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Extrapyramidal Symptoms

Antonio Augusto Moura da Silva, Jucelia Sousa Santos Ganz, Patricia da Silva Sousa, Maria Juliana Rodvalho Doriqui, Marizelia Rodrigues Costa Ribeiro, Maria Dos Remédios Freitas Carvalho Branco, Rejane Christine de Sousa Queiroz, Maria de Jesus Torres Pacheco, Flavia Regina Vieira da Costa, Francelena de Sousa Silva, Vanda Maria Ferreira Simões, Marcos Antonio Barbosa Pacheco, Fernando Lamy-Filho, Zeni Carvalho Lamy, Maria Teresa Seabra Soares de Britto E Alves
We report the early growth and neurologic findings of 48 infants in Brazil diagnosed with probable congenital Zika virus syndrome and followed to age 1-8 months. Most of these infants had microcephaly (86.7%) and craniofacial disproportion (95.8%). The clinical pattern included poor head growth with increasingly negative z-scores, pyramidal/extrapyramidal symptoms, and epilepsy.
November 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Marta Flis, Kinga Szymona, Justyna Morylowska-Topolska, Anna Urbańska, Paweł Krukow, Martyna Kandefer-Szerszeń, Barbara Zdzisińska, Ewa M Urbańska, Hanna Karakuła-Juchnowicz
Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is a neuroactive metabolite of tryptophan formed in the brain and in the periphery, known to block ionotropic glutamate receptors and α7 nicotinic receptors, and to act as a ligand of G protein-coupled GPR35 receptors and human aryl hydrocarbon (AHR) receptors. KYNA seems to modulate a number of mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia including dopaminergic transmission in mesolimbic and mesocortical areas or glutamatemediated neurotransmission. The kynurenine hypothesis of schizophrenia links the occurrence of positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia and cognitive impairments characteristic for the disease with the disturbances of kynurenine pathway function...
September 29, 2016: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Andresa H Betti, Camila B Antonio, Thais E T Pompeu, Thaise S Martins, Vivian Herzfeldt, Eveline D Stolz, Carlos A M Fraga, Eliezer Barreiro, François Noël, Stela M K Rates
Aiming to identify new antipsychotic lead-compounds, our group has been working on the design and synthesis of new N-phenylpiperazine derivatives. Here, we characterized LASSBio-1422 as a pharmacological prototype of this chemical series. Adult male Wistar rats and CF1 mice were used for in-vitro and in-vivo assays, respectively. LASSBio-1422 [1 and 5 mg/kg, postoperatively (p.o.)] inhibited apomorphine-induced climbing as well as ketamine-induced hyperlocomotion (1 and 5 mg/kg, p.o.), animal models predictive of efficacy on positive symptoms...
October 13, 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
Tafheem Malik, Sheema Hasan, Shahid Pervez, Tasneem Fatima, Darakhshan Jabeen Haleem
The symptoms of Parkinsonism and oral dyskinesia have been showing to be induced by neuroleptics that significantly affect its clinical use. In this study, we investigate whether Nigella sativa-oil (NS) (black cumin seeds)-a traditional medicine used for the seizure treatment in eastern country-may reduce the haloperidol (HAL)-induced extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS)-like behavior in rats. After combine treatment with HAL (1 mg/kg) on NS (0.2 ml/rat), rats displayed a significant decreased EPS-like behavior including movement disorders and oral dyskinesia as compared to controls...
October 18, 2016: Neurochemical Research
Laszlo Szpisjak, Nora Zsindely, Jozsef I Engelhardt, Laszlo Vecsei, Gabor G Kovacs, Peter Klivenyi
AARS2 gene (NM_020745.3) mutations result in two different phenotypic diseases: infantile mitochondrial cardiomyopathy and late-onset leukoencephalopathy. The patient's first symptoms appeared at the age of 18 years with behavioral changes and psychiatric problems. Some years later, extrapyramidal symptoms, cognitive impairment, nystagmus, dysarthria and pyramidal symptoms also developed. The brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indicated extensive white matter abnormalities. The diagnosis of AARS2 gene mutations causing leukodystrophy was confirmed by genetic testing...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Human Genetics
Christoph U Correll, Leslie Citrome, Peter M Haddad, John Lauriello, Mark Olfson, Stephen M Calloway, John M Kane
Long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs) are among the most effective treatments in psychiatry, yet they remain underutilized in clinical practice. Although LAIs are typically used to maintain treatment adherence in patients with chronic schizophrenia, recent research has suggested that they may also provide an effective treatment strategy for patients with early-phase or first-episode disease. In October 2015, a group of 8 experts on the management of schizophrenia and LAIs met to evaluate the evidence surrounding the efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of LAIs and to develop practical recommendations regarding the clinical use, education, and unmet needs related to LAIs...
2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Saeed Shoja Shafti, Abbas Azizi Khoei
BACKGROUND: Several lines of evidence suggest that the cholinergic system may be disrupted in schizophrenia and so this may contribute to the cognitive impairments of schizophrenic patients. Because such deficits do not respond to neuroleptic treatment, different approaches have been done by acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs). The objective of the present assessment was to evaluate the safety and clinical effects of rivastigmine, as an adjunctive drug, on the clinical symptoms of schizophrenia...
October 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology
Travis T Wager, Thomas A Chappie, David Horton, Ramalakshmi Y Chandrasekaran, Brian M Samas, Elizabeth Dunn-Sims, Cathleen Hsu, Nawshaba Nawreen, Michelle A Vanase-Frawley, Rebecca E O'Connor, Christopher Schmidt, Keith Dlugolenski, Nancy C Stratman, Mark J Majchrzak, Bethany L Kormos, David Nguyen, Aarti Sawant-Basak, Andy N Mead
Dopamine receptor antagonism is a compelling molecular target for the treatment of a range of psychiatric disorders, including substance use disorders. From our corporate compound file we identified a structurally unique D3 receptor (D3R) antagonist scaffold, 1. Through a hybrid approach, we merged key pharmacophore elements from 1 and D3 agonist 2 to yield the novel D3R/D2R antagonist PF-4363467 (3). Compound 3 was designed to possess CNS drug-like properties as defined by its CNS MPO desirability score (≥4/6)...
October 7, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Héla Fourati, Emna Ellouze, Mourad Ahmadi, Dhouha Chaari, Fatma Kamoun, Ines Hsairi, Chahnez Triki, Zeineb Mnif
l-2-Hydroxyglutaric (l-2-HG) aciduria is a rare inherited metabolic disease usually observed in children. Patients present a very slowly progressive deterioration with cerebellar ataxia, mild or severe mental retardation, and various other clinical signs including extrapyramidal and pyramidal symptoms, and seizures Goffette et al. [1]. This leukencephalopathy was first described in 1980 Duran et al. [2]. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrates nonspecific subcortical white matter (WM) loss, cerebellar atrophy and changes in dentate nuclei and putamen Steenweg et al...
2016: European Journal of Radiology Open
Andres Asser, Sulev Kõks, Anniina Snellman, Merja Haaparanta-Solin, Eveliina Arponen, Tove Grönroos, Jaak Nairismägi, Jonas Bergquist, Ursel Soomets, Piret Piip, Mall Eltermaa, Martin Sauk, Hanna Lindmäe, Juha O Rinne, Pille Taba
Intravenous use of a psychostimulant drug containing methcathinone (ephedrone) and manganese causes an irreversible extrapyramidal syndrome in drug abusers. We aimed to reproduce the syndrome in mice to evaluate dopaminergic damage. C57/B6 mice were intraperitoneally injected once a day with the study drug or saline for a period of 27 weeks. Motor activity was recorded in an automated motility-box. After 13 and 27 weeks of treatment, ex vivo digital autoradiography was performed using [11C]dihydrotetrabenazine ([11C]DTBZ)...
September 27, 2016: Brain Research
Bekir Enes Demiryürek, Aslı Aksoy Gündogdu, Bilgehan Atılgan Acar, Aybala Neslihan Alagoz
Alien hand syndrome (AHS) is an involuntary and rare neurological disorder emerges at upper extremity. AHS is a disconnection syndrome with the symptoms of losing sense of agency and sense of ownership, and presence of involuntary autonomic motor activity. There are frontal, callosal and posterior types of AHS and each of them occurs depend on the lesions of different of the brain. Posterior variant is a rarely encountered AHS type compared to others. AHS, generally regarded as persistent, but rarely maybe observed as paroxysmal...
October 2016: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Iliyana Pacheva, Ivan Ivanov, Marin Penkov, Daliya Kancheva, Albena Jordanova, Mariya Ivanova
A case with GAMT deficiency (homozygous c.64dupG mutation) presented with neurodevelopmental delay, rare seizures, behavioral disturbances, and mild hypotonia, posing diagnostic challenges. Metabolic investigations showed low creatinine in plasma and urine (guanidinoacetate couldn't be investigated) and slightly elevated lactate. MRI was normal. Correct diagnosis was possible only after MR spectroscopy was performed at age 5½ years. A homozygous c.64dupG mutation of the GAMT gene was identified in the proband...
September 2016: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
Patrizia Mammi, Rodolfo Brianti, Laura Galuppo, Paolo Caffarra
INTRODUCTION: Parkinsonism may occur after brain lesions such as subarachnoid hemorrhage (1), hydrocephalus (2,3), slit ventricle (4), or shunt revision (5).Until now, pathogenesis remains unclear. METHOD: Case Report. RESULTS: We described the case of a 53 years Caucasian male with subarachnoid hemorrhage after anterior communicating artery aneurysm rupture, with subsequent complications and early development of bilateral extrapiramidal symptoms...
2016: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
G Bayer, A Bauvois, J Mankikian, M Tardieu, F Maillot, E Salame, F Woimant, A Poujois, M Viana, A Legras
INTRODUCTION: The presence of a psychiatric disorder during the course of an organic disease is a common cause of delayed diagnosis. CASE REPORT: We report a 16-year-old girl who was admitted with thrombocytopenia and had a two-year history of neuropsychiatric disorder which was attributed to a difficult family situation. Neurological examination showed a frontal lobe disorder and extrapyramidal manifestations. The thrombocytopenia was attributed to liver cirrhosis...
September 14, 2016: La Revue de Médecine Interne
Edward Kim, Christoph U Correll, Lian Mao, H Lynn Starr, Larry Alphs
OBJECTIVE: This analysis of the Paliperidone Palmitate Research in Demonstrating Effectiveness (PRIDE) study (NCT01157351) compared outcomes after administration of once-monthly paliperidone palmitate (PP) vs conventional oral antipsychotics (COAs) or atypical oral antipsychotics (AOAs). METHODS: PRIDE was a 15-month study of 444 individuals with schizophrenia and a history of incarceration. They were randomly assigned to PP or to 1 of 7 commonly prescribed OAs...
September 15, 2016: CNS Spectrums
Aileen Chen, Erwin J Loquias, Ramesh Roshan, Richard Levene, Raymond Zelhof, Terry Hickey, Gail Austin Cooney, Faustino Gonzalez
BACKGROUND: Diphenhydramine (DPH) is most commonly used via oral, topical, intramuscular (IM) and intravenous (IV) routes for the palliation of pruritus, treatment of extrapyramidal symptoms, management of parkinsonism and for allergic reactions. However, many hospice patients are unable to take oral medications and/or do not have IV access. Moreover, topical administration has a relatively slow rate of absorption. For this reason, in the hospice setting it is not uncommon for diphenhydramine to be administered via the subcutaneous (SC) route secondary to its ease of access, low infection rates and its low levels of discomfort...
September 13, 2016: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
Shlomit Yust Katz, Ronly Hershkovitz, Tanya Gurevich, Ruth Djaldetti
OBJECTIVE: Pain is one of the most common non-motor symptoms of Parkinson disease (PD) and other Parkinson plus syndromes, with a major effect on quality of life. The aims of the study were to examine the prevalence and characteristics of pain in PD and other Parkinson plus syndromes and patient use and response to pain medications. METHODS: The cohort consisted of 371 patients: 300 (81%) with PD and 71 (19%) with Parkinson plus syndromes. Data on clinical parameters and pain were collected by questionnaire...
September 10, 2016: Clinical Journal of Pain
Ryohei Igata, Hikaru Hori, Kiyokazu Atake, Asuka Katsuki, Jun Nakamura
A 54-year-old Japanese woman was diagnosed with major depressive disorder and prescribed paroxetine 20 mg/day. In around May 2013, the patient experienced gastric discomfort, so metoclopramide was prescribed. Beginning on June 4, 2013, the patient was given metoclopramide, 10 mg intravenously, twice per week. On the seventh day after beginning metoclopramide, facial hot flushes, increased sweating, muscle rigidity, and galactorrhea were noted. Extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) rapidly subsided in response to an intramuscular injection of biperiden...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Elisabetta Savino, Cecilia Soavi, Eleonora Capatti, Massimo Borrelli, Giovanni B Vigna, Angelina Passaro, Giovanni Zuliani
BACKGROUND: Fahr's disease is rare a neurodegenerative idiopathic condition characterized by symmetric and bilateral calcifications of basal ganglia, usually associated with progressive neuropsychiatric dysfunctions and movement disorders. The term "Fahr's syndrome" is used in presence of calcifications secondary to a specific cause, but the variability of etiology, pathogenesis, and clinical picture underlying this condition have raised the question of the real existence of a syndrome...
September 8, 2016: BMC Neurology
Raymond R MacNeil, Daniel J Müller
The effectiveness of antipsychotic drugs is limited due to accompanying adverse effects which can pose considerable health risks and lead to patient noncompliance. Pharmacogenetics (PGx) offers a means to identify genetic biomarkers that can predict individual susceptibility to antipsychotic-induced adverse effects (AAEs), thereby improving clinical outcomes. We reviewed the literature on the PGx of common AAEs from 2010 to 2015, placing emphasis on findings that have been independently replicated and which have additionally been listed to be of interest by PGx expert panels...
July 2016: Molecular Neuropsychiatry
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