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Extrapyramidal Symptoms

Ying-Zi Shen, Ke Peng, Juan Zhang, Xiao-Wen Meng, Fuhai Ji
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate whether or not the use of haloperidol could reduce the incidence of delirium in adult patients. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Elsevier, Wiley, and Ovid were searched for randomized controlled trials and prospective interventional cohort studies that compared haloperidol with placebo for delirium prophylaxis or with second generation antipsychotics for delirium treatment...
March 8, 2018: Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
Devinder Arora, Jayesh Mudgal, Madhavan Nampoothiri, Sanchari Basu Mallik, Manas Kinra, Susan Hall, Shailendra Anoopkumar-Dukie, Gary D Grant, Chamallamudi Mallikarjuna Rao
Antipsychotic drugs are the mainstay of psychotic disorders. The 'typical' antipsychotic agents are commonly employed for the positive symptoms of schizophrenia, though at an expense of extrapyramidal side effects (EPS). In the present study, we employed haloperidol (HP)-induced catalepsy model in mice to evaluate the role of adenosine receptor antagonist and cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme inhibitor in the amelioration of EPS. HP produced a full blown catalepsy, akinesia and a significant impairment in locomotion and antioxidant status...
March 7, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Rajan Jain, Priti Arun, Ajeet Sidana, Atul Sachdev
Objective: Till date, typical antipsychotic haloperidol is the treatment of choice for delirium. But, due to higher side effects with haloperidol, newer atypical antipsychotics (e.g., olanzapine) are increasingly being used in the treatment of delirious patients. The aim of the current research was to study the efficacy and tolerability of haloperidol and olanzapine in the treatment of delirium. Materials and Methods: This was an open-label, randomized controlled study carried out in a tertiary care hospital at Chandigarh, India...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Yanling Zhou, Guannan Li, Dan Li, Hongmei Cui, Yuping Ning
BACKGROUND: The long-term effects of dose reduction of atypical antipsychotics on cognitive function and symptomatology in stable patients with schizophrenia remain unclear. We sought to determine the change in cognitive function and symptomatology after reducing risperidone or olanzapine dosage in stable schizophrenic patients. METHODS: Seventy-five stabilized schizophrenic patients prescribed risperidone (≥4 mg/day) or olanzapine (≥10 mg/day) were randomly divided into a dose-reduction group ( n=37) and a maintenance group ( n=38)...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Lotte Ramerman, Pieter J Hoekstra, Gerda de Kuijper
BACKGROUND: Many people with intellectual disabilities use long-term antipsychotics for challenging behaviour and experience side-effects from these drugs, which may affect Health-related Quality of Life (HQoL). AIMS: This study aimed to investigate HQoL in people with intellectual disabilities who use long-term antipsychotics and to investigate its associations with challenging behaviour and physical symptoms often associated with antipsychotics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used baseline data of two studies of long-term used antipsychotics...
February 23, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Jia-Yin Yeh, Kun-Yu Tu, Ping-Tao Tseng, Yu Lee, Pao-Yen Lin
Belly dancer syndrome, also called belly dance syndrome or belly dancer dyskinesia, is a kind of abdominal dyskinesia with painful sensation. Its etiology is still unclear and there are few studies reporting its association with antipsychotics. Quetiapine is an atypical antipsychotic that causes lower risk of extrapyramidal symptoms than typical antipsychotics. Here, we presented the first case of belly dancer syndrome in a 71-year-old woman with major depressive disorder after short-term use of quetiapine.
February 22, 2018: Clinical Neuropharmacology
Yi-Jun Chen, Yu-Chao Chen, Hai-Lin Dong, Li-Xi Li, Wang Ni, Hong-Fu Li, Zhi-Ying Wu
INTRODUCTION: Phospholipase A2-associated neurodegeneration (PLAN) is an autosomal recessive movement disorder with abnormal iron deposition in basal ganglia, substantial nigra and adjacent areas, and cerebellar atrophy. It is caused by PLA2G6 mutations and comprises three phenotypes. We aimed to investigate genetic mutations in patients with predominantly extrapyramidal symptoms. METHODS: Eighteen Chinese patients with early onset of extrapyramidal symptoms were identified and underwent targeted next-generation sequencing, followed by Sanger sequencing...
February 9, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
M Otre Ba, D Wrześniok, J Rok, A Beberok, E Buszman
Prochlorperazine is a phenothiazine-class antipsychotic drug usually used to treat nausea, vomiting and schizophrenia. Phenothiazine derivatives have been known to cause serious side effects, like extrapyramidal symptoms, but also skin disorders which mechanism has not been fully established. The aim of this study was to examine the interaction between prochlorperazine and melanin as well as to estimate the effect of prochlorperazine on cell viability, melanogenesis and antioxidant defense system in normal human melanocytes...
March 1, 2017: Die Pharmazie
Quintí Foguet-Boreu, Montse Coll-Negre, Montse Serra-Millàs, Miquel Cavalleria-Verdaguer
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a severe motor syndrome occurring as a consequence of neuroleptic treatment. We present a case of a 67-year-old Caucasian woman with a history of a major depressive disorder with psychotic features. During her third hospital admission, symptoms of autonomic instability, hyperpyrexia, severe extrapyramidal side effects, and delirium appeared, suggesting NMS due to concomitant treatment with risperidone and quetiapine, among other drugs. Despite several consecutive pharmacological treatments (lorazepam, bromocriptine and amantadine) and prompt initiation of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), clinical improvement was observed only after combining bupropion with ECT...
January 8, 2018: Clinics and Practice
Milad Hosseinialhashemi, Babak Daneshfard, Atefe Hashemi
Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome is a rare neurodegenerative disorder with hereditary properties. It usually occurs in young adolescents with extrapyramidal symptoms besides disturbed mental function. In this study, we present a 23-year-old neuropsychiatric patient who primarily misdiagnosed to have conversion disorder. She had 5-year history of progressive dysarthria and generalized abnormal movements. After detecting the pathognomonic sign of "eye of the tiger" diagnosis was confirmed. The patient was discharged...
January 2018: Acta Medica Iranica
Leslie S Zun
BACKGROUND: The management of acute agitation in the emergency department often requires the administration of rapid-acting antipsychotic agents. However, there are few comparative studies and little guidance regarding the risks associated with use of such drugs in the acute setting. OBJECTIVE: This structured evidence-based review compared the safety of antipsychotic pharmacotherapies for acute agitation using data from randomized controlled trials identified by a literature search of the PubMed database...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Anna Emilia Urban, Wiesław Jerzy Cubała
The paper presents an overview and analysis of the results of research on therapeutic ranges of concentrations and receptor occupancy, mainly D2 receptors, in the treatment with some atypical antipsychotic drugs. Amisulpride, aripiprazole, clozapine, quetiapine, olanzapine, risperidone, paliperidone, sertindole, and ziprasidone were taken into account. The benefits of therapeutic drug monitoring to optimize the effectiveness of treatment and avoid side effects or toxicity were shown. The safety of patients, with the possibility to use the lowest effective dose, is an undoubted profit of TDM...
December 30, 2017: Psychiatria Polska
Ryan S D'Souza, Christopher Mercogliano, Elizabeth Ojukwu, Shawn D'Souza, Andrew Singles, Jaymin Modi, Alexandra Short, Anthony Donato
OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of prophylactic anticholinergic medications in reducing extrapyramidal symptoms in patients taking acute antiemetics with a dopamine D2 receptor antagonist effect. METHODS: Systematic searches of all published studies through March 2017 were identified from PubMed, Cochrane library, Embase, Web of Science and Scopus. Only randomised controlled trials of patients receiving dopamine D2 antagonist antiemetic therapy for acute migraine in which an anticholinergic or placebo was compared were included...
February 3, 2018: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
Alireza Ghajar, Mohammad-Reza Khoaie-Ardakani, Zahara Shahmoradi, Amir-Reza Alavi, Mohsen Afarideh, Mohammad-Reza Shalbafan, Maryam Ghazizadeh-Hashemi, Shahin Akhondzadeh
Since l-carnosine has shown effectiveness in improvement of cognition in patients with schizophrenia, this 8-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study was conducted. Sixty-three patients with chronic schizophrenia, who were clinically stable on a stable dose of risperidone, entered the study. The patients were randomly assigned to l-carnosine (2 gr/day in two divided doses) or placebo for eight weeks. The patients were assessed using the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS), extrapyramidal symptom rating scale (ESRS), and Hamilton depression rating scale (HDRS) during the study course...
February 3, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Nuno Mendonça, Marcondes C França, António Freire Gonçalves, Cristina Januário
Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) also known as Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3, is a hereditary neurodegenerative disease associated with severe clinical manifestations and premature death. Although rare, it is the most common autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia worldwide and has a distinct geographic distribution, reaching peak prevalence in certain regions of Brazil, Portugal and China. Due to its clinical heterogeneity, it was initially described as several different entities and as had many designations over the last decades...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Vito A G Ricigliano, Barbara Fossati, Lorenzo Saraceno, Michele Cavalli, Elena Bazzigaluppi, Giovanni Meola
Thymoma is a tumor originating from thymic gland, frequently manifesting with paraneoplastic neurological disorders. Its association with paraneoplastic dysautonomia is relatively uncommon. Here, we describe the challenging case of a 71 year-old female who developed subacute autonomic failure with digestive pseudo-obstruction, dysphagia, urinary tract dysfunction and orthostatic hypotension complicating an underlying extrapyramidal syndrome that had started 3 months before hospital admission. Autonomic symptoms had 2-month course and acutely worsened just before and during hospitalization...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Jibran Y Khokhar, Angela M Henricks, Emily D K Sullivan, Alan I Green
Schizophrenia is a heterogenous and severe neuropsychiatric disorder that affects nearly 1% of the population worldwide. Antipsychotic drugs are the mainstay of treatment, but not all patients with schizophrenia respond to treatment with these agents. Clozapine, the first atypical antipsychotic, is a highly effective medication for patients with schizophrenia who do not respond to other antipsychotics. Although clozapine tends not to produce extrapyramidal symptoms, other side effects of the drug (e.g., agranulocytosis, myocarditis, seizures) limit its widespread use...
2018: Advances in Pharmacology
Iliyana Hristova Pacheva, Tihomir Todorov, Ivan Ivanov, Desislava Tartova, Katerina Gaberova, Albena Todorova, Diana Dimitrova
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia (PCH) type 2 is a very rare autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder with prenatal onset that disrupts brain development. We present three patients (two siblings and one unrelated child) with PCH 2 linked to the most common mutation c.919G > T (p.Ala307Ser) in TSEN54 gene. The disease started soon after birth with feeding difficulties, extrapyramidal symptoms, psychomotor retardation, progressive microcephaly. Two of the patients were diagnosed with dyskinetic cerebral palsy (CP) at first...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Baris Olten, Michael H Bloch
Our objective was to examine the association between antipsychotic receptor binding profiles and the magnitude of common side-effects. We used regression analysis to examine the association between the receptor binding affinities of antipsychotic agents (log Ki) and degree of specific antipsychotic side-effects. Data on magnitude of weight gain, prolactin increase and QTc prolongation (in Standardized Mean Difference) and risk of sedation and extrapyramidal symptoms (in Odds Ratio) between individual antipsychotic medications as compared to placebo was based on a recent network meta-analysis examining the treatment of schizophrenia...
February 1, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Hanna Bergman, John Rathbone, Vivek Agarwal, Karla Soares-Weiser
BACKGROUND: Since the 1950s antipsychotic medication has been extensively used to treat people with chronic mental illnesses such as schizophrenia. These drugs, however, have also been associated with a wide range of adverse effects, including movement disorders such as tardive dyskinesia (TD) - a problem often seen as repetitive involuntary movements around the mouth and face. Various strategies have been examined to reduce a person's cumulative exposure to antipsychotics. These strategies include dose reduction, intermittent dosing strategies such as drug holidays, and antipsychotic cessation...
February 6, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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