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parietal epithelial cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063595/the-mitochondrial-targeted-peptide-ss-31-improves-glomerular-architecture-in-mice-of-advanced-age
#1
Mariya T Sweetwyne, Jeffrey W Pippin, Diana G Eng, Kelly L Hudkins, Ying Ann Chiao, Matthew D Campbell, David J Marcinek, Charles E Alpers, Hazel H Szeto, Peter S Rabinovitch, Stuart J Shankland
Although age-associated changes in kidney glomerular architecture have been described in mice and man, the mechanisms are unknown. It is unclear if these changes can be prevented or even reversed by systemic therapies administered at advanced age. Using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, our results showed glomerulosclerosis with injury to mitochondria in glomerular epithelial cells in mice aged 26 months (equivalent to a 79-year-old human). To test the hypothesis that reducing mitochondrial damage in late age would result in lowered glomerulosclerosis, we administered the mitochondrial targeted peptide, SS-31, to aged mice...
January 4, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059052/gastrin-enhances-autophagy-and-promotes-gastric-carcinoma-proliferation-via-inducing-ampk%C3%AE
#2
Zhuang Kun, Guo Hanqing, Tang Hailing, Yan Yuan, Zhang Jun, Zhang Lingxia, Han Kun, Zhang Xin
Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most frequent epithelial malignancies worldwide. The gastrointestinal (GI) peptide gastrin is an important regulator of the secretion and release of gastric acid from stomach parietal cells and it also plays a vital role in the development and progression of gastric cancer. The aim of the current study was to investigate the role and underlying mechanism of gastrin and autophagy in regulating gastric cancer tumorigenesis. Gastrin-17 amide (G-17) was applied in the gastric cancer cell lines SGC7901 and MGC-803...
January 5, 2017: Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052057/wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-promotes-gastric-fundus-specification-in-mice-and-humans
#3
Kyle W McCracken, Eitaro Aihara, Baptiste Martin, Calyn M Crawford, Taylor Broda, Julie Treguier, Xinghao Zhang, John M Shannon, Marshall H Montrose, James M Wells
Despite the global prevalence of gastric disease, there are few adequate models in which to study the fundus epithelium of the human stomach. We differentiated human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) into gastric organoids containing fundic epithelium by first identifying and then recapitulating key events in embryonic fundus development. We found that disruption of Wnt/β-catenin signalling in mouse embryos led to conversion of fundic to antral epithelium, and that β-catenin activation in hPSC-derived foregut progenitors promoted the development of human fundic-type gastric organoids (hFGOs)...
January 4, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012457/identification-of-novel-genetic-markers-for-mouse-yolk-sac-cells-by-using-microarray-analyses
#4
Shinomi Yagi, Nobuyoshi Shiojiri
The mouse embryonic yolk sac consists of a visceral yolk sac (VYS) and parietal yolk sac (PYS), and may function as a materno-fetal exchange system for nutrients and wastes, and physical protector for the embryo/fetus. The present study was undertaken to characterize gene expression of the VYS and PYS endodermal cells, and to identify their novel genetic markers from microarray data. Apoa4, Lrp2, Fxyd2, Slc34a3 and Entpd2 were predominantly expressed in VYS epithelial cells. Gkn2 and Pga5 were selected as markers for PYS cells...
January 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998643/activated-erk1-2-increases-cd44-in-glomerular-parietal-epithelial-cells-leading-to-matrix-expansion
#5
Sebastian S Roeder, Taylor J Barnes, Jonathan S Lee, India Kato, Diana G Eng, Natalya V Kaverina, Maria W Sunseri, Christoph Daniel, Kerstin Amann, Jeffrey W Pippin, Stuart J Shankland
The glycoprotein CD44 is barely detected in normal mouse and human glomeruli, but is increased in glomerular parietal epithelial cells following podocyte injury in focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). To determine the biological role and regulation of CD44 in these cells, we employed an in vivo and in vitro approach. Experimental FSGS was induced in CD44 knockout and wild-type mice with a cytotoxic podocyte antibody. Albuminuria, focal and global glomerulosclerosis (periodic acid-Schiff stain), and collagen IV staining were lower in CD44 knockout compared with wild-type mice with FSGS...
December 17, 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990460/the-development-of-spasmolytic-polypeptide-tff2-expressing-metaplasia-spem-during-gastric-repair-is-absent-in-the-aged-stomach
#6
Amy C Engevik, Rui Feng, Eunyoung Choi, Shana White, Nina Bertaux-Skeirik, Jing Li, Maxime M Mahe, Eitaro Aihara, Li Yang, Betsy DiPasquale, Sunghee Oh, Kristen A Engevik, Andrew S Giraud, Marshall H Montrose, Mario Medvedovic, Michael A Helmrath, James R Goldenring, Yana Zavros
BACKGROUND & AIMS: During aging, physiological changes in the stomach result in more tenuous gastric tissue that is less capable of repairing injury, leading to increased susceptibility to chronic ulceration. Spasmolytic polypeptide/trefoil factor 2-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) is known to emerge after parietal cell loss and during Helicobacter pylori infection, however, its role in gastric ulcer repair is unknown. Therefore, we sought to investigate if SPEM plays a role in epithelial regeneration...
September 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920570/formation-of-tight-junctions-between-neighboring-podocytes-is-an-early-ultrastructural-feature-in-experimental-crescentic-glomerulonephritis
#7
Lena Succar, Ross A Boadle, David C Harris, Gopala K Rangan
PURPOSE: In crescentic glomerulonephritis (CGN), the development of cellular bridges between podocytes and parietal epithelial cells (PECs) triggers glomerular crescent formation. However, the sequential changes in glomerular ultrastructure in CGN are not well defined. This study investigated the time course of glomerular ultrastructure in experimental CGN. METHODS: Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed using kidney samples from rats with nephrotoxic serum nephritis (NSN) from day 1 to day 14...
2016: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917461/intussusceptive-angiogenesis-and-expression-of-tie-receptors-during-porcine-metanephric-kidney-development
#8
Anastasia Logothetidou, Tim Vandecasteele, Els Van Mulken, Kimberley Vandevelde, Pieter Cornillie
Intussusceptive angiogenesis (IA) is required for normal embryonic vascular development. The Tie family of receptors and their ligands, the angiopoietins, play an important role in the growth or regression of blood vessels which are important not only during development but also throughout an organism's life. The presence of IA was investigated in glomerular capillaries of the fetal porcine metanephros using Mercox II resin casts. The first signs of IA were observed in stage III glomeruli. Stage IV and V glomeruli showed numerous signs of aligned pillar formation and their successive merging to delineate the vascular entities...
December 5, 2016: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895155/investigations-of-glucocorticoid-action-in-gn
#9
Christoph Kuppe, Claudia van Roeyen, Katja Leuchtle, Nazanin Kabgani, Michael Vogt, Marc Van Zandvoort, Bart Smeets, Jürgen Floege, Hermann-Josef Gröne, Marcus J Moeller
For several decades, glucocorticoids have been used empirically to treat rapid progressive GN. It is commonly assumed that glucocorticoids act primarily by dampening the immune response, but the mechanisms remain incompletely understood. In this study, we inactivated the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) specifically in kidney epithelial cells using Pax8-Cre/GR(fl/fl) mice. Pax8-Cre/GR(fl/fl) mice did not exhibit an overt spontaneous phenotype. In mice treated with nephrotoxic serum to induce crescentic nephritis (rapidly progressive GN), this genetic inactivation of the GR in kidney epithelial cells exerted renal benefits, including inhibition of albuminuria and cellular crescent formation, similar to the renal benefits observed with high-dose prednisolone in control mice...
November 28, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873093/fatty-acids-in-a-high-fat-diet-potentially-induce-gastric-parietal-cell-damage-and-metaplasia-in-mice
#10
Yuki Hirata, Takuhito Sezaki, Miwa Tamura-Nakano, Chinatsu Oyama, Teruki Hagiwara, Takamasa Ishikawa, Shinji Fukuda, Kazuhiko Yamada, Kazuhide Higuchi, Taeko Dohi, Yuki I Kawamura
BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with risk of adenocarcinoma in the proximal stomach. We aimed to identify the links between dietary fat and gastric premalignant lesions. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were fed high fat diet (HFD), and gastric mucosa was histologically analysed. Morphological changes were also analysed using an electron microscope. Transcriptome analysis of purified parietal cells was performed, and non-parietal gastric corpus epithelial cells were subjected to single-cell gene-expression profiling...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852932/epididymis-like-tubules-in-adult-renal-hypodysplasia-immunohistochemical-features-indicate-a-mesonephric-origin
#11
Madhavi A Naik, Sanjay A Pai
We report the presence of epididymis-like tubules in unilateral renal hypodysplasia in 3 adult men. Microscopy showed dilated tubules lined by ciliated columnar epithelium and smaller basal cells, morphologically resembling epididymal tubules. Small tubules lined by cuboidal epithelium were also present in all cases, with glomeruli in 2 cases. The epididymis-like tubules expressed CD10, CK7, PAX8, and AR in the luminal epithelium, while the basal cells were positive for p63, CK7, and focally for CD10. The smooth muscle bundles around the epididymis-like tubules were focally AR and WT1 (cytoplasmic) positive...
November 16, 2016: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766298/epithelial-regeneration-after-gastric-ulceration-causes-prolonged-cell-type-alterations
#12
Eitaro Aihara, Andrea L Matthis, Rebekah A Karns, Kristen A Engevik, Peihua Jiang, Jiang Wang, Bruce R Yacyshyn, Marshall H Montrose
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The peptic ulcer heals through a complex process, although the ulcer relapse often occurs several years later after healing. Our hypothesis is that even after visual evidence of healing of gastric ulceration, the regenerated epithelium is aberrant for an extended interval, increasing susceptibility of the regenerated epithelium to damage and further diseases. METHODS: Gastric ulcers were induced in mice by serosal topical application of acetic acid...
September 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756386/helicobacter-suis-affects-the-health-and-function-of-porcine-gastric-parietal-cells
#13
Guangzhi Zhang, Richard Ducatelle, Belgacem Mihi, Annemieke Smet, Bram Flahou, Freddy Haesebrouck
The stomach of pigs at slaughter age is often colonized by Helicobacter (H.) suis, which is also the most prevalent gastric non-H. pylori Helicobacter (NHPH) species in humans. It is associated with chronic gastritis, gastric ulceration and other gastric pathological changes in both hosts. Parietal cells are highly specialized, terminally differentiated epithelial cells responsible for gastric acid secretion and regulation. Dysfunction of these cells is closely associated with gastric pathology and disease...
October 19, 2016: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750091/hedgehog-signaling-in-the-stomach
#14
REVIEW
Daniel Konstantinou, Nina Bertaux-Skeirik, Yana Zavros
The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway not only plays a key part in controlling embryonic development, but in the adult stomach governs important cellular events such as epithelial cell differentiation, proliferation, gastric disease, and regeneration. In particular, Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling has been well studied for its role in gastric physiology and pathophysiology. Shh is secreted from the gastric parietal cells and contributes to the regeneration of the epithelium in response to injury, or the development of gastritis during Helicobacter pylori infection...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744657/pathogenesis-of-focal-segmental-glomerulosclerosis
#15
REVIEW
Beom Jin Lim, Jae Won Yang, Woo Sung Do, Agnes B Fogo
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is characterized by focal and segmental obliteration of glomerular capillary tufts with increased matrix. FSGS is classified as collapsing, tip, cellular, perihilar and not otherwise specified variants according to the location and character of the sclerotic lesion. Primary or idiopathic FSGS is considered to be related to podocyte injury, and the pathogenesis of podocyte injury has been actively investigated. Several circulating factors affecting podocyte permeability barrier have been proposed, but not proven to cause FSGS...
November 2016: Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717330/role-of-vitamin-d3-combined-to-alginates-in-preventing-acid-and-oxidative-injury-in-cultured-gastric-epithelial-cells
#16
Francesca Uberti, Claudio Bardelli, Vera Morsanuto, Sabrina Ghirlanda, Claudio Molinari
BACKGROUND: Gastric diseases are a worldwide problem in modern society, as reported in the USA, in the range of 0.5-2 episodes/year/person and an incidence of 5-100 episodes/1000/week according to seasons and age. There is convincing evidence that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of acute gastric injury. Acid secreted from gastric parietal cells determines mucosal injuries which in turn cause inflammation and oxidative stress. Consequent inflammation produces free radicals by mitochondria thus causing lipid peroxidation, oxidative and acidic stress, which can lead to cell apoptosis...
October 7, 2016: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695940/immunohistochemical-and-electronmicroscopic-features-of-mesenchymal-to-epithelial-transition-in-human-developing-postnatal-and-nephrotic-podocytes
#17
Natalija Filipovic, Katarina Vukojevic, Ivana Bocina, Marijan Saraga, Merica Glavina Durdov, Boris Kablar, Mirna Saraga-Babic
Differentiation of human podocytes starts with mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET) of the metanephric mesenchyme into the S-shaped nephrons. During further development, differentiating podocytes regain mesenchyme-like cell characteristics by epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), leading to formation of the terminally differentiated, non-dividing cell. Both MET and EMT processes involve changes in content and organization of cytoskeletal and actin filaments, accompanied by the increased glomerular vascularization...
October 1, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683034/intraglomerular-crosstalk-elaborately-regulates-podocyte-injury-and-repair-in-diabetic-patients-insights-from-a-3d-multiscale-modeling-study
#18
Hua Tan, Hualin Yi, Weiling Zhao, Jian-Xing Ma, Yuanyuan Zhang, Xiaobo Zhou
Podocytes are mainly involved in the regulation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) under physiological condition. Podocyte depletion is a crucial pathological alteration in diabetic nephropathy (DN) and results in a broad spectrum of clinical syndromes such as protein urine and renal insufficiency. Recent studies indicate that depleted podocytes can be regenerated via differentiation of the parietal epithelial cells (PECs), which serve as the local progenitors of podocytes. However, the podocyte regeneration process is regulated by a complicated mechanism of cell-cell interactions and cytokine stimulations, which has been studied in a piecemeal manner rather than systematically...
September 24, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677082/podocyte-and-parietal-epithelial-cell-interactions-in-health-and-disease
#19
Turki Al Hussain, Hadeel Al Mana, Maged H Hussein, Mohammed Akhtar
The glomerulus has 3 resident cells namely mesangial cells that produce the mesangial matrix, endothelial cells that line the glomerular capillaries, and podocytes that cover the outer surface of the glomerular basement membrane. Parietal epithelial cells (PrECs), which line the Bowman's capsule are not part of the glomerular tuft but may have an important role in the normal function of the glomerulus. A significant progress has been made in recent years regarding our understanding of the role and function of these cells in normal kidney and in kidneys with various types of glomerulopathy...
January 2017: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27463800/up-regulation-of-cd74-expression-in-parietal-epithelial-cells-in-a-mouse-model-of-focal-segmental-glomerulosclerosis
#20
Takeshi Yamazaki, Satoshi Sasaki, Takayuki Okamoto, Yasuyuki Sato, Asako Hayashi, Tadashi Ariga
BACKGROUND/AIMS: De novo expression of CD44 is considered as a marker of parietal epithelial cell (PEC) activation. The aim of our study was to explore CD74 expression, which can form a complex with CD44, in PECs during the progression of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). To clarify the role of CD74 expression and of its interaction with CD44, we generated a new mouse model with enhanced PEC activation through lipopolysaccharide (LPS) application to adriamycin (ADR)-induced nephropathy mice (LPS-treated ADR mice)...
2016: Nephron
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