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Refractory depression

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104084/access-to-vagal-projections-via-cutaneous-electrical-stimulation-of-the-neck-fmri-evidence-in-healthy-humans
#1
Eleni Frangos, Barry R Komisaruk
BACKGROUND: Stimulation of the vagus nerve via implanted electrodes is currently used to treat refractory epilepsy and depression. Recently, a non-invasive approach to vagal stimulation has demonstrated similar beneficial effects, but it remains unclear whether these effects are mediated via activation of afferent vagal fibers. OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to ascertain whether afferent vagal projections can be accessed non-invasively by transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the antero-lateral surface of the neck, which overlies the course of the vagus nerve...
January 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099361/the-cardiotoxicity-of-cetuximab-as-single-therapy-in-chinese-chemotherapy-refractory-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-patients
#2
Xue-Miao Tang, Hao Chen, Yu Liu, Bin-Lian Huang, Xiu-Quan Zhang, Jian-Mei Yuan, Xia He
The cardiac safety of cetuximab, particularly as single approach, has not been investigated extensively. This trial was designed to evaluate the cardiac safety of cetuximab as salvage monotherapy in Chinese chemotherapy-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients.Cetuximab was administrated at an initial dose of 400 mg/mon day 1 (week 1), followed by a maintenance dose of 250 mg/m on day 1 of each 7-day cycle. Electrocardiograph (ECG), routine laboratory tests, and troponin I (TNI) Ultra were performed at baseline, during, and after the cetuximab therapy...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098427/emergence-of-mania-in-two-middle-aged-patients-with-a-history-of-unipolar-treatment-refractory-depression-receiving-vagus-nerve-stimulation
#3
Naji C Salloum, Marie C Walker, Sunil Gangwani, Charles R Conway
OBJECTIVES: We report on two patients who experienced emergence of full manic symptoms while receiving vagal nerve stimulation (VNS). METHODS: Two patients, both with a well-documented and verified history of longstanding unipolar depression, were initiated on VNS for treatment of their severe major depressive episodes. RESULTS: The two patients had emergence of full manic symptoms after 8 and 9 months of VNS, respectively. Manic symptoms were adequately managed with standard treatments (mood stabilizer and electroconvulsive therapy) and VNS was continued in the two subjects for up to 5 years without any further occurrences of manic/hypomanic episodes...
January 18, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088680/the-influence-of-patient-caregiver-and-family-factors-on-symptoms-of-anxiety-and-depression-in-children-and-adolescents-with-intractable-epilepsy
#4
Klajdi Puka, Elysa Widjaja, Mary Lou Smith
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate the association of caregiver and family factors with symptoms of anxiety and depression in children and adolescents with medically refractory localization-related epilepsy (i.e., failed at least two epilepsy medications). METHOD: Forty-four children (ages 6-11years) and 65 adolescents (ages 12-18years) and their parents participated in this multicentered, observational, cross-sectional study. Univariable and multivariable linear regressions were used to evaluate the influence of multiple patient, caregiver, and family characteristics on self-reported symptoms of anxiety and depression in the children and adolescents...
January 12, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079589/in-vogue-ketamine-for-neuroprotection-in-acute-neurologic-injury
#5
Josh D Bell
Neurologic deterioration following acute injury to the central nervous system may be amenable to pharmacologic intervention, although, to date, no such therapy exists. Ketamine is an anesthetic and analgesic emerging as a novel therapy for a number of clinical entities in recent years, including refractory pain, depression, and drug-induced hyperalgesia due to newly discovered mechanisms of action and new application of its known pharmacodynamics. In this focused review, the evidence for ketamine as a neuroprotective agent in stroke, neurotrauma, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and status epilepticus is highlighted, with a focus on its applications for excitotoxicity, neuroinflammation, and neuronal hyperexcitability...
January 10, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076744/modern-management-of-acne
#6
Alan J Cooper, Victoria Rebecca Harris
Acne is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous unit resulting from androgen-induced increased sebum production; altered keratinisation; bacterial colonisation of hair follicles on the face, neck, chest and back by Propionibacterium acnes; and an inflammatory response in the skin. The exact way these processes interact and the order in which they occur in the pathogenesis of acne are still unclear. Scarring that occurs from acne, particularly severe acne, can persist a lifetime and have long lasting psychosocial effects...
January 16, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067423/current-standards-of-neuropsychological-assessment-in-epilepsy-surgery-centers-across-europe
#7
Viola Lara Vogt, Marja Äikiä, Antonio Del Barrio, Paul Boon, Csaba Borbély, Ema Bran, Kees Braun, Evelien Carette, Maria Clark, Judith Helen Cross, Petia Dimova, Daniel Fabo, Nikolaos Foroglou, Stefano Francione, Anna Gersamia, Antonio Gil-Nagel, Alla Guekht, Sue Harrison, Hrvoje Hecimovic, Einar Heminghyt, Edouard Hirsch, Alena Javurkova, Reetta Kälviäinen, Nicole Kavan, Anna Kelemen, Vasilios K Kimiskidis, Margarita Kirschner, Catherine Kleitz, Teia Kobulashvili, Mary H Kosmidis, Selin Yagci Kurtish, Mathieu Lesourd, Sofia Ljunggren, Morten Ingvar Lossius, Kristina Malmgren, Ruta Mameniskiené, Patricia Martin-Sanfilippo, Petr Marusic, Marijke Miatton, Çiğdem Özkara, Federica Pelle, Guido Rubboli, Sarah Rudebeck, Philippe Ryvlin, Monique van Schooneveld, Elisabeth Schmid, Pia-Magdalena Schmidt, Margitta Seeck, Bernhard J Steinhoff, Sara Shavel-Jessop, Oana Tarta-Arsene, Eugen Trinka, Gerd Viggedal, Anne-Sophie Wendling, Juri-Alexander Witt, Christoph Helmstaedter
We explored the current practice with respect to the neuropsychological assessment of surgical epilepsy patients in European epilepsy centers, with the aim of harmonizing and establishing common standards. Twenty-six epilepsy centers and members of "E-PILEPSY" (a European pilot network of reference centers in refractory epilepsy and epilepsy surgery), were asked to report the status of neuropsychological assessment in adults and children via two different surveys. There was a consensus among these centers regarding the role of neuropsychology in the presurgical workup...
January 9, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065973/is-potassium-thiosulfate-a-poison-is-it-safe-a-case-series
#8
Cigdem Ozpolat, Arzu Denizbasi, Ozge Onur, Serkan Emre Eroglu, Haldun Akoglu
Potassium Thiosulfate is a liquid substance used for producing fertilizers. In this case series, we present five patients who have been exposed to potassium thiosulfate inhalation. Three of them were intubated in the scene by paramedics because of confusion and respiratory depression. They had refractory status epilepticus. The other two were exposed during trying to help the others for getting out, they presented to ED with nausea, vomiting and headache. One of the intubated patients died on the 4th day of his follow-up at ICU...
January 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061418/memory-and-mood-outcomes-after-anterior-thalamic-stimulation-for-refractory-partial-epilepsy
#9
Alexander I Tröster, Kimford J Meador, Christopher P Irwin, Robert S Fisher
PURPOSE: Bilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus (ANT) reduces seizures and is relatively safe but may be accompanied by complaints of memory problems and depression. This study examined incidence of memory and depression adverse events (AE) in the SANTE study blinded phase and their relationship to objective neurobehavioral measures, baseline characteristics, quality of life and long-term neurobehavioral outcome. METHOD: The neurobehavioral AE and neuropsychological data from a previously reported prospective randomized trial (SANTE) were analyzed...
December 23, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059936/depression-but-not-symptom-severity-is-associated-with-work-and-school-absenteeism-in-refractory-chronic-constipation
#10
Kyle Staller, Kenneth Barshop, Braden Kuo, Ashwin N Ananthakrishnan
GOALS: We sought to determine the patient characteristics associated with increased absenteeism and Emergency Department (ED) utilization among patients with constipation. BACKGROUND: Chronic constipation is associated with significant direct and indirect economic costs. There has been limited study of the predictors of direct and indirect costs in a population with refractory constipation. STUDY: We conducted a cross-sectional cohort study of patients with chronic constipation who presented to a tertiary care center for anorectal manometry...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057913/humoral-hypercalcemia-in-uterine-cancers-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#11
Vijeyaluxmy Motilal Nehru, Gwenalyn Garcia, Juan Ding, Fanyi Kong, Qun Dai
BACKGROUND Paraneoplastic hypercalcemia is a well-described complication associated with a variety of malignancies. However, its incidence in gynecological malignancies is low. CASE REPORT A 53-year-old woman presented with progressive abdominal distention and irregular vaginal bleeding of several weeks' duration. A contrast CT abdomen and pelvis was significant for a mass in the lower uterine/cervical region, multiple peritoneal and omental masses, enlarged pelvic and paraaortic lymph nodes, and large-volume ascites...
January 6, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031683/left-main-coronary-spasm-an-extremely-rare-entity-with-possible-life-threatening-complications
#12
A Al Emam, N Sricharoen
Coronary artery spasm is a known cause of acute coronary syndrome. However, left main coronary spasm is an extremely rare entity and can present in different ways depending on the duration and severity of the spasm. We present a 44-year-old female patient who presented with transient ST elevation in the lead aVR and ST depression in the lateral and inferior leads. Coronary angiography showed mid left main and ostial right coronary artery spasm that significantly improved after intracoronary nitroglycerine administration...
December 2016: International Journal of Angiology: Official Publication of the International College of Angiology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028602/negative-affect-subtypes-and-craving-differentially-predict-long-term-cessation-success-among-smokers-achieving-initial-abstinence
#13
Yantao Zuo, Norka E Rabinovich, David G Gilbert
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the associations of individual trajectories of three types of negative affect (NA: anxiety, depression, and anger) and craving during a 44-day period of incentivized smoking abstinence period with cessation outcome at 3 months and at 1 year. METHODS: Adult smokers (N = 140) completed questionnaire assessments of NA and craving during pre-quit baseline sessions and 15 postquit sessions over the 45 days of biochemically verified abstinence while on nicotine or placebo patch treatment...
December 27, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024909/dose-response-characteristics-of-intravenous-ketamine-on-dissociative-stereotypy-locomotion-sensorimotor-gating-and-nociception-in-male-sprague-dawley-rats
#14
Kennett D Radford, Thomas Y Park, Bong Hyo Lee, Sean Moran, Lisa A Osborne, Kwang H Choi
Clinicians administer subanesthetic intravenous (IV) ketamine infusions for treatment of refractory depression, chronic pain, and post-traumatic stress disorder in humans. However, ketamine is administered via the subcutaneous (SC) or intraperitoneal (IP) routes to rodents in most pre-clinical research, which may limit translational application. The present study characterized the dose-response of a subanesthetic IV ketamine bolus (2 and 5mg/kg) and 1-h infusion (5, 10, and 20mg/kg/h) on dissociative stereotypy, locomotion, sensorimotor gating, and thermal nociception in male Sprague-Dawley rats...
December 24, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009618/electroconvulsive-therapy-considerations-for-transgendered-patients
#15
Billy K Tran, Stephen E O'Donnell, Agnes Balla, David C Adams, Lydia S Grondin, Mitchell H Tsai
As the transgender patient population continues to grow, health care providers will need to become aware of elements unique to the transgender community in order to provide the highest quality of care. Neuromuscular blockade with succinylcholine is routinely administered to patients undergoing electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Decreased amounts or activity of pseudocholinesterase in serum can lead to prolonged duration of muscle paralysis. Causes of reduced action by pseudocholinesterase include genetically abnormal enzymes, reduced hepatic production, pregnancy, and various drug interactions...
December 21, 2016: Journal of ECT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994221/dynamic-modulation-of-inflammatory-pain-related-affective-and-sensory-symptoms-by-optical-control-of-amygdala-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-4
#16
C Zussy, X Gómez-Santacana, X Rovira, D De Bundel, S Ferrazzo, D Bosch, D Asede, F Malhaire, F Acher, J Giraldo, E Valjent, I Ehrlich, F Ferraguti, J-P Pin, A Llebaria, C Goudet
Contrary to acute pain, chronic pain does not serve as a warning signal and must be considered as a disease per se. This pathology presents a sensory and psychological dimension at the origin of affective and cognitive disorders. Being largely refractory to current pharmacotherapies, identification of endogenous systems involved in persistent and chronic pain is crucial. The amygdala is a key brain region linking pain sensation with negative emotions. Here, we show that activation of a specific intrinsic neuromodulatory system within the amygdala associated with type 4 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlu4) abolishes sensory and affective symptoms of persistent pain such as hypersensitivity to pain, anxiety- and depression-related behaviors, and fear extinction impairment...
December 20, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973753/vagal-nerve-stimulation-modifies-neuronal-activity-and-the-proteome-of-excitatory-synapses-of-amygdala-piriform-cortex
#17
Georgia M Alexander, Yang Zhong Huang, Erik J Soderblom, Xiao-Ping He, Arthur M Moseley, James O McNamara
Vagal Nerve Stimulation (VNS) Therapy(®) is a United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved neurotherapeutic for medically refractory partial epilepsy and treatment-resistant depression. The molecular mechanisms underlying its beneficial effects are unclear. We hypothesized that one mechanism involves neuronal activity-dependent modifications of central nervous system excitatory synapses. To begin to test this hypothesis, we asked whether VNS modifies the activity of neurons in amygdala and hippocampus...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965560/ketamine-50-years-of-modulating-the-mind
#18
REVIEW
Linda Li, Phillip E Vlisides
Ketamine was introduced into clinical practice in the 1960s and continues to be both clinically useful and scientifically fascinating. With considerably diverse molecular targets and neurophysiological properties, ketamine's effects on the central nervous system remain incompletely understood. Investigators have leveraged the unique characteristics of ketamine to explore the invariant, fundamental mechanisms of anesthetic action. Emerging evidence indicates that ketamine-mediated anesthesia may occur via disruption of corticocortical information transfer in a frontal-to-parietal ("top down") distribution...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965181/stimulation-of-the-bilateral-anterior-nuclei-of-the-thalamus-in-the-treatment-of-refractory-epilepsy-two-cases-of-subcortical-band-heterotopia
#19
Ana Franco, José Pimentel, Alexandre Rainha Campos, Carlos Morgado, Sara Pinelo, António Gonçalves Ferreira, Carla Bentes
Subcortical band heterotopia is a neuronal migration disorder that may cause refractory epilepsy. In these patients, resective surgery has yielded inadequate results. Deep brain stimulation of the anterior nuclei of the thalamus has been used for the treatment of refractory epilepsy with good results. We describe the first two patients with subcortical band heterotopia who were submitted to deep brain stimulation of the anterior nuclei of the thalamus, with evaluation of seizure outcome after 12 and 18 months of follow-up...
December 1, 2016: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932629/breathlessness-during-daily-activity-the-psychometric-properties-of-the-london-chest-activity-of-daily-living-scale-in-patients-with-advanced-disease-and-refractory-breathlessness
#20
Charles C Reilly, Claudia Bausewein, Rachel Garrod, Caroline J Jolley, John Moxham, Irene J Higginson
BACKGROUND: The London Chest Activities of Daily Living Scale measures the impact of breathlessness on both activity and social functioning. However, the London Chest Activities of Daily Living Scale is not routinely used in patients with advanced disease. AIM: To assess the psychometric properties of the London Chest Activities of Daily Living Scale in patients with refractory breathlessness due to advanced disease. DESIGN: A cross-sectional secondary analysis of data from a randomised controlled parallel-group, pragmatic, single-blind fast-track trial (randomised controlled trial) investigating the effectiveness of an integrated palliative and respiratory care service for patients with advanced disease and refractory breathlessness, known as the Breathlessness Support Service (NCT01165034)...
December 8, 2016: Palliative Medicine
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