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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473686/alternative-th17-and-cd4-cd25-foxp3-cells-frequency-increase-and-correlate-with-worse-cardiac-function-in-chagas-cardiomyopathy
#1
Mariana S Almeida, Virginia M B Lorena, Carolina de Araújo Medeiros, Wilson Oliveira Junior, Maria da Glória A M Cavalcanti, Silvia M Martins, Clarice N L de Morais
Immune homeostasis has been suggested to play an important role in the clinical evolution of chronic Chagas disease, however, the immunopathologic factors involved haven't been fully elucidated. Therefore, our study aimed to analyze the frequency of CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ cells, classic Th17 cells, alternative Th17 cells and IL-17+ B cells from peripheral blood of chronic cardiac patients after in vitro stimulation with Trypanosoma cruzi soluble EPI antigen. Patients were selected and classified according to clinical evaluation of cardiac involvement: mild, B1 (CARD1) (n = 20), and severe, C (CARD2) (n = 11)...
February 23, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472618/hif-1%C3%AE-hampers-dendritic-cell-function-and-th1-generation-during-chronic-visceral-leishmaniasis
#2
Akil Hammami, Belma Melda Abidin, Krista M Heinonen, Simona Stäger
Inflammation, although responsible for controlling infection, is often associated with the pathogenesis of chronic diseases. Leishmania donovani, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis, induces a strong inflammatory response that leads to splenomegaly and ultimately immune suppression. Inflamed tissues are typically characterized by low levels of oxygen, a microenvironment that triggers the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor 1α (HIF-1α). Although HIF-1α plays an integral role in dendritic cell function, its involvement in the generation of protective Th1 responses against Leishmania has not yet been studied...
February 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472270/crispr-rnas-trigger-innate-immune-responses-in-human-cells
#3
Sojung Kim, Taeyoung Koo, Hyeon-Gun Jee, Hee-Yeon Cho, Gyeorae Lee, Dong-Gyun Lim, Hyoung Shik Shin, Jin-Soo Kim
Here, we report that CRISPR guide RNAs (gRNAs) with a 5'-triphosphate group (5'-ppp gRNAs) produced via in vitro transcription trigger RNA-sensing innate immune responses in human and murine cells, leading to cytotoxicity. 5'-ppp gRNAs in the cytosol are recognized by DDX58, which in turn activates type I interferon responses, causing up to ∼80% cell death. We show that the triphosphate group can be removed by a phosphatase in vitro and that the resulting 5'-hydroxyl gRNAs in complex with Cas9 or Cpf1 avoid innate immune responses and can achieve targeted mutagenesis at a frequency of 95% in primary human CD4+ T cells...
February 22, 2018: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471919/dupilumab-a-review-of-its-use-in-the-treatment-of-atopic-dermatitis
#4
Melinda J Gooderham, H Chih-Ho Hong, Panteha Eshtiaghi, Kim A Papp
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, pruritic immune-mediated inflammatory dermatosis characterized by a T helper 2 (Th2) immune response phenotype and may be associated with systemic inflammation. Dupilumab is an interleukin 4 (IL-4) receptor α-antagonist that inhibits IL-4 and IL-13 signaling through blockade of the shared IL-4α subunit. Blockade of IL-4/13 is effective in reducing Th2 response. Dupilumab has recently been approved in the United States and Europe for the treatment of adult patients with moderate-to-severe AD...
March 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471777/spontaneous-and-drug-induced-arteritis-polyarteritis-in-the-g%C3%A3-ttingen-minipig-review
#5
Zuhal Dincer, Virginie Piccicuto, Ursula Junker Walker, Andreas Mahl, Sean McKeag
Arteritis/polyarteritis occurs spontaneously in many species used in preclinical toxicology studies. In Göttingen minipigs, arteritis/polyarteritis is an occasionally observed background change. In the minipig, this finding differs in frequency and nature from age-related polyarteritis nodosa in rats or monkeys, and Beagle pain syndrome in dogs. In minipigs, it can be present in a single small- or medium-sized artery of an organ or a few organs and is most commonly recorded in the cardiac and extracardiac blood vessels, vagina, oviduct, rectum, epididymis, spinal cord, pancreas, urinary bladder, kidneys, and stomach...
February 2018: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471387/heavy-cannabis-use-associated-with-reduction-in-activated-and-inflammatory-immune-cell-frequencies-in-antiretroviral-therapy-treated-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-individuals
#6
Jennifer A Manuzak, Toni M Gott, Jay S Kirkwood, Ernesto Coronado, Tiffany Hensley-McBain, Charlene Miller, Ryan K Cheu, Ann C Collier, Nicholas T Funderburg, Jeffery N Martin, Michael C Wu, Nina Isoherranen, Peter W Hunt, Nichole R Klatt
Background: Cannabis is a widely used drug in the United States, and the frequency of cannabis use in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected population is disproportionately high. Previous human and macaque studies suggest that cannabis may have an impact on plasma viral load; however, the relationship between cannabis use and HIV-associated systemic inflammation and immune activation has not been well defined. Methods: The impact of cannabis use on peripheral immune cell frequency, activation, and function was assessed in 198 HIV-infected, antiretroviral-treated individuals by flow cytometry...
February 17, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469871/comb-referenced-frequency-sweeping-interferometry-for-precisely-measuring-large-stepped-structures
#7
Weipeng Zhang, Haoyun Wei, Honglei Yang, Xuejian Wu, Yan Li
A precise 3D surface measurement method for large stepped structures without height ambiguity is proposed based on optical-frequency-comb-referenced frequency-sweeping interferometry and Fourier-transformed fractional phase retrieval. Unlike other interferometry that depends on the absolute phase value for several certain wavelengths, this method obtains results from the phase change during frequency sweeping and thus remains free from the confined non-ambiguity range. By reference to an optical frequency comb, the relative uncertainty from the tunable laser frequency was reduced by three orders of magnitude, and the sweeping frequency range can be precisely determined...
February 10, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468162/short-term-oral-antibiotics-treatment-promotes-inflammatory-activation-of-colonic-invariant-natural-killer-t-and-conventional-cd4-t-cells
#8
Claudia Burrello, Federica Garavaglia, Fulvia Milena Cribiù, Giulia Ercoli, Silvano Bosari, Flavio Caprioli, Federica Facciotti
The gut mucosa is continuously exposed to a vast community of microorganisms, collectively defined as microbiota, establishing a mutualistic relationship with the host and contributing to shape the immune system. Gut microbiota is acquired at birth, and its composition is relatively stable during the entire adult life. Intestinal dysbiosis, defined as a microbial imbalance of gut bacterial communities, can be caused by several factors, including bacterial infections and antibiotic use, and has been associated with an increased risk to develop or exacerbate immune-mediated pathologies, such as allergic reactions, asthma, and inflammatory bowel diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467767/identification-of-casz1-as-a-regulatory-protein-controlling-t-helper-cell-differentiation-inflammation-and-immunity
#9
Natarajan Bhaskaran, Zhihui Liu, Senthil S Saravanamuthu, Chunhua Yan, Ying Hu, Lijin Dong, Peggy Zelenka, Lixin Zheng, Vassili Bletsos, Rachel Harris, Brenna Harrington, Aaron Weinberg, Carol J Thiele, Fengchun Ye, Pushpa Pandiyan
While T helper (Th) cells play a crucial role in host defense, an imbalance in Th effector subsets due to dysregulation in their differentiation and expansion contribute to inflammatory disorders. Here, we show that Casz1, whose function is previously unknown in CD4+ T cells, coordinates Th differentiation in vitro and in vivo . Casz1 deficiency in CD4+ T cells lowers susceptibility to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, consistent with the reduced frequency of Th17 cells, despite an increase in Th1 cells in mice...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467445/vaccine-induced-antigen-specific-regulatory-t-cells-attenuate-the-antiviral-immunity-against-acute-influenza-virus-infection
#10
Pin-Hung Lin, Weng-In Wong, Yi-Lan Wang, Meng-Ping Hsieh, Chia-Wen Lu, Chieh-Yu Liang, Sung-Hsiang Jui, Fang-Yi Wu, Pei-Jer Chen, Hung-Chih Yang
Peptide-based T cell vaccines targeting the conserved epitopes of influenza virus can provide cross-protection against distantly related strains, but they are generally not immunogenic. Foreign antigen-specific regulatory T (Treg) cells are induced under subimmunogenic conditions peripherally, although their development and role in vaccine-mediated antiviral immunity is unclear. Here, we demonstrated primary vaccination with peptides alone significantly induced antigen-specific Foxp3+ Treg cells, which were further expanded by repeated vaccination with unadjuvanted peptides...
February 21, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467190/examination-of-signatures-of-recent-positive-selection-on-genes-involved-in-human-sialic-acid-biology
#11
Jiyun M Moon, David M Aronoff, John A Capra, Patrick Abbot, Antonis Rokas
Sialic acids are nine carbon sugars ubiquitously found on the surfaces of vertebrate cells and are involved in various immune response-related processes. In humans, at least 58 genes spanning diverse functions, from biosynthesis and activation to recycling and degradation, are involved in sialic acid biology. Because of their role in immunity, sialic acid biology genes have been hypothesized to exhibit elevated rates of evolutionary change. Consistent with this hypothesis, several genes involved in sialic acid biology have experienced higher rates of non-synonymous substitutions in the human lineage than their counterparts in other great apes, perhaps in response to ancient pathogens that infected hominins millions of years ago (paleopathogens)...
February 21, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464038/the-influence-of-chemotherapy-on-adenosine-producing-b-cells-in-patients-with-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#12
Andreas Ziebart, Ulrich Huber, Sandra Jeske, Simon Laban, Johannes Doescher, Thomas K Hoffmann, Cornelia Brunner, Edwin K Jackson, Patrick J Schuler
Introduction: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) strongly suppresses the immune system, resulting in increased metastasis and recurrent disease. Chemotherapy is part of the multimodal treatment but may further immunosuppression. Recently, we demonstrated that regulatory B cells (Breg), defined as CD19+ CD39+ CD73+ B cells, play a significant role in the production of immunosuppressive, extracellular adenosine (ADO). Here, we tested the influence of chemotherapy on Breg function...
January 19, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462103/hospital-maternal-and-birth-factors-associated-with-hepatitis-b-vaccination-at-birth-west-virginia-2015
#13
Joel Massey, Anil Nair, Stephanie Dietz, Deborah Snaman, Danae Bixler
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a bloodborne pathogen typically transmitted through sexual contact, injection drug use, or perinatally. A hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) is available; the first dose is recommended at birth. We sought to identify hospital policy, maternal characteristics, and birth factors associated with HepB receipt at birth in West Virginia (WV). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of WV live births in 2015 using vital records matched to immunization registry records to determine frequency of HepB birth dose receipt (<3 days postdelivery)...
February 16, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461967/effects-of-lifelong-training-on-senescence-and-mobilization-of-t-lymphocytes-in-response-to-acute-exercise
#14
Luciele G Minuzzi, Luís Rama, Matheus Uba Chupel, Fátima Rosado, João Valente Dos Santos, Richard Simpson, António Martinho, Artur Paiva, Ana M Teixeira
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Ageing has profound impact on the immune system, mainly on T-cells. However, it has been suggested that chronic exercise may delay immunosenescence. Master athletes represent an interesting sub-demographic group to test this theory since they maintain a high training frequency and load throughout life. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of lifelong training on the senescence and mobilization of T lymphocytes in response to acute exercise. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Nineteen athletes who regularly participated in training and competitions for more than 20 years throughout their lives and a control group of 10 healthy individuals participated in this study...
2018: Exercise Immunology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461919/persistence-of-immune-response-to-an-adjuvanted-varicella-zoster-virus-subunit-vaccine-for-up-to-year-nine-in-older-adults
#15
Tino F Schwarz, Stephanie Volpe, Gregory Catteau, Roman Chlibek, Marie Pierre David, Jan Hendrik Richardus, Himal Lal, Lidia Oostvogels, Karlis Pauksens, Stephanie Ravault, Lars Rombo, Gerard Sonder, Jan Smetana, Thomas Heineman, Adriana Bastidas
BACKGROUND: In adults aged ≥60 years, two doses of the herpes zoster subunit vaccine (HZ/su; 50µg varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein E [gE] and AS01B Adjuvant System) elicited humoral and cell-mediated immune responses persisting for at least six years. We assessed immunogenicity nine years post-initial vaccination. METHODS: This open extension study (NCT02735915) followed 70 participants who received two HZ/su doses in the initial trial (NCT00434577). Blood samples to assess the cellular (intracellular cytokine staining) and humoral (ELISA) immunity were taken at year nine post-initial vaccination...
February 20, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460050/imaging-of-cytotoxic-antiviral-immunity-while-considering-the-3r-principle-of-animal-research
#16
Lucas Otto, Gennadiy Zelinskyy, Marc Schuster, Ulf Dittmer, Matthias Gunzer
Adoptive cell transfer approaches for antigen-specific CD8+ T cells are used widely to study their effector potential during infections or cancer. However, contemporary methodological adaptations regarding transferred cell numbers, advanced imaging, and the 3R principle of animal research have been largely omitted. Here, we introduce an improved cell transfer method that reduces the number of donor animals substantially and fulfills the requirements for intravital imaging under physiological conditions. For this, we analyzed the well-established Friend retrovirus (FV) mouse model...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459861/in-depth-analysis-of-human-neonatal-and-adult-igm-antibody-repertoires
#17
Binbin Hong, Yanling Wu, Wei Li, Xun Wang, Yumei Wen, Shibo Jiang, Dimiter S Dimitrov, Tianlei Ying
Although high-throughput sequencing and associated bioinformatics technologies have enabled the in-depth, sequence-based characterization of human immune repertoires, only a few studies on a relatively small number of sequences explored the characteristics of antibody repertoires in neonates, with contradictory conclusions. To gain a more comprehensive understanding of the human IgM antibody repertoire, we performed Illumina sequencing and IMGT/HighV-QUEST analysis of IgM heavy chain repertoire of the B lymphocytes from the cord blood (CB) of neonates, as well as the repertoire from peripheral blood of healthy human adults (HH)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459428/attenuation-of-nk-cells-facilitates-mammary-tumor-growth-in-stz-induced-diabetes-in-mice
#18
Nevena Gajovic, Milena Jurisevic, Jelena Pantic, Gordana D Radosavljevic, Nebojsa Arsenijevic, Miodrag Lukic, Ivan Jovanovic
Diabetic patients have higher incidence and mortality of cancer. Recent study revealed that hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress is involved in the acceleration of tumor metastasis. We used model of high dose streptozotocin-induced diabetes to investigate its effect on tumor growth and modulation of antitumor immune response of 4T1 murine breast cancer in BALB/c mice. Diabetes accelerated tumor appearance, growth and weight, which was associated with decreased NK cells cytotoxicity against 4T1 tumor cells in vitro...
February 19, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458338/association-of-matrix-metalloprotease-1-3-and-12-polymorphisms-with-rheumatic-heart-disease-in-a-chinese-han-population
#19
Wei Hu, Yujia Ye, Yirui Yin, Peng Sang, Linhua Li, Jing Wang, Wen Wan, Rui Li, Xiangfeng Bai, Yuehui Xie, Zhaohui Meng
BACKGROUND: Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is an autoimmune disease triggered by acute rheumatic fever (ARF). Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play an important role in the modulation of immune responses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of MMP1, 3, and 12 promoter polymorphisms with RHD in a Han population in Southern China since the 3 genes are localized on the same chromosome and have a combined effect. METHODS: DNA samples were obtained from 90 adult patients with RHD and 90 control subjects...
February 20, 2018: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458220/incidence-of-autoimmune-and-related-disorders-after-resolution-of-endogenous-cushing-syndrome-in-children
#20
Christina Tatsi, Meg Keil, Charalampos Lyssikatos, Elena Belyavskaya, Constantine A Stratakis, Maya B Lodish
Glucocorticoids are widely used for immunosuppression in autoimmune diseases. After the resolution of hypercortisolemia, the immune system recovers allowing for autoimmune diseases to manifest. Here we investigated the presence of autoimmune and related diseases that developed after cure of endogenous Cushing syndrome (CS) in children. We identified 129 children who were diagnosed and successfully treated for endogenous CS at the National Institutes of Health from 1997 until 2017, and who were followed for at least 6 months after treatment...
February 19, 2018: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
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