoregulation failure in traumatic brain injury and subarachnoid hemorrhage. AIMS: We investigate the usability of transient hyperemic response test as a predictor of clinical vasospasm in a cohort of patients with aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage...
January 4, 2018: Critical Ultrasound Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298527/a-narrative-review-of-the-clinical-application-of-pressure-reactiviy-indices-in-the-neurocritical-care-unit
#8
Stephen Copplestone, Jessie Welbourne
Pressure reactivity indices are used in clinical research as a surrogate marker of the ability of the cerebrovasculature to maintain cerebral autoregulation. The use of pressure reactivity indices in patients with neurological injury represents a potential to move away from population-based physiological targets used in guidelines to individualized physiological targets. The aim of this review is to describe the underlying principles and development of pressure reactivity indices, alongside a critique of how they have been used in clinical research, including their limitations...
January 4, 2018: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262429/blood-pressure-management-for-acute-ischemic-and-hemorrhagic-stroke-the-evidence
#9
Sang-Bae Ko, Byung-Woo Yoon
Hypertension is the most common modifiable risk factor for stroke (both ischemic and hemorrhagic types). In the hyperacute phase, a majority of patients shows an elevated blood pressure (BP) at the time of presentation because of sympathetic hyperactivity or a physiological response to tissue ischemia. Therefore, BP may decrease spontaneously in a few hours and may drop further when complete recanalization is achieved. In stroke guidelines, an elevated BP is usually left untreated up to a systolic BP (SBP) of 220 mm Hg and a diastolic BP of 120 mm Hg...
December 2017: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260011/isolated-pons-involvement-in-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#10
REVIEW
Mariangela Ferrara, Pietro Di Viesti, Vincenzo Inchingolo, Raffaela Rita Latino, Teresa Popolizio, Salvatore Angelo De Cosmo, Flavia Pugliese, Maurizio Angelo Leone
Background: Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES) is a clinical-radiological syndrome, usually reversible and with a favorable prognosis, which recognizes a variety of etiologies and clinical patterns and is likely due to an impairment in cerebral blood flow autoregulation. It is typically characterized by subcortical, predominantly parieto-occipital, vasogenic brain oedema in patients with acute-subacute neurological symptoms. Infratentorial oedema on neuroimaging has been mostly described in association with the typical supratentorial pattern and seldom as isolated...
March 2017: ENeurologicalSci
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247493/the-yin-and-yang-of-kv-channels-in-cerebral-small-vessel-pathologies
#11
Masayo Koide, Arash Moshkforoush, Nikolaos M Tsoukias, David C Hill-Eubanks, George C Wellman, Mark T Nelson, Fabrice Dabertrand
Cerebral small vessel diseases (SVDs) encompass a group of genetic and sporadic pathological processes leading to brain lesions, cognitive decline, and stroke. There is no specific treatment for SVDs, which progress silently for years before becoming clinically symptomatic. Here, we examine parallels in the functional defects of parenchymal arterioles in CADASIL, a monogenic form of SVD, and in response to subarachnoid hemorrhage, a common type of hemorrhagic stroke that also targets the brain microvasculature...
December 15, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240905/coronary-autoregulation-and-assessment-of-stenosis-severity-without-pharmacological-vasodilation
#12
Guus A de Waard, Christopher M Cook, Niels van Royen, Justin E Davies
For identification of myocardial ischaemia by non-invasive imaging or invasive physiological assessment, administration of a vasodilating or positive inotropic agent is often considered indispensable to exhaust the cardiac compensation mechanisms. Indeed, microcirculatory dilatation is needed for assessment of myocardial perfusion or coronary blood flow. However, three different modalities exist that quantify myocardial ischaemia without recourse to pharmacological stress agents, using either myocardial contrast echocardiography, imaging of myocardial blood volume or invasive coronary pressure measurement with the instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR)...
December 11, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231781/dynamic-autoregulation-of-cerebral-blood-flow-measured-non-invasively-with-fast-diffuse-correlation-spectroscopy
#13
Ashwin B Parthasarathy, Kimberly P Gannon, Wesley B Baker, Christopher G Favilla, Ramani Balu, Scott E Kasner, Arjun G Yodh, John A Detre, Michael T Mullen
Cerebral autoregulation (CA) maintains cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the presence of systemic blood pressure changes. Brain injury can cause loss of CA and resulting dysregulation of CBF, and the degree of CA impairment is a functional indicator of cerebral tissue health. Here, we demonstrate a new approach to noninvasively estimate cerebral autoregulation in healthy adult volunteers. The approach employs pulsatile CBF measurements obtained using high-speed diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS). Rapid thigh-cuff deflation initiates a chain of responses that permits estimation of rates of dynamic autoregulation in the cerebral microvasculature...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229908/identification-of-regulatory-targets-for-the-bacterial-nus-factor-complex
#14
Gabriele Baniulyte, Navjot Singh, Courtney Benoit, Richard Johnson, Robert Ferguson, Mauricio Paramo, Anne M Stringer, Ashley Scott, Pascal Lapierre, Joseph T Wade
Nus factors are broadly conserved across bacterial species, and are often essential for viability. A complex of five Nus factors (NusB, NusE, NusA, NusG and SuhB) is considered to be a dedicated regulator of ribosomal RNA folding, and has been shown to prevent Rho-dependent transcription termination. Here, we identify an additional cellular function for the Nus factor complex in Escherichia coli: repression of the Nus factor-encoding gene, suhB. This repression occurs primarily by translation inhibition, followed by Rho-dependent transcription termination...
December 11, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218511/optical-monitoring-of-cerebral-microcirculation-in-neurointensive-care
#15
Peter Rejmstad, Neda Haj-Hosseini, Oscar Åneman, Karin Wårdell
Continuous optical monitoring of local cerebral microcirculation could benefit neurointensive care patients treated for subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The aim of the study was to evaluate laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) for long-term monitoring of brain microcirculation and oxygen saturation (SO2) in the neurointensive care unit (NICU). A fiber optic probe was designed for intraparenchymal use and connected to LDF and DRS for assessment of the local blood flow (perfusion and tissue reflectance (TLI)) and SO2 in the brain...
December 8, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217510/loss-of-vascular-myogenic-tone-in-mir-143-145-knockout-mice-is-associated-with-hypertension-induced-vascular-lesions-in-small-mesenteric-arteries
#16
Johan Holmberg, Anirban Bhattachariya, Azra Alajbegovic, Catarina Rippe, Mari Ekman, Diana Dahan, Tran Thi Hien, Thomas Boettger, Thomas Braun, Karl Swärd, Per Hellstrand, Sebastian Albinsson
OBJECTIVE: Pressure-induced myogenic tone is involved in autoregulation of local blood flow and confers protection against excessive pressure levels in small arteries and capillaries. Myogenic tone is dependent on smooth muscle microRNAs (miRNAs), but the identity of these miRNAs is unclear. Furthermore, the consequences of altered myogenic tone for hypertension-induced damage to small arteries are not well understood. APPROACH AND RESULTS: The importance of smooth muscle-enriched microRNAs, miR-143/145, for myogenic tone was evaluated in miR-143/145 knockout mice...
December 7, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211922/local-blood-flow-in-peripheral-nerves-and-their-ganglia-resurrecting-key-ideas-around-its-measurement-and-significance
#17
REVIEW
Douglas W Zochodne
Over three decades ago, seminal work by Phillip Low and colleagues established exquisite physiology around the measurement of nerve blood flow (NBF). Although not widely explored recently, its connection to the clinic has awaited human methodology. While human studies have not achieved a convincing level of rigour, newer imaging technologies are offering early information. The peripheral nerve trunk has parallel blood flow compartments that include epineurial flow dominated by arteriovenous shunts and downstream endoneurial blood flow (EBF)...
December 6, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207213/crosstalk-proposal-dynamic-cerebral-autoregulation-should-be-quantified-using-spontaneous-blood-pressure-fluctuations
#18
Y C Tzeng, R B Panerai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207208/crosstalk-opposing-view-dynamic-cerebral-autoregulation-should-be-quantified-using-induced-rather-than-spontaneous-blood-pressure-fluctuations
#19
David Simpson, Jurgen Claassen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206244/corrigendum-glycemia-is-related-to-impaired-cerebrovascular-autoregulation-after-severe-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury-a-retrospective-observational-study
#20
Adam M H Young, Hadie Adams, Joseph Donnelly, Mathew R Guilfoyle, Helen Fernandes, Mathew R Garnett, Marek Czosnyka, Peter Smielewski, Mark Plummer, Shruti Agrawal, Peter J Hutchinson
[This corrects the article on p. 205 in vol. 5, PMID: 28993802.].
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
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