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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690575/natural-immunity-to-hiv-a-template-for-vaccine-strategies
#1
REVIEW
Lyvia Fourcade, Johanne Poudrier, Michel Roger
Africa accounts for the majority of global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, most of which affect women through heterosexual intercourse. Currently, there is no cure for HIV and the development of vaccines and microbicides remains the best solution to eradicate the pandemic. We and others have identified HIV highly-exposed seronegative (HESN) individuals among African female commercial sex workers (CSWs). Analyses of genital samples from HESNs have demonstrated potent innate and anti-inflammatory conditions, HIV-specific CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ T-cells as well as immunoglobulins (Igs), and increased regulatory cell populations, all of which support a delicate balance between strength and control against HIV intrusion...
April 23, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688543/natural-selection-and-origin-of-a-melanistic-allele-in-north-american-gray-wolves
#2
Rena M Schweizer, Arun Durvasula, Joel Smith, Samuel H Vohr, Daniel R Stahler, Marco Galaverni, Olaf Thalmann, Douglas W Smith, Ettore Randi, Elaine A Ostrander, Richard E Green, Kirk E Lohmueller, John Novembre, Robert K Wayne
Pigmentation is often used to understand how natural selection affects genetic variation in wild populations since it can have a simple genetic basis, and can affect a variety of fitness-related traits (e.g., camouflage, thermoregulation, and sexual display). In gray wolves, the K locus, a β-defensin gene, causes black coat color via a dominantly inherited KB allele. The allele is derived from dog-wolf hybridization and is at high frequency in North American wolf populations. We designed a DNA capture array to probe the geographic origin, age, and number of introgression events of the KB allele in a panel of 331 wolves and 20 dogs...
May 1, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687376/isolation-and-flow-cytometric-analysis-of-the-stromal-vascular-fraction-isolated-from-mouse-adipose-tissue
#3
Annie C Bowles, Alan Tucker, Bruce A Bunnell
Evidence from preclinical research and clinical trials demonstrates the use of the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) as therapy for numerous indications. These results demonstrate that autologous SVF is not only safe and effective but provides robust anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and reparative effects in vivo. The potency of the SVF is attributed to the cellular composition which includes adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), adipocytes, endothelial cells, and various immune cells. As the name would suggest, these SVF cells are derived from the stromal compartment of adipose, or fat...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686839/signatures-of-competition-and-strain-structure-within-the-major-blood-stage-antigen-of-plasmodium-falciparum-in-a-local-community-in-ghana
#4
Mary M Rorick, Yael Artzy-Randrup, Shazia Ruybal-Pesántez, Kathryn E Tiedje, Thomas S Rask, Abraham Oduro, Anita Ghansah, Kwadwo Koram, Karen P Day, Mercedes Pascual
The concept of niche partitioning has received considerable theoretical attention at the interface of ecology and evolution of infectious diseases. Strain theory postulates that pathogen populations can be structured into distinct nonoverlapping strains by frequency-dependent selection in response to intraspecific competition for host immune space. The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum presents an opportunity to investigate this phenomenon in nature, under conditions of high recombination rate and extensive antigenic diversity...
April 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686672/the-inflammatory-continuum-of-traumatic-brain-injury-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
REVIEW
Olga N Kokiko-Cochran, Jonathan P Godbout
The post-injury inflammatory response is a key mediator in long-term recovery from traumatic brain injury (TBI). Moreover, the immune response to TBI, mediated by microglia and macrophages, is influenced by existing brain pathology and by secondary immune challenges. For example, recent evidence shows that the presence of beta-amyloid and phosphorylated tau protein, two hallmark features of AD that increase during normal aging, substantially alter the macrophage response to TBI. Additional data demonstrate that post-injury microglia are "primed" and become hyper-reactive following a subsequent acute immune challenge thereby worsening recovery...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686092/environmental-selection-during-the-last-ice-age-on-the-mother-to-infant-transmission-of-vitamin-d-and-fatty-acids-through-breast-milk
#6
Leslea J Hlusko, Joshua P Carlson, George Chaplin, Scott A Elias, John F Hoffecker, Michaela Huffman, Nina G Jablonski, Tesla A Monson, Dennis H O'Rourke, Marin A Pilloud, G Richard Scott
Because of the ubiquitous adaptability of our material culture, some human populations have occupied extreme environments that intensified selection on existing genomic variation. By 32,000 years ago, people were living in Arctic Beringia, and during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; 28,000-18,000 y ago), they likely persisted in the Beringian refugium. Such high latitudes provide only very low levels of UV radiation, and can thereby lead to dangerously low levels of biosynthesized vitamin D. The physiological effects of vitamin D deficiency range from reduced dietary absorption of calcium to a compromised immune system and modified adipose tissue function...
April 23, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685106/tolerability-of-trivalent-inactivated-influenza-vaccine-among-pregnant-women-2015
#7
Suvanna Asavapiriyanont, Wanitchaya Kittikraisak, Piyarat Suntarattiwong, Darunee Ditsungnoen, Surasak Kaoiean, Podjanee Phadungkiatwatana, Nattinee Srisantiroj, Tawee Chotpitayasunondh, Fatimah S Dawood, Kim A Lindblade
BACKGROUND: Thailand recommends influenza vaccination among pregnant women. We conducted a cohort study to determine if the prevalence of adverse events following immunization (AEFIs) with influenza vaccine among Thai pregnant women was similar to that often cited among healthy adults. METHODS: Women who were ≥17 gestational weeks and ≥18 years of age were recruited. Demographic and health history data were collected using structured questionnaires. Women were provided with symptom diary, ruler to measure local reaction(s), and thermometer to measure body temperature...
April 23, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685014/correlation-analysis-of-cd4-gene-polymorphism-and-blood-routine-indexes-in-pigs-sus-scrofa
#8
J Xu, H Zhang, Y Gu, K Mehmood, Q Zhang, M Ijaz, R Z Abbas, W Babar, S Li
Cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) is an important molecule in the immune system of animals, which participates in the processes of T-lymphocyte differentiation, maturation, immune response and signal transduction. During this study, we adopted the direct sequencing of PCR products and time-of-flight mass spectrometry methods for the detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 382 Yorkshire pigs. The linkage disequilibrium of CD4 gene polymorphisms and their genetic effects on blood routine indexes were also analyzed...
March 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684756/modulation-of-th1-tc1-and-th17-tc17-responses-in-pulmonary-tuberculosis-by-il-20-subfamily-of-cytokines
#9
Nathella Pavan Kumar, Kadar Moideen, Vaithilingam V Banurekha, Dina Nair, Subash Babu
Although IL-10 is known to be an important cytokine in the immune response to TB, very little is known about the role of IL-20 subfamily of cytokines in the host response to TB. To identify the role of CD4+ T and CD8+ T cells producing IL-20 subfamily of cytokines in human TB, we enumerated the frequencies of IL-10, IL-19 and IL-24 expressing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells following Mtb-specific antigen stimulation of cells from individuals with pulmonary TB (PTB) and latent TB (LTB). We first demonstrated that Mtb-specific antigen induce an expansion of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells expressing IL-10, IL-19 and IL-24 in PTB and LTB individuals, with frequencies being significantly higher in PTB...
April 20, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684427/relationship-between-the-frequency-of-influenza-vaccination-and-cell-mediated-immunity
#10
Naruhito Otani, Masayuki Shima, Takashi Ueda, Kaoru Ichiki, Kazuhiko Nakajima, Yoshio Takesue, Kenta Honjo, Natsuko Yoshida, Sayo Kawata, Toshiomi Okuno
Despite established guidelines for population-level assessments of immunity after vaccination, standard methods for individual-level analyses have not been established, limiting the ability to optimize vaccination strategies within a particular season. In this study, we evaluated changes in cell-mediated immunity (CMI) with respect to the number of influenza vaccine doses. In particular, the influenza vaccine was administered to 21 adults during the 2015-2016 season. IFN-γ production induced by the influenza vaccine antigens [A (H1N1), A (H3N2), B (Yamagata lineage), and B (Victoria lineage)] increased after the first dose of vaccination in 11, 10, 10, and 11 subjects, respectively...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683844/circulating-inflammatory-monocytes-contribute-to-impaired-influenza-vaccine-responses-in-hiv-infected-participants
#11
Varghese K George, Suresh Pallikkuth, Rajendra Pahwa, Lesley de Armas, Stefano Rinaldi, Li Pan, Savita Pahwa
OBJECTIVE: Antibody responses are often impaired in old age and in HIV+ infection despite virologic control with antiretroviral therapy but innate immunologic determinants are not well understood. DESIGN: Monocytes and natural killer cells were examined for relationships to age, HIV infection and influenza vaccine responses. METHODS: Virologically suppressed HIV+ (n = 139) and HIV- (n = 137) participants classified by age as young (18-39 years), middle-aged (40-59 years) and old (≥60 years) were evaluated preinfluenza and postinfluenza vaccination...
April 19, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680664/upsetting-the-balance-when-viruses-manipulate-cell-polarity-control
#12
REVIEW
Miranda Thomas, Lawrence Banks
The central importance of cell polarity control is emphasised by the frequency with which it is targeted by many diverse viruses. It is clear that in targeting key polarity control proteins, viruses affect not only host cell polarity, but also influence many cellular processes, including transcription, replication, and innate and acquired immunity. Examination of the interactions of different virus proteins with the cell and its polarity controls during the virus life cycles, and in virally-induced cell transformation shows ever more clearly how intimately all cellular processes are linked to the control of cell polarity...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679564/frequencies-and-expression-levels-of-programmed-death-ligand-1-pd-l1-in-circulating-tumor-rna-ctrna-in-various-cancer-types
#13
Toshiyuki Ishiba, Andreas-Claudius Hoffmann, Joshua Usher, Yahya Elshimali, Todd Sturdevant, Mai Dang, Yolanda Jaimes, Rama Tyagi, Ronald Gonzalez, Mary Grino, Jacek K Pinski, Afsaneh Barzi, Luis E Raez, Wilfried E Eberhardt, Dirk Theegarten, Heinz-Josef Lenz, Hiroyuki Uetake, Peter V Danenberg, Kathleen Danenberg
BACKGROUND: Precision medicine and prediction of therapeutic response requires monitoring potential biomarkers before and after treatment. Liquid biopsies provide noninvasive prognostic markers such as circulating tumor DNA and RNA. Circulating tumor RNA (ctRNA) in blood is also used to identify mutations in genes of interest, but additionally, provides information about relative expression levels of important genes. In this study, we analyzed PD-L1 expression in ctRNA isolated from various cancer types...
April 18, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679417/a-probiotic-modulates-the-microbiome-and-immunity-in-multiple-sclerosis
#14
Stephanie K Tankou, Keren Regev, Brian C Healy, Emily Tjon, Luca Laghi, Laura M Cox, Pia Kivisäkk, Isabelle V Pierre, Hrishikesh Lokhande, Roopali Gandhi, Sandra Cook, Bonnie Glanz, James Stankiewicz, Howard L Weiner
OBJECTIVE: Effect of a probiotic on the gut microbiome and peripheral immune function in healthy controls and relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients. METHODS: MS patients (N=9) and controls (N=13) were orally administered a probiotic containing Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Streptococcus twice daily for two months. Blood and stool specimens were collected at baseline, after completion of the 2-month treatment, and 3 months after discontinuation of therapy...
April 20, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679172/pseudospin-dependent-one-way-transmission-in-graphene-based-topological-plasmonic-crystals
#15
Pingping Qiu, Weibin Qiu, Junbo Ren, Zhili Lin, Zeyu Wang, Jia-Xian Wang, Qiang Kan, Jiao-Qing Pan
Originating from the investigation of condensed matter states, the concept of quantum Hall effect and quantum spin Hall effect (QSHE) has recently been expanded to other field of physics and engineering, e.g., photonics and phononics, giving rise to strikingly unconventional edge modes immune to scattering. Here, we present the plasmonic analog of QSHE in graphene plasmonic crystal (GPC) in mid-infrared frequencies. The band inversion occurs when deforming the honeycomb lattice GPCs, which further leads to the topological band gaps and pseudospin features of the edge states...
April 20, 2018: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678797/subtle-differences-in-selective-pressures-applied-on-the-envelope-gene-of-hiv-1-in-pregnant-versus-non-pregnant-women
#16
Doris G Ransy, Etienne Lord, Martine Caty, Normand Lapointe, Marc Boucher, Abdoulaye Baniré Diallo, Hugo Soudeyns
Pregnancy is associated with modulations of maternal immunity that contribute to foeto-maternal tolerance. To understand whether and how these alterations impact antiviral immunity, a detailed cross-sectional analysis of selective pressures exerted on HIV-1 envelope amino-acid sequences was performed in a group of pregnant (n = 32) and non-pregnant (n = 44) HIV-infected women in absence of treatment with antiretroviral therapy (ART). Independent of HIV-1 subtype, p-distance, dN and dS were all strongly correlated with one another but were not significantly different in pregnant as compared to non-pregnant patients...
April 17, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677841/analog-figure-of-merits-comparison-of-gate-workfunction-variability-and-random-discrete-dopant-between-inversion-mode-and-junctionless-nanowire-fets
#17
Jiwon Kim, Hyeongwan Oh, Bo Jin, Rock-Hyun Baek, Jeong-Soo Lee
The analog figure-of-merits (FOMs) of conventional inversion-mode (IM) and junctionless (JL) NanoWire Field Effect Transistor (NWFET) have been investigated, considering the gate Work-Function Variability (WFV) and Random Discrete Dopant (RDD) using 3-dimensional (3D) TCAD simulation. While the JL-NWFET shows higher immune to WFV on analog FOMs, it can be easily affected by RDD due to higher channel doping level. On the other hand, the IM-NWFET shows stronger correlation between transconductance (gm) and gate capacitance (Cgg), leading to similar variation in cut-off frequency (ft) even though it shows larger gm and Cgg variation compared to JL-NWFET...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677601/indirect-detection-of-10-b-i-3-overtone-nmr-at-very-fast-magic-angle-spinning
#18
Nghia Tuan Duong, Ilya Kuprov, Yusuke Nishiyama
The application of overtone nuclear magnetic resonance (OT NMR) to symmetric spin transitions of integer quadrupolar nuclei is of considerable interest since this transition is immune to the first-order quadrupolar interaction, thus resulting in narrow NMR lines. Owing to its roles in nature and its high natural abundance, 14 N (I = 1) OT NMR has been explored, in which the indirect and/or direct acquisitions of 14 N OT were experimentally demonstrated. However, other than 14 N nucleus, no OT NMR observation of other integer quadrupolar nuclei has been reported in the literature...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676593/icos-costimulation-differentially-affects-t-cells-in-secondary-lymphoid-organs-and-inflamed-tissues
#19
Dana Vu Van, Laura Bauer, Richard A Kroczek, Andreas Hutloff
B cell interaction with follicular helper T cells and their subsequent differentiation into high-affinity antibody producing cells normally takes place in secondary lymphoid organs. The costimulator ICOS plays a key role in this process and is therefore considered as an attractive target to modulate exaggerated B cell responses in autoimmune or allergic diseases. Inflamed tissues were recently recognized as additional sites of active T cell/B cell interaction. To analyze whether ICOS costimulation is also important there, we employed a mouse airway inflammation model which allows to directly compare immune reactions in the lung-draining lymph node and the lung tissue and also to assess the relative importance of dendritic cells versus B cells as antigen-presenting cells...
April 20, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676154/topological-magnon-modes-in-patterned-ferrimagnetic-insulator-thin-films
#20
Yun-Mei Li, Jiang Xiao, Kai Chang
Manipulation of magnons opens an attractive direction in the future energy-efficient information processing devices. Such quasi-particles can transfer and process information free from the troublesome Ohmic loss in conventional electronic devices. Here, we propose to realize topologically protected magnon modes using the interface between the patterned ferrimagnetic insulator thin films of different configurations without the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. The interface thus behaves like a perfect waveguide to conduct the magnon modes lying in the band gap...
April 20, 2018: Nano Letters
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