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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895155/investigations-of-glucocorticoid-action-in-gn
#1
Christoph Kuppe, Claudia van Roeyen, Katja Leuchtle, Nazanin Kabgani, Michael Vogt, Marc Van Zandvoort, Bart Smeets, Jürgen Floege, Hermann-Josef Gröne, Marcus J Moeller
For several decades, glucocorticoids have been used empirically to treat rapid progressive GN. It is commonly assumed that glucocorticoids act primarily by dampening the immune response, but the mechanisms remain incompletely understood. In this study, we inactivated the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) specifically in kidney epithelial cells using Pax8-Cre/GR(fl/fl) mice. Pax8-Cre/GR(fl/fl) mice did not exhibit an overt spontaneous phenotype. In mice treated with nephrotoxic serum to induce crescentic nephritis (rapidly progressive GN), this genetic inactivation of the GR in kidney epithelial cells exerted renal benefits, including inhibition of albuminuria and cellular crescent formation, similar to the renal benefits observed with high-dose prednisolone in control mice...
November 28, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873093/fatty-acids-in-a-high-fat-diet-potentially-induce-gastric-parietal-cell-damage-and-metaplasia-in-mice
#2
Yuki Hirata, Takuhito Sezaki, Miwa Tamura-Nakano, Chinatsu Oyama, Teruki Hagiwara, Takamasa Ishikawa, Shinji Fukuda, Kazuhiko Yamada, Kazuhide Higuchi, Taeko Dohi, Yuki I Kawamura
BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with risk of adenocarcinoma in the proximal stomach. We aimed to identify the links between dietary fat and gastric premalignant lesions. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were fed high fat diet (HFD), and gastric mucosa was histologically analysed. Morphological changes were also analysed using an electron microscope. Transcriptome analysis of purified parietal cells was performed, and non-parietal gastric corpus epithelial cells were subjected to single-cell gene-expression profiling...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852932/epididymis-like-tubules-in-adult-renal-hypodysplasia-immunohistochemical-features-indicate-a-mesonephric-origin
#3
Madhavi A Naik, Sanjay A Pai
We report the presence of epididymis-like tubules in unilateral renal hypodysplasia in 3 adult men. Microscopy showed dilated tubules lined by ciliated columnar epithelium and smaller basal cells, morphologically resembling epididymal tubules. Small tubules lined by cuboidal epithelium were also present in all cases, with glomeruli in 2 cases. The epididymis-like tubules expressed CD10, CK7, PAX8, and AR in the luminal epithelium, while the basal cells were positive for p63, CK7, and focally for CD10. The smooth muscle bundles around the epididymis-like tubules were focally AR and WT1 (cytoplasmic) positive...
November 16, 2016: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766298/epithelial-regeneration-after-gastric-ulceration-causes-prolonged-cell-type-alterations
#4
Eitaro Aihara, Andrea L Matthis, Rebekah A Karns, Kristen A Engevik, Peihua Jiang, Jiang Wang, Bruce R Yacyshyn, Marshall H Montrose
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The peptic ulcer heals through a complex process, although the ulcer relapse often occurs several years later after healing. Our hypothesis is that even after visual evidence of healing of gastric ulceration, the regenerated epithelium is aberrant for an extended interval, increasing susceptibility of the regenerated epithelium to damage and further diseases. METHODS: Gastric ulcers were induced in mice by serosal topical application of acetic acid...
September 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756386/helicobacter-suis-affects-the-health-and-function-of-porcine-gastric-parietal-cells
#5
Guangzhi Zhang, Richard Ducatelle, Belgacem Mihi, Annemieke Smet, Bram Flahou, Freddy Haesebrouck
The stomach of pigs at slaughter age is often colonized by Helicobacter (H.) suis, which is also the most prevalent gastric non-H. pylori Helicobacter (NHPH) species in humans. It is associated with chronic gastritis, gastric ulceration and other gastric pathological changes in both hosts. Parietal cells are highly specialized, terminally differentiated epithelial cells responsible for gastric acid secretion and regulation. Dysfunction of these cells is closely associated with gastric pathology and disease...
October 19, 2016: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750091/hedgehog-signaling-in-the-stomach
#6
Daniel Konstantinou, Nina Bertaux-Skeirik, Yana Zavros
The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway not only plays a key part in controlling embryonic development, but in the adult stomach governs important cellular events such as epithelial cell differentiation, proliferation, gastric disease, and regeneration. In particular, Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling has been well studied for its role in gastric physiology and pathophysiology. Shh is secreted from the gastric parietal cells and contributes to the regeneration of the epithelium in response to injury, or the development of gastritis during Helicobacter pylori infection...
October 14, 2016: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744657/pathogenesis-of-focal-segmental-glomerulosclerosis
#7
REVIEW
Beom Jin Lim, Jae Won Yang, Woo Sung Do, Agnes B Fogo
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is characterized by focal and segmental obliteration of glomerular capillary tufts with increased matrix. FSGS is classified as collapsing, tip, cellular, perihilar and not otherwise specified variants according to the location and character of the sclerotic lesion. Primary or idiopathic FSGS is considered to be related to podocyte injury, and the pathogenesis of podocyte injury has been actively investigated. Several circulating factors affecting podocyte permeability barrier have been proposed, but not proven to cause FSGS...
November 2016: Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717330/role-of-vitamin-d3-combined-to-alginates-in-preventing-acid-and-oxidative-injury-in-cultured-gastric-epithelial-cells
#8
Francesca Uberti, Claudio Bardelli, Vera Morsanuto, Sabrina Ghirlanda, Claudio Molinari
BACKGROUND: Gastric diseases are a worldwide problem in modern society, as reported in the USA, in the range of 0.5-2 episodes/year/person and an incidence of 5-100 episodes/1000/week according to seasons and age. There is convincing evidence that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of acute gastric injury. Acid secreted from gastric parietal cells determines mucosal injuries which in turn cause inflammation and oxidative stress. Consequent inflammation produces free radicals by mitochondria thus causing lipid peroxidation, oxidative and acidic stress, which can lead to cell apoptosis...
October 7, 2016: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695940/immunohistochemical-and-electronmicroscopic-features-of-mesenchymal-to-epithelial-transition-in-human-developing-postnatal-and-nephrotic-podocytes
#9
Natalija Filipovic, Katarina Vukojevic, Ivana Bocina, Marijan Saraga, Merica Glavina Durdov, Boris Kablar, Mirna Saraga-Babic
Differentiation of human podocytes starts with mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET) of the metanephric mesenchyme into the S-shaped nephrons. During further development, differentiating podocytes regain mesenchyme-like cell characteristics by epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), leading to formation of the terminally differentiated, non-dividing cell. Both MET and EMT processes involve changes in content and organization of cytoskeletal and actin filaments, accompanied by the increased glomerular vascularization...
October 1, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683034/intraglomerular-crosstalk-elaborately-regulates-podocyte-injury-and-repair-in-diabetic-patients-insights-from-a-3d-multiscale-modeling-study
#10
Hua Tan, Hualin Yi, Weiling Zhao, Jian-Xing Ma, Yuanyuan Zhang, Xiaobo Zhou
Podocytes are mainly involved in the regulation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) under physiological condition. Podocyte depletion is a crucial pathological alteration in diabetic nephropathy (DN) and results in a broad spectrum of clinical syndromes such as protein urine and renal insufficiency. Recent studies indicate that depleted podocytes can be regenerated via differentiation of the parietal epithelial cells (PECs), which serve as the local progenitors of podocytes. However, the podocyte regeneration process is regulated by a complicated mechanism of cell-cell interactions and cytokine stimulations, which has been studied in a piecemeal manner rather than systematically...
September 24, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677082/podocyte-and-parietal-epithelial-cell-interactions-in-health-and-disease
#11
Turki Al Hussain, Hadeel Al Mana, Maged H Hussein, Mohammed Akhtar
The glomerulus has 3 resident cells namely mesangial cells that produce the mesangial matrix, endothelial cells that line the glomerular capillaries, and podocytes that cover the outer surface of the glomerular basement membrane. Parietal epithelial cells (PrECs), which line the Bowman's capsule are not part of the glomerular tuft but may have an important role in the normal function of the glomerulus. A significant progress has been made in recent years regarding our understanding of the role and function of these cells in normal kidney and in kidneys with various types of glomerulopathy...
September 26, 2016: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27463800/up-regulation-of-cd74-expression-in-parietal-epithelial-cells-in-a-mouse-model-of-focal-segmental-glomerulosclerosis
#12
Takeshi Yamazaki, Satoshi Sasaki, Takayuki Okamoto, Yasuyuki Sato, Asako Hayashi, Tadashi Ariga
BACKGROUND/AIMS: De novo expression of CD44 is considered as a marker of parietal epithelial cell (PEC) activation. The aim of our study was to explore CD74 expression, which can form a complex with CD44, in PECs during the progression of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). To clarify the role of CD74 expression and of its interaction with CD44, we generated a new mouse model with enhanced PEC activation through lipopolysaccharide (LPS) application to adriamycin (ADR)-induced nephropathy mice (LPS-treated ADR mice)...
July 28, 2016: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27447751/troy-is-expressed-in-human-stomach-mucosa-and-a-novel-putative-prognostic-marker-of-intestinal-type-gastric-cancer
#13
Franziska Wilhelm, Christine Böger, Sandra Krüger, Hans-Michael Behrens, Christoph Röcken
Epithelial stem cells of gastrointestinal tissues are characterized and controlled by an active Wnt signaling. Recently, the Wnt target gene Troy has been proposed as a neoplastic marker in the murine intestine. In this study, we explored the putative tumor biological significance of Troy in humans by using immunohistochemistry (104 cases), quantitative RT-PCR (50 cases) and cell culture experiments (MKN45, MKN74). In the non-neoplastic gastric mucosa, Troy was expressed by Muc5AC-positive foveolar epithelium, parietal cells, chief cells and cells of the intestinal metaplasia...
July 18, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27443522/zika-virus-targets-different-primary-human-placental-cells-suggesting-two-routes-for-vertical-transmission
#14
Takako Tabata, Matthew Petitt, Henry Puerta-Guardo, Daniela Michlmayr, Chunling Wang, June Fang-Hoover, Eva Harris, Lenore Pereira
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy is linked to severe birth defects, but mother-to-fetus transmission routes are unknown. We infected different primary cell types from mid- and late-gestation placentas and explants from first-trimester chorionic villi with the prototype Ugandan and a recently isolated Nicaraguan ZIKV strain. ZIKV infects primary human placental cells and explants-cytotrophoblasts, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and Hofbauer cells in chorionic villi and amniotic epithelial cells and trophoblast progenitors in amniochorionic membranes-that express Axl, Tyro3, and/or TIM1 viral entry cofactors...
August 10, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27440779/reducing-mtor-augments-parietal-epithelial-cell-density-in-a-model-of-acute-podocyte-depletion-and-in-aged-kidneys
#15
Bairbre A McNicholas, Diana G Eng, Julia Lichtnekert, Peter S Rabinowitz, Jeffrey W Pippin, Stuart J Shankland
Parietal epithelial cell (PEC) response to glomerular injury may underlie a common pathway driving fibrogenesis following podocyte loss that typifies several glomerular disorders. Although the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is important in cell homeostasis, little is known of the biological role or impact of reducing mTOR activity on PEC response following podocyte depletion, nor in the aging kidney. The purpose of these studies was to determine the impact on PECs of reducing mTOR activity following abrupt experimental depletion in podocyte number, as well as in a model of chronic podocyte loss and sclerosis associated with aging...
September 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27439460/cholangiocarcinoma-associated-with-limbic-encephalitis-and-early-cerebral-abnormalities-detected-by-2-deoxy-2-fluorine-18-fluoro-d-glucose-integrated-with-computed-tomography-positron-emission-tomography-a-case-report
#16
Sergio L Schmidt, Juliana J Schmidt, Julio C Tolentino, Carlos G Ferreira, Sergio A de Almeida, Regina P Alvarenga, Eunice N Simoes, Guilherme J Schmidt, Nathalie H S Canedo, Leila Chimelli
BACKGROUND: Limbic encephalitis was originally described as a rare clinical neuropathological entity involving seizures and neuropsychological disturbances. In this report, we describe cerebral patterns visualized by positron emission tomography in a patient with limbic encephalitis and cholangiocarcinoma. To our knowledge, there is no other description in the literature of cerebral positron emission tomography findings in the setting of limbic encephalitis and subsequent diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma...
2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27417956/clinical-aspects-of-wt1-and-the-kidney
#17
Eve Miller-Hodges
For more than 30 years, WT1 mutations have been associated with complex developmental syndromes involving the kidney. Acting as a transcription factor, WT1 is expressed throughout the nephron and controls the reciprocal interactions and phenotypic changes required for normal renal development. In the adult, WT1 expression remains extremely high in the renal podocyte, and at a lower level in the parietal epithelial cells. Wt1-null mice are unable to form kidneys [1]. Unsurprisingly, WT1 mutations lead to significant abnormalities of the renal and genitourinary tract, causing a number of human diseases including syndromes such as Denys-Drash syndrome, Frasier syndrome, and WAGR syndrome...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27345360/a-previously-unrecognized-role-of-c3a-in-proteinuric-progressive-nephropathy
#18
Marina Morigi, Monica Locatelli, Cinzia Rota, Simona Buelli, Daniela Corna, Paola Rizzo, Mauro Abbate, Debora Conti, Luca Perico, Lorena Longaretti, Ariela Benigni, Carlamaria Zoja, Giuseppe Remuzzi
Podocyte loss is the initial event in the development of glomerulosclerosis, the structural hallmark of progressive proteinuric nephropathies. Understanding mechanisms underlying glomerular injury is the key challenge for identifying novel therapeutic targets. In mice with protein-overload induced by bovine serum albumin (BSA), we evaluated whether the alternative pathway (AP) of complement mediated podocyte depletion and podocyte-dependent parietal epithelial cell (PEC) activation causing glomerulosclerosis...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27338724/mucin-profiles-of-the-abomasum-in-bulls-and-rams-a-comparative-study
#19
Zelal Karakoç, Hakan Sağsöz, Muzaffer Aydın Ketani
Many pathogens require direct binding to mucosal cells to cause an infection. The mucosal epithelium of the digestive tract, which is covered by a mucin layer, fulfills several protective functions that are essential to maintaining the health of the digestive tract. Mucins are glycoproteins, which are found on membranes and in mucus gels and protect the underlying mucosal cells. Both membrane-associated mucins and secreted mucins are critical components of mucosal defense. The aim of this study was to determine the localization and expression of mucin profile of the abomasum via histochemistry and immunohistochemistry...
September 2016: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27271669/an-overview-of-helicobacter-pylori-vaca-toxin-biology
#20
REVIEW
Nora J Foegeding, Rhonda R Caston, Mark S McClain, Melanie D Ohi, Timothy L Cover
The VacA toxin secreted by Helicobacter pylori enhances the ability of the bacteria to colonize the stomach and contributes to the pathogenesis of gastric adenocarcinoma and peptic ulcer disease. The amino acid sequence and structure of VacA are unrelated to corresponding features of other known bacterial toxins. VacA is classified as a pore-forming toxin, and many of its effects on host cells are attributed to formation of channels in intracellular sites. The most extensively studied VacA activity is its capacity to stimulate vacuole formation, but the toxin has many additional effects on host cells...
2016: Toxins
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