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parietal epithelial cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408643/gastrin-induces-parathyroid-hormone-like-hormone-expression-in-gastric-parietal-cells
#1
Asma Al Menhali, Theresa M Keeley, Elise S Demitrack, Linda C Samuelson
Parietal cells play a fundamental role in stomach maintenance, not only by creating a pathogen-free environment through the production of gastric acid, but also by secreting growth factors important for homeostasis of the gastric epithelium. The gastrointestinal hormone gastrin is known to be a central regulator of both parietal cell function and gastric epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation. Our previous gene expression profiling studies of mouse stomach identified parathyroid hormone-like hormone (PTHLH) as a potential gastrin-regulated gastric growth factor...
April 13, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391346/what-can-target-kidney-fibrosis
#2
Irina A Leaf, Jeremy S Duffield
Fibrosis, a characteristic of all chronic kidney diseases, is now recognized to be an independent predictor of disease progression. Deposition of pathological matrix in the walls of glomerular capillaries, the interstitial space and around arterioles both predicts and contributes to functional demise of the nephron and its surrounding vasculature. Recent identification of the major cell populations of fibroblast precursors in the kidney interstitium as pericytes and tissue-resident mesenchymal stem cells, and in the glomerulus as podocytes, parietal epithelial and mesangial cells, has enabled the study of the fibrogenic process in much greater depth directly in the fibroblast precursors...
January 1, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386946/comprehensive-molecular-screening-strategy-of-ocln-in-band-like-calcification-with-simplified-gyration-and-polymicrogyria
#3
Emma M Jenkinson, John H Livingston, Mary C O'Driscoll, Isabelle Desguerre, Rima Nabbout, Nathalie Boddaert, Gabriela Soares, Miguel Gonçalves da Rocha, Stefano D'Arrigo, Gillian I Rice, Yanick J Crow
Occludin (OCLN) is an important component of the tight junction complex, providing apical intercellular connections between adjacent cells in endothelial and epithelial tissue. In 2010 O'Driscoll and colleagues reported mutations in OCLN to cause band-like calcification with simplified gyration and polymicrogyria (BLC-PMG). BLC-PMG is a rare autosomal recessive syndrome, characterised by early onset seizures, progressive microcephaly, severe developmental delay and deep cortical gray matter and basal ganglia calcification with symmetrical, predominantly fronto-parietal, polymicrogyria...
April 7, 2017: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361304/parietal-cells-new-perspectives-in-glomerular-disease
#4
Laura Miesen, Eric Steenbergen, Bart Smeets
In normal glomeruli, parietal epithelial cells (PECs) line the inside of Bowman's capsule and form an inconspicuous sheet of flat epithelial cells in continuity with the proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs) at the urinary pole and with the podocytes at the vascular pole. PECs, PTECs and podocytes have a common mesenchymal origin and are the result of divergent differentiation during embryogenesis. Podocytes and PTECs are highly differentiated cells with well-established functions pertaining to the maintenance of the filtration barrier and transport, respectively...
March 30, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329012/tracking-the-stochastic-fate-of-cells-of-the-renin-lineage-after-podocyte-depletion-using-multicolor-reporters-and-intravital-imaging
#5
Natalya V Kaverina, Hiroyuki Kadoya, Diana G Eng, Michael E Rusiniak, Maria Luisa S Sequeira-Lopez, R Ariel Gomez, Jeffrey W Pippin, Kenneth W Gross, Janos Peti-Peterdi, Stuart J Shankland
Podocyte depletion plays a major role in focal segmental glomerular sclerosis (FSGS). Because cells of the renin lineage (CoRL) serve as adult podocyte and parietal epithelial cell (PEC) progenitor candidates, we generated Ren1cCre/R26R-ConfettiTG/WT and Ren1dCre/R26R-ConfettiTG/WT mice to determine CoRL clonality during podocyte replacement. Four CoRL reporters (GFP, YFP, RFP, CFP) were restricted to cells in the juxtaglomerular compartment (JGC) at baseline. Following abrupt podocyte depletion in experimental FSGS, all four CoRL reporters were detected in a subset of glomeruli at day 28, where they co-expressed de novo four podocyte proteins (podocin, nephrin, WT-1 and p57) and two glomerular parietal epithelial cell (PEC) proteins (claudin-1, PAX8)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306565/can-podocytes-be-regenerated-in-adults
#6
Stuart J Shankland, Benjamin S Freedman, Jeffrey W Pippin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Podocytes are critical components of the nephron filtration barrier and are depleted in many kidney injuries and disease states. Terminally differentiated adult podocytes are highly specialized, postmitotic cells, raising the question of whether the body has any ability to regenerate lost podocytes. This timely question has recently been illuminated by a series of innovative studies. Here, we review recent progress on this topic of significant interest and debate. RECENT FINDINGS: The innovation of genetic labeling techniques enables fate tracing of individual podocytes, providing the strongest evidence yet that podocytes can be replaced by nearby progenitor cells...
May 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222042/compound-effects-of-aging-and-experimental-fsgs-on-glomerular-epithelial-cells
#7
Remington R S Schneider, Diana G Eng, J Nathan Kutz, Mariya T Sweetwyne, Jeffrey W Pippin, Stuart J Shankland
Advanced age portends a poorer prognosis in FSGS. To understand the impact of age on glomerular podocytes and parietal epithelial cells (PECs), experimental FSGS was induced in 3m-old mice (20-year old human age) and 27m-old mice (78-year old human age) by abruptly depleting podocytes with a cytopathic anti-podocyte antibody. Despite similar binding of the disease-inducing antibody, podocyte density was lower in aged FSGS mice compared to young FSGS mice. Activated PEC density was higher in aged versus young FSGS mice, as was the percentage of total activated PECs...
February 17, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184197/therapeutic-efficacy-of-esomeprazole-in-cotton-smoke-induced-lung-injury-model
#8
Christina Nelson, Jameisha Lee, Kang Ko, Andrew G Sikora, Mark D Bonnen, Perenlei Enkhbaatar, Yohannes T Ghebre
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are well-known antacid drugs developed to treat gastric disorders. Emerging studies demonstrate that PPIs possess biological activities that extend beyond inhibition of H(+)/K(+) ATPase (proton pumps) expressed in parietal cells of the stomach. Some of the extra-gastric activities of PPIs include modulation of epithelial, endothelial, and immune cell functions. Recently, we reported that PPIs suppress the expression of several proinflammatory and profibrotic molecules, as well as enhance antioxidant mechanisms in order to favorably regulate lung inflammation and fibrosis in an animal model of bleomycin-induced lung injury...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174691/beta-catenin-participates-in-dialysate-induced-peritoneal-fibrosis-via-enhanced-peritoneal-cell-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition
#9
Shuiyu Ji, Hao Deng, Wei Jin, Pengpeng Yan, Rending Wang, Lisha Pang, Jingyi Zhou, Jiaming Zhang, Xiaoying Chen, Xiang Zhao, Jia Shen
Long-term exposure to peritoneal dialysate with high glucose (HG) leads to peritoneal fibrosis and thus decreases dialysis efficiency. In this study, we explored the role of β-catenin in this process. C57BL/6 mice received daily intraperitoneal injection with 10% of the body weight of saline (control), 4.25% glucose peritoneal dialysis fluid (PDF), or PDF combined with 5 mg·kg(-1) of the β-catenin inhibitor ICG-001 (PDF+ICG) for 30 days. Also, mice peritoneal epithelial cells (mPECs) were cultured in 4.25% glucose (HG) or combined with 10 μm ICG-001 (HG+ICG) for 48 h...
February 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063595/the-mitochondrial-targeted-peptide-ss-31-improves-glomerular-architecture-in-mice-of-advanced-age
#10
Mariya T Sweetwyne, Jeffrey W Pippin, Diana G Eng, Kelly L Hudkins, Ying Ann Chiao, Matthew D Campbell, David J Marcinek, Charles E Alpers, Hazel H Szeto, Peter S Rabinovitch, Stuart J Shankland
Although age-associated changes in kidney glomerular architecture have been described in mice and man, the mechanisms are unknown. It is unclear if these changes can be prevented or even reversed by systemic therapies administered at advanced age. Using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, our results showed glomerulosclerosis with injury to mitochondria in glomerular epithelial cells in mice aged 26 months (equivalent to a 79-year-old human). To test the hypothesis that reducing mitochondrial damage in late age would result in lowered glomerulosclerosis, we administered the mitochondrial targeted peptide, SS-31, to aged mice...
May 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059052/gastrin-enhances-autophagy-and-promotes-gastric-carcinoma-proliferation-via-inducing-ampk%C3%AE
#11
Zhuang Kun, Guo Hanqing, Tang Hailing, Yan Yuan, Zhang Jun, Zhang Lingxia, Han Kun, Zhang Xin
Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most frequent epithelial malignancies worldwide. The gastrointestinal (GI) peptide gastrin is an important regulator of the secretion and release of gastric acid from stomach parietal cells and it also plays a vital role in the development and progression of gastric cancer. The aim of the current study was to investigate the role and underlying mechanism of gastrin and autophagy in regulating gastric cancer tumorigenesis. Gastrin-17 amide (G-17) was applied in the gastric cancer cell lines SGC7901 and MGC-803...
January 5, 2017: Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052057/wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-promotes-gastric-fundus-specification-in-mice-and-humans
#12
Kyle W McCracken, Eitaro Aihara, Baptiste Martin, Calyn M Crawford, Taylor Broda, Julie Treguier, Xinghao Zhang, John M Shannon, Marshall H Montrose, James M Wells
Despite the global prevalence of gastric disease, there are few adequate models in which to study the fundus epithelium of the human stomach. We differentiated human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) into gastric organoids containing fundic epithelium by first identifying and then recapitulating key events in embryonic fundus development. We found that disruption of Wnt/β-catenin signalling in mouse embryos led to conversion of fundic to antral epithelium, and that β-catenin activation in hPSC-derived foregut progenitors promoted the development of human fundic-type gastric organoids (hFGOs)...
January 12, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012457/identification-of-novel-genetic-markers-for-mouse-yolk-sac-cells-by-using-microarray-analyses
#13
Shinomi Yagi, Nobuyoshi Shiojiri
The mouse embryonic yolk sac consists of a visceral yolk sac (VYS) and parietal yolk sac (PYS), and may function as a materno-fetal exchange system for nutrients and wastes, and physical protector for the embryo/fetus. The present study was undertaken to characterize gene expression of the VYS and PYS endodermal cells, and to identify their novel genetic markers from microarray data. Apoa4, Lrp2, Fxyd2, Slc34a3 and Entpd2 were predominantly expressed in VYS epithelial cells. Gkn2 and Pga5 were selected as markers for PYS cells...
January 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998643/activated-erk1-2-increases-cd44-in-glomerular-parietal-epithelial-cells-leading-to-matrix-expansion
#14
Sebastian S Roeder, Taylor J Barnes, Jonathan S Lee, India Kato, Diana G Eng, Natalya V Kaverina, Maria W Sunseri, Christoph Daniel, Kerstin Amann, Jeffrey W Pippin, Stuart J Shankland
The glycoprotein CD44 is barely detected in normal mouse and human glomeruli, but is increased in glomerular parietal epithelial cells following podocyte injury in focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). To determine the biological role and regulation of CD44 in these cells, we employed an in vivo and in vitro approach. Experimental FSGS was induced in CD44 knockout and wild-type mice with a cytotoxic podocyte antibody. Albuminuria, focal and global glomerulosclerosis (periodic acid-Schiff stain), and collagen IV staining were lower in CD44 knockout compared with wild-type mice with FSGS...
April 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990460/the-development-of-spasmolytic-polypeptide-tff2-expressing-metaplasia-spem-during-gastric-repair-is-absent-in-the-aged-stomach
#15
Amy C Engevik, Rui Feng, Eunyoung Choi, Shana White, Nina Bertaux-Skeirik, Jing Li, Maxime M Mahe, Eitaro Aihara, Li Yang, Betsy DiPasquale, Sunghee Oh, Kristen A Engevik, Andrew S Giraud, Marshall H Montrose, Mario Medvedovic, Michael A Helmrath, James R Goldenring, Yana Zavros
BACKGROUND & AIMS: During aging, physiological changes in the stomach result in more tenuous gastric tissue that is less capable of repairing injury, leading to increased susceptibility to chronic ulceration. Spasmolytic polypeptide/trefoil factor 2-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) is known to emerge after parietal cell loss and during Helicobacter pylori infection, however, its role in gastric ulcer repair is unknown. Therefore, we sought to investigate if SPEM plays a role in epithelial regeneration...
September 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920570/formation-of-tight-junctions-between-neighboring-podocytes-is-an-early-ultrastructural-feature-in-experimental-crescentic-glomerulonephritis
#16
Lena Succar, Ross A Boadle, David C Harris, Gopala K Rangan
PURPOSE: In crescentic glomerulonephritis (CGN), the development of cellular bridges between podocytes and parietal epithelial cells (PECs) triggers glomerular crescent formation. However, the sequential changes in glomerular ultrastructure in CGN are not well defined. This study investigated the time course of glomerular ultrastructure in experimental CGN. METHODS: Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed using kidney samples from rats with nephrotoxic serum nephritis (NSN) from day 1 to day 14...
2016: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917461/intussusceptive-angiogenesis-and-expression-of-tie-receptors-during-porcine-metanephric-kidney-development
#17
Anastasia Logothetidou, Tim Vandecasteele, Els Van Mulken, Kimberley Vandevelde, Pieter Cornillie
Intussusceptive angiogenesis (IA) is required for normal embryonic vascular development. The Tie family of receptors and their ligands, the angiopoietins, play an important role in the growth or regression of blood vessels which are important not only during development but also throughout an organism's life. The presence of IA was investigated in glomerular capillaries of the fetal porcine metanephros using Mercox II resin casts. The first signs of IA were observed in stage III glomeruli. Stage IV and V glomeruli showed numerous signs of aligned pillar formation and their successive merging to delineate the vascular entities...
December 5, 2016: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895155/investigations-of-glucocorticoid-action-in-gn
#18
Christoph Kuppe, Claudia van Roeyen, Katja Leuchtle, Nazanin Kabgani, Michael Vogt, Marc Van Zandvoort, Bart Smeets, Jürgen Floege, Hermann-Josef Gröne, Marcus J Moeller
For several decades, glucocorticoids have been used empirically to treat rapid progressive GN. It is commonly assumed that glucocorticoids act primarily by dampening the immune response, but the mechanisms remain incompletely understood. In this study, we inactivated the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) specifically in kidney epithelial cells using Pax8-Cre/GR(fl/fl) mice. Pax8-Cre/GR(fl/fl) mice did not exhibit an overt spontaneous phenotype. In mice treated with nephrotoxic serum to induce crescentic nephritis (rapidly progressive GN), this genetic inactivation of the GR in kidney epithelial cells exerted renal benefits, including inhibition of albuminuria and cellular crescent formation, similar to the renal benefits observed with high-dose prednisolone in control mice...
November 28, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873093/fatty-acids-in-a-high-fat-diet-potentially-induce-gastric-parietal-cell-damage-and-metaplasia-in-mice
#19
Yuki Hirata, Takuhito Sezaki, Miwa Tamura-Nakano, Chinatsu Oyama, Teruki Hagiwara, Takamasa Ishikawa, Shinji Fukuda, Kazuhiko Yamada, Kazuhide Higuchi, Taeko Dohi, Yuki I Kawamura
BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with risk of adenocarcinoma in the proximal stomach. We aimed to identify the links between dietary fat and gastric premalignant lesions. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were fed high fat diet (HFD), and gastric mucosa was histologically analysed. Morphological changes were also analysed using an electron microscope. Transcriptome analysis of purified parietal cells was performed, and non-parietal gastric corpus epithelial cells were subjected to single-cell gene-expression profiling...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852932/epididymis-like-tubules-in-adult-renal-hypodysplasia
#20
Madhavi A Naik, Sanjay A Pai
We report the presence of epididymis-like tubules in unilateral renal hypodysplasia in 3 adult men. Microscopy showed dilated tubules lined by ciliated columnar epithelium and smaller basal cells, morphologically resembling epididymal tubules. Small tubules lined by cuboidal epithelium were also present in all cases, with glomeruli in 2 cases. The epididymis-like tubules expressed CD10, CK7, PAX8, and AR in the luminal epithelium, while the basal cells were positive for p63, CK7, and focally for CD10. The smooth muscle bundles around the epididymis-like tubules were focally AR and WT1 (cytoplasmic) positive...
November 1, 2016: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
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