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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913930/accuracy-repeatability-and-interplatform-reproducibility-of-t1-quantification-methods-used-for-dce-mri-results-from-a-multicenter-phantom-study
#1
Octavia Bane, Stefanie J Hectors, Mathilde Wagner, Lori L Arlinghaus, Madhava P Aryal, Yue Cao, Thomas L Chenevert, Fiona Fennessy, Wei Huang, Nola M Hylton, Jayashree Kalpathy-Cramer, Kathryn E Keenan, Dariya I Malyarenko, Robert V Mulkern, David C Newitt, Stephen E Russek, Karl F Stupic, Alina Tudorica, Lisa J Wilmes, Thomas E Yankeelov, Yi-Fei Yen, Michael A Boss, Bachir Taouli
PURPOSE: To determine the in vitro accuracy, test-retest repeatability, and interplatform reproducibility of T1 quantification protocols used for dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI at 1.5 and 3 T. METHODS: A T1 phantom with 14 samples was imaged at eight centers with a common inversion-recovery spin-echo (IR-SE) protocol and a variable flip angle (VFA) protocol using seven flip angles, as well as site-specific protocols (VFA with different flip angles, variable repetition time, proton density, and Look-Locker inversion recovery)...
September 14, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912538/decoupled-dynamic-magnetic-field-measurements-improves-diffusion-weighted-magnetic-resonance-images
#2
Ying-Hua Chu, Yi-Cheng Hsu, Fa-Hsuan Lin
Field probes are miniature receiver coils with localized NMR-active samples inside. They are useful in monitoring magnetic field. This information can be used to improve magnetic resonance image quality. While field probes are coupled to each other marginally in most applications, this coupling can cause incorrect resonance frequency estimates and image reconstruction errors. Here, we propose a method to reduce the coupling between field probes in order to improve the accuracy of magnetic field estimation. An asymmetric sensitivity matrix describing the coupling between channels of field probes and NMR active droplets within field probes was empirically measured...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911866/molecular-dynamics-simulations-of-stratum-corneum-lipid-mixtures-a-multiscale-perspective
#3
Timothy C Moore, Christopher R Iacovella, Anne Leonhard, Annette L Bunge, Clare McCabe
The lipid matrix of the stratum corneum (SC) layer of skin is essential for human survival; it acts as a barrier to prevent rapid dehydration while keeping potentially hazardous material outside the body. While the composition of the SC lipid matrix is known, the molecular-level details of its organization are difficult to infer experimentally, hindering the discovery of structure-property relationships. To this end, molecular dynamics simulations, which give molecular-level resolution, have begun to play an increasingly important role in understanding these relationships...
September 11, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911003/personal-exposure-to-fine-particulate-matter-and-benzo-a-pyrene-from-indoor-air-pollution-and-leukocyte-mitochondrial-dna-copy-number-in-rural-china
#4
Jason Y Y Wong, Wei Hu, George S Downward, Wei Jie Seow, Bryan A Bassig, Bu-Tian Ji, Fusheng Wei, Guoping Wu, Jihua Li, Jun He, Chin-San Liu, Wen-Ling Cheng, Yunchao Huang, Kaiyun Yang, Ying Chen, Nathaniel Rothman, Roel C Vermeulen, Qing Lan
Households in Xuanwei and Fuyuan, China, possess hazardous levels of fine particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 microns (PM2.5) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from coal combustion. Previous studies found that increased exposure to PM2.5 and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP; a PAH) were associated with decreased mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn), a marker of oxidative stress. We further evaluated these associations in a cross-sectional study of 148 healthy non-smoking women from Xuanwei and Fuyuan...
September 1, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902682/the-influence-of-foot-strike-technique-on-the-neuromechanical-function-of-the-foot
#5
Luke A Kelly, Dominic J Farris, Glen A Lichtwark, Andrew G Cresswell
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of foot-strike technique on longitudinal arch mechanics and intrinsic foot muscle function during running. METHODS: 13 healthy participants ran barefoot on a force-instrumented treadmill at 2.8ms with a forefoot (FFS) and rear-foot (RFS, habitual) running technique, while kinetic, kinematic and electromyographic (EMG) data from the intrinsic foot muscles were collected simultaneously. The longitudinal arch was modeled as a single "mid-foot" joint representing motion of the rear-foot (calcaneus) relative to the forefoot (metatarsals)...
September 11, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900643/unidirectional-rotation-of-cholesteric-droplets-driven-by-uv-light-irradiation
#6
Shinji Bono, Sayumi Sato, Yuka Tabe
We investigated the novel photo-induced dynamics of azobenzene-doped cholesteric (Ch) droplets coexisting with the isotropic (Iso) phase. When the hemispherical Ch droplets initially stuck to glass substrates were irradiated by UV-light, they were parted from the substrates due to the surface disordering caused by the photo-isomerization of azobenzene. Then, the spherical droplets floating in the Iso phase exhibited an unexpected motion - a continuous and unidirectional rotation along the light propagation direction...
September 13, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894193/sub-picosecond-temporal-resolution-of-anomalous-hall-currents-in-gaas
#7
Christian B Schmidt, Shekhar Priyadarshi, Mark Bieler
The anomalous Hall (AH) and spin Hall effects are important tools for the generation, control, and detection of spin and spin-polarized currents in solids and, thus, hold promises for future spintronic applications. Despite tremendous work on these effects, their ultrafast dynamic response is still not well explored. Here, we induce ultrafast AH currents in a magnetically-biased semiconductor by optical femtosecond excitation at room temperature. The currents' dynamics are studied by detecting the simultaneously emitted THz radiation...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893285/estimates-of-individual-muscle-power-production-in-normal-adult-walking
#8
Ross A Bogey, Lee A Barnes
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine the contribution of individual hip muscles to the net hip power in normal adult self-selected speed walking. A further goal was to examine each muscle's role in propulsion or support of the body during that task. METHODS: An EMG-to-force processing (EFP) model was developed which scaled muscle-tendon unit (MTU) force output to gait EMG. Active muscle power was defined as the product of MTU forces (derived from EFP) and that muscle's contraction velocity...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890303/a-simulation-framework-for-humeral-head-translations
#9
Ehsan Sarshari, Alain Farron, Alexandre Terrier, Dominique Pioletti, Philippe Mullhaupt
Humeral head translations (HHT) play a crucial role in the glenohumeral (GH) joint function. The available shoulder musculoskeletal models developed based on inverse dynamics however fall short of predicting the HHT. This study aims at developing a simulation framework that allows forward-dynamics simulation of a shoulder musculoskeletal model with a 6 degrees of freedom (DOF) GH joint. It provides a straightforward solution to the HHT prediction problem. We show that even within a forward-dynamics simulation addressing the HHT requires further information about the contact...
September 7, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887602/correlation-between-immunohistochemical-staining-of-ceacam1-and-clinicopathological-findings-in-oral-pre-neoplastic-lesions-and-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#10
Oriana Simonetti, Guendalina Lucarini, Corrado Rubini, Antonio Zizzi, Simone Domenico Aspriello, Roberto Di Primio, Anna Maria Offidani
Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity represents the sixth most common cancer worldwide and it is often preceded by pre-neoplastic lesions. Sometimes it is still difficult for pathologists to make objective differential diagnoses only on histological characteristics. Tumorigenesis is accompanied by altered expression of cell adhesion molecules, like carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecule (CEACAM)1. We wanted to investigative CEACAM1 in oral dysplastic lesions, carcinoma in situ (CIS) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC)...
September 8, 2017: Medical Molecular Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886657/transferable-coarse-grained-model-for-perfluorosulfonic-acid-polymer-membranes
#11
An-Tsung Kuo, Susumu Okazaki, Wataru Shinoda
Perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) polymer membranes are widely used as proton exchange membranes. Because the structure of the aqueous domain within the PFSA membrane is expected to directly influence proton conductance, many coarse-grained (CG) simulation studies have been performed to investigate the membrane morphology; these studies mostly used phenomenological models, such as dissipative particle dynamics. However, a chemically accurate CG model is required to investigate the morphology in realistic membranes and to provide a concrete molecular design...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884352/risk-factors-for-knee-injury-in-golf-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Matthew L Baker, Devakar R Epari, Silvio Lorenzetti, Mark Sayers, Urs Boutellier, William R Taylor
BACKGROUND: Golf is commonly considered a low-impact sport that carries little risk of injury to the knee and is generally allowed following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Kinematic and kinetic studies of the golf swing have reported results relevant to the knee, but consensus as to the loads experienced during a swing and how the biomechanics of an individual's technique may expose the knee to risk of injury is lacking. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to establish (1) the prevalence of knee injury resulting from participation in golf and (2) the risk factors for knee injury from a biomechanical perspective, based on an improved understanding of the internal loading conditions and kinematics that occur in the knee from the time of addressing the ball to the end of the follow-through...
September 7, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882753/knee-internal-contact-force-in-a-varus-malaligned-phenotype-in-knee-osteoarthritis-koa
#13
A Dell'Isola, S L Smith, M S Andersen, M Steultjens
PURPOSE: Multiple phenotypes characterized by different disease mechanisms have been hypothesized to explain the large variability in the knee osteoarthritis (KOA) population. The purpose of this study was: to estimate and compare the medial and lateral knee compression forces (CF) during gait of three subgroups of KOA subjects characterized by different alignment and cartilage disruption patterns. METHODS: A secondary data analysis was conducted on a sample of 39 KOA subjects and 18 controls (C) recruited for a previous study...
September 4, 2017: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880338/comparison-of-corneal-deformation-parameters-in-keratoconic-and-normal-eyes-using-a-non-contact-tonometer-with-a-dynamic-ultra-high-speed-scheimpflug-camera
#14
Ryan N Mercer, George O Waring, Cynthia J Roberts, Vishal Jhanji, Yumeng Wang, Joao S Filho, Richard A Hemings, Karolinne M Rocha
PURPOSE: To evaluate and compare biomechanical properties in normal and keratoconic eyes using a dynamic ultra-high-speed Scheimpflug camera equipped with a non-contact tonometer (Corvis ST; Oculus Optikgeräte GmbH, Wetzlar, Germany). METHODS: This retrospective study evaluated 89 eyes (47 normal, 42 keratoconic) and a validation arm of 72 eyes (33 normal, 39 keratoconic) using the Corvis ST. A diagnosis of keratoconus was established by clinical findings confirmed by topography and tomography...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879406/whole-tumor-histogram-analysis-of-the-cerebral-blood-volume-map-tumor-volume-defined-by-11c-methionine-positron-emission-tomography-image-improves-the-diagnostic-accuracy-of-cerebral-glioma-grading
#15
Rongli Wu, Yoshiyuki Watanabe, Atsuko Arisawa, Hiroto Takahashi, Hisashi Tanaka, Yasunori Fujimoto, Tadashi Watabe, Kayako Isohashi, Jun Hatazawa, Noriyuki Tomiyama
PURPOSE: This study aimed to compare the tumor volume definition using conventional magnetic resonance (MR) and 11C-methionine positron emission tomography (MET/PET) images in the differentiation of the pre-operative glioma grade by using whole-tumor histogram analysis of normalized cerebral blood volume (nCBV) maps. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-four patients with histopathologically proven primary brain low-grade gliomas (n = 15) and high-grade gliomas (n = 19) underwent pre-operative or pre-biopsy MET/PET, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted at 3...
September 6, 2017: Japanese Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878552/recursive-modular-modelling-methodology-for-lumped-parameter-dynamic-systems
#16
Renato Maia Matarazzo Orsino
This paper proposes a novel approach to the modelling of lumped-parameter dynamic systems, based on representing them by hierarchies of mathematical models of increasing complexity instead of a single (complex) model. Exploring the multilevel modularity that these systems typically exhibit, a general recursive modelling methodology is proposed, in order to conciliate the use of the already existing modelling techniques. The general algorithm is based on a fundamental theorem that states the conditions for computing projection operators recursively...
August 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876923/spirohexene-tetrazine-ligation-enables-bioorthogonal-labeling-of-class-b-g-protein-coupled-receptors-in-live-cells
#17
Carlo P Ramil, Maoqing Dong, Peng An, Tracey M Lewandowski, Zhipeng Yu, Laurence J Miller, Qing Lin
A new bioorthogonal reactant pair, spiro[2.3]hex-1-ene (Sph) and 3,6-di(2-pyridyl)-s-tetrazine (DpTz), for the strain-promoted inverse electron-demand Diels-Alder cycloaddition, that is, tetrazine ligation, is reported. As compared to the previously reported strained alkenes such as trans-cyclooctene (TCO) and 1,3-disubstituted cyclopropene, Sph exhibits balanced reactivity and stability in tetrazine ligation with the protein substrates. A lysine derivative of Sph, SphK, was site-selectively incorporated into the extracellular loop regions (ECLs) of GCGR and GLP-1R, two members of class B G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in mammalian cells with the incorporation efficiency dependent on the location...
September 15, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875229/scaling-to-the-organism-an-innovative-model-of-dynamic-exposure-hotspots-in-stream-systems
#18
Kristen M Harrigan, Paul A Moore
In flowing systems, fluctuations in the frequency, magnitude, and duration of exposure occurs due to turbulence and geomorphology, causing spatial and temporal variations in chemical exposure at the scale of the organism. Spatial models representing toxicant distribution at the appropriate scales of stream organisms are noticeably missing from the literature. To characterize the fine scale distribution of pollutants in freshwater streams at the scale of a benthic organism, nine artificial stream habitats were created (riffle, pool, run, bend, woody debris) with either sand or gravel substrate...
September 5, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874740/unusually-high-ratio-of-shear-modulus-to-young-s-modulus-in-a-nano-structured-gyroid-metamaterial
#19
Jun-Hyoung Park, Jae-Chul Lee
Unlike the constant nature of elastic coefficients of isotropic bulk materials, the Young's (E) and shear (μ) moduli of nano-structured (NS) gyroid metamaterials change with relative density (ρ), but at different rates depending on the cell size of the structure. These elastic behaviors displayed by E and μ cause crossover/inversion of these two moduli, such that μ of the NS gyroid metamaterials is greater than E for the structures with ρ < 0.23. This peculiar elastic behavior causes NS gyroid metamaterials to display high μ/E values (~1...
September 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874703/exact-broadband-excitation-of-two-level-systems-by-mapping-spins-to-springs
#20
Jr-Shin Li, Justin Ruths, Steffen J Glaser
Designing accurate and high-fidelity broadband pulses is an essential component in conducting quantum experiments across fields from protein spectroscopy to quantum optics. However, constructing exact and analytic broadband pulses remains unsolved due to the nonlinearity and complexity of the underlying spin system dynamics. Here, we present a nontrivial dynamic connection between nonlinear spin and linear spring systems and show the surprising result that such nonlinear and complex pulse design problems are equivalent to designing controls to steer linear harmonic oscillators under optimal forcing...
September 5, 2017: Nature Communications
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