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Extrapyramidal Symptoms

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510296/pharmacokinetics-and-safety-of-single-dose-inhaled-loxapine-in-children-and-adolescents
#1
Sally Selim, Robert Riesenberg, James Cassella, Jeevan Kunta, Edward Hellriegel, Mark A Smith, Alexander A Vinks, Laura Rabinovich-Guilatt
This multisite open-label study sought to characterize the pharmacokinetics and safety of a single dose of inhaled loxapine in children and adolescents. Loxapine powder for oral inhalation was administered via a single-use handheld drug device to children and adolescents (aged 10-17 years) with any condition warranting chronic antipsychotic use. Patients were dosed according to body weight and cohort (<50 kg [n = 15], 2.5 or 5 mg; ≥50 kg [n = 15], 5 or 10 mg); the first 6 patients (cohort 1) enrolled in each weight group received the lower dose...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492457/the-role-of-amantadine-withdrawal-in-3-cases-of-treatment-refractory-altered-mental-status
#2
Leah D Fryml, Kristen R Williams, Christopher G Pelic, James Fox, Gregory Sahlem, Sophie Robert, Gonzalo J Revuelta, Edward Baron Short
Amantadine, which was originally developed as an antiviral medication, functions as a dopamine agonist in the central nervous system and consequently is utilized in the treatment of Parkinson disease, drug-induced extrapyramidal reactions, and neuroleptic malignant syndrome. For reasons that are not entirely understood, abrupt changes in amantadine dosage can produce a severe withdrawal syndrome. Existing medical literature describes case reports of amantadine withdrawal leading to delirium, which at times has progressed to neuroleptic malignant syndrome...
May 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486308/effect-of-n-desalkylquetiapine-quetiapine-plasma-level-ratio-on-anxiety-and-depression-in-bipolar-disorder-a-prospective-observational-study
#3
C Rovera, M C Mauri, C Di Pace, S Paletta, A Reggiori, V Ciappolino, D Cattaneo, S Baldelli, E Clementi, A C Altamura
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to analyse the relationships between quetiapine and N-desalkylquetiapine plasma levels and clinical improvement, particularly, in regard to depressive and anxious symptoms and to hostility. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study that involved 37 outpatients diagnosed as having bipolar disorder I or II. All the patients were observed during a clinical acute and postacute phase. Patients were prescribed 50-800 mg of quetiapine...
May 5, 2017: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473012/circuits-regulating-pleasure-and-happiness-evolution-and-role-in-mental-disorders
#4
Anton J M Loonen, Svetlana A Ivanova
Taking the evolutionary development of the forebrain as a starting point, the authors developed a biological framework for the subcortical regulation of human emotional behaviour which may offer an explanation for the pathogenesis of the principle symptoms of mental disorders. Appetitive-searching (reward-seeking) and distress-avoiding (misery-fleeing) behaviour are essential for all free-moving animals to stay alive and to have offspring. Even the oldest ocean-dwelling animal creatures, living about 560 million years ago and human ancestors, must therefore have been capable of generating these behaviours...
May 5, 2017: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455891/paliperidone-palmitate-effectiveness-safety-and-the-use-for-treatment-of-schizophrenia
#5
REVIEW
Marek Jarema, Przemysław Bieńkowski, Janusz Heitzman, Tadeusz Parnowski, Janusz Rybakowski
The aim of the study was to summarize the efficacy and tolerability of paliperidone palmitate, an atypical long-acting antipsychotic drug. Paliperidone is a 9-hydroxy metabolite of risperidone with a slightly different receptor profile and significantly different pharmacokinetic profile. After the short review of its pharmacological properties, the efficacy of the drug in comparison to placebo or to an active comparator was described. The studies revealed the effectiveness of paliperidone palmitate in the treatment of psychotic symptoms, mainly schizophrenia...
February 26, 2017: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446482/secondary-parkinsonism-in-a-patient-of-psychogenic-polydipsia
#6
Rimesh Pal, Liza Das, Pinaki Dutta, Anil Bhansali
A 44-year-old man presented with history of slurring of speech, slowness in activities, abnormal posturing of the upper limbs and drooling of saliva from the mouth. He had a 5-yearlong history of compulsive water drinking, consuming 12-15 L of water every day. He was earlier evaluated for the same and found to have low serum sodium (126 mEq/L). Presently, he was admitted at a primary care facility with fever and altered sensorium. He was found to have serum sodium of 94 mEq/L. His sensorium improved with hypertonic saline infusion; however, after a lucid interval of 48 hours, he developed florid extrapyramidal symptoms...
April 26, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442926/hypothermia-due-to-limbic-system-involvement-and-longitudinal-myelitis-in-a-case-of-japanese-encephalitis-a-case-report-from-india
#7
Santhosh Narayanan, N K Thulaseedharan, Gomathy Subramaniam, Geetha Panarkandy, V K Shameer, Arathi Narayanan
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an infectious encephalitis prevalent in Asia. It usually presents with fever, headache, convulsions and extrapyramidal symptoms. Limbic system involvement and hypothermia though common in autoimmune encephalitis have never been reported in JE. We report a case of an 18-year-old girl with no previous comorbidities who presented to us with a history of fever and headache for 1 week duration. She developed bilateral lateral rectus palsy and asymmetric flaccid weakness of all four limbs, after 2 days of admission, which was followed by altered sensorium and intermittent hypothermia...
2017: International Journal of General Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437058/psychotic-and-bipolar-disorders-antipsychotic-drugs
#8
Sarah D Holder, Alaina L Edmunds, Sherri Morgan
Antipsychotic drugs block dopamine receptors and are used to manage psychosis as well as other mental illnesses that may or may not have psychotic features, such as bipolar disorders and major depressive disorder. First-generation antipsychotic drugs are more likely to cause adverse effects such as extrapyramidal symptoms and tardive dyskinesia. Adverse effects of second-generation antipsychotic drugs typically are related to metabolic abnormalities such as weight gain, abnormal blood glucose levels, and elevated lipid levels...
April 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412910/aripiprazole-a-drug-that-displays-partial-agonism-and-functional-selectivity
#9
Erin W Tuplin, Matthew R Holahan
The treatment of schizophrenia is challenging due to the wide range of symptoms (positive, negative, cognitive) associated with the disease. Typical antipsychotics that antagonize D2 receptors are effective in treating positive symptoms, but extrapyramidal side-effects (EPS) are a common occurrence. Atypical antipsychotics targeting 5-TH2A and D2 receptors are more effective at treating cognitive and negative symptoms compared to typical antipsychotics, but these drugs also result in side-effects such as metabolic syndromes...
April 13, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411331/glutaric-acidemia-type-1-a-case-of-infantile-stroke
#10
Gül Demet Kaya Ozcora, Songul Gokay, Mehmet Canpolat, Fatih Kardaş, Mustafa Kendirci, Sefer Kumandaş
BACKGROUND: Glutaric acidemia Type 1 (GA-1) is an autosomal recessively inherited metabolic disorder which is associated with GCDH gene mutations which alters the glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase, an enzyme playing role in the catabolic pathways of the amino acids lysine, hydroxylysine, and tryptophan. Clinical findings are often encephalopathic crises, dystonia, and extrapyramidal symptoms. CASE REPORT: A 9-month-old male infant referred to our department with focal tonic-clonic seizures during rotavirus infection and acute infarcts in MRI...
April 15, 2017: JIMD Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407198/chlorpromazine-dose-for-people-with-schizophrenia
#11
REVIEW
Katharine Dudley, Xiaomeng Liu, Saskia De Haan
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) Model Lists of Essential Medicines lists chlorpromazine as one of its five medicines used in psychotic disorders. OBJECTIVES: To determine chlorpromazine dose response and dose side-effect relationships for schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like psychoses. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Study-Based Register of Trials (December 2008; 2 October 2014; 19 December 2016)...
April 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405133/risperidone-induced-adverse-drug-reactions-and-role-of-drd2-141-c-ins-del-and-5htr2c-759-c-t-genetic-polymorphisms-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#12
Charanraj Goud Alladi, Anbarasan Mohan, Deepak Gopal Shewade, Ravi Philip Rajkumar, Surendiran Adithan, Karthick Subramanian
OBJECTIVE: To determine the adverse drug reaction (ADR) profile of risperidone and their association with dopamine (DRD2 - 141 C Ins/Del/rs1799732) and serotonin receptor (5HTR2C -759 C>T/rs3813929) gene polymorphisms in patients with schizophrenia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted among 289 patients who were diagnosed with schizophrenia and were on treatment with risperidone (4-8 mg/day)-based therapy for a minimum of 4 weeks. Genotyping was carried by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction...
January 2017: Journal of Pharmacology & Pharmacotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386684/extrapyramidal-symptoms-after-exposure-to-calcium-channel-blocker-flunarizine-or-cinnarizine
#13
Kai-Ming Jhang, Jing-Yang Huang, Oswald Ndi Nfor, Yu-Chun Tung, Wen-Yuan Ku, Chun-Te Lee, Yung-Po Liaw
PURPOSE: Flunarizine (fz) and cinnarizine (cz) have well-known extrapyramidal side effects (EPSEs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and occurrence time of cz- and fz-related EPSEs. METHOD: Patients who took fz or cz for more than 1 month were identified from the longitudinal health insurance database 2005 and 2010. Excluded were patients with any of the underlying diseases that may cause parkinsonism. Drug-induced EPSEs were defined as the new diagnosis of parkinsonism, dyskinesia, or secondary dystonia during drug use or within 3 months after discontinuing the medication...
April 6, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382615/a-case-of-multiple-system-atrophy-with-preexisting-alzheimer-s-disease-and-predating-the-hot-cross-bun-sign
#14
Chi-Wei Lin, Chi-Yu Tseng, Chung-Ping Lo, Min-Chien Tu
PURPOSE: Synucleinopathy, tauopathy and amyloidopathy were classified as distinct clinical and pathological entities in traditional classification systems, and their interactions have been studied on neuropathology and molecular genetics recently. CASE REPORT: In this report, we present a 69-year-old male patient who had been diagnosed with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia due to progressive forgetfulness in February 2013. His Mini- Mental State Examination score was 21/30, and his Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument score was 78/100, resulted from profound deficits in recent memory and abstract thinking domains...
December 15, 2016: Acta Neurologica Taiwanica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374697/-a-differential-approach-to-the-improvement-of-prevention-and-correction-of-neuroleptic-side-extrapyramidal-disorders-with-pantogam-activ-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#15
A S Tiganov, G P Panteleeva, L I Abramova, P V Bologov, P S Kananovich, M A Omel'chenko, I Yu Nikiforova
AIM: To assess the efficacy and safety of pantogam active (PA) in prevention and correction of neurological side-effects during the course neuroleptic treatment of acute endogenous psychoses. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty schizophrenic patients (mean age 33 years) with acute psychosis were examined. All patients received 28-day course treatment with typical and atypical neuroleptics. Two equal groups were studied: patients of the first group were treated with trihexyphenidyl (THP) in dose of 0,002-0,012 mg and patients of the second group received in addition PA in dose 0,9 mg/day...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368577/classics-in-chemical-neuroscience-aripiprazole
#16
Austen B Casey, Clinton E Canal
Aripiprazole was the first antipsychotic developed to possess agonist properties at dopamine D2 autoreceptors, a groundbreaking strategy that presented a new vista for schizophrenia drug discovery. The dopamine D2 receptor is the crucial target of all extant antipsychotics, and all developed prior to aripiprazole were D2 receptor antagonists. Extensive blockade of these receptors, however, typically produces extrapyramidal (movement) side effects, which plagued first-generation antipsychotics, such as haloperidol...
April 13, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347393/brain-volume-changes-over-the-first-year-of-treatment-in-schizophrenia-relationships-to-antipsychotic-treatment
#17
R Emsley, L Asmal, S du Plessis, B Chiliza, L Phahladira, S Kilian
BACKGROUND: Progressive brain volume reductions have been described in schizophrenia, and an association with antipsychotic exposure has been reported. METHODS: We compared percentage changes in grey and white matter volume from baseline to month 12 in 23 previously antipsychotic-naïve patients with a first episode of schizophrenia or schizophreniform disorder who were treated with the lowest effective dose of flupenthixol decanoate depot formulation, with 53 matched healthy individuals...
March 28, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344764/atypical-antipsychotics-recent-research-findings-and-applications-to-clinical-practice-proceedings-of-a-symposium-presented-at-the-29th-annual-european-college-of-neuropsychopharmacology-congress-19-september-2016-vienna-austria
#18
REVIEW
Robin Murray, Christoph U Correll, Gavin P Reynolds, David Taylor
Available evidence suggests that second-generation atypical antipsychotics are broadly similar to first-generation agents in terms of their efficacy, but may have a more favourable tolerability profile, primarily by being less likely to cause extrapyramidal symptoms. However, atypical antipsychotics are variably associated with disturbances in the cardiometabolic arena, including increased body weight and the development of metabolic syndrome, which may reflect differences in their receptor binding profiles...
March 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343051/tolerability-of-cariprazine-in-the-treatment-of-acute-bipolar-i-mania-a-pooled-post-hoc-analysis-of-3-phase-ii-iii-studies
#19
Willie Earley, Suresh Durgam, Kaifeng Lu, Marc Debelle, István Laszlovszky, Eduard Vieta, Lakshmi N Yatham
BACKGROUND: Atypical antipsychotics have broad-spectrum efficacy against core symptoms of acute mania/mixed states in bipolar disorder; however, they are associated with clinically significant adverse effects (AEs). METHODS: This post hoc analysis evaluated the safety and tolerability of the atypical antipsychotic cariprazine in the treatment of adult patients with acute manic/mixed episodes of bipolar I disorder. Data were taken from three 3-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, flexible-dose trials of cariprazine 3-12mg/d...
June 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291293/-adverse-effects-of-medication-and-quality-of-life-in-patients-receiving-second-generation-antipsychotics-a-comparison-of-long-acting-injectable-and-oral-therapies
#20
Demet Sağlam Aykut, Filiz Civil Arslan, Ahmet Tiryaki, Evrim Özkorumak, Serdar Karakullukçu
OBJECTIVE: Maintenance treatment with antipsychotic drugs for patients with schizophrenia is highly effective in decreasing the recurrence rate of the disease. In the current study, we aimed to compare long-acting second generation antipsychotic drug injections and oral forms of second generation antipsychotic drugs in terms of their adverse effects on quality of life. METHOD: Forty-one patients receiving second generation antipsychotic drugs and 139 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were treated with oral second generation antipsychotic drugs and enrolled in the study...
2017: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Psychiatry
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