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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323929/human-brown-adipose-tissue-temperature-and-fat-fraction-are-related-to-its-metabolic-activity
#1
Kalle Koskensalo, Juho Raiko, Teemu Saari, Virva Saunavaara, Olli Eskola, Pirjo Nuutila, Jani Saunavaara, Riitta Parkkola, Kirsi A Virtanen
Background and aim: The metabolic activity of human brown adipose tissue (BAT) has been previously examined using positron-emission-tomography (PET). The aim of this study was to use proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1H MRS) to investigate whether the temperature and the fat fraction (FF) of brown and white adipose tissue (WAT) are associated with BAT metabolic activity determined by 18F-FDG-PET. Materials and methods: Ten healthy subjects (4f/6m, 25-45 y) were studied using PET-MRI during acute cold exposure and at ambient room temperature...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323634/effect-of-laser-pulse-propagation-on-ultrafast-magnetization-dynamics-in-a-birefringent-medium
#2
J A de Jong, A M Kalashnikova, R V Pisarev, A M Balbashov, A V Kimel, A Kirilyuk, Th Rasing
Light propagation effects can strongly influence the excitation and the detection of laser-induced magnetization dynamics. We investigated experimentally and analytically the effects of crystallographic linear birefringence on the excitation and detection of ultrafast magnetization dynamics in the rare-earth orthoferrites (Sm0.5Pr0.5)FeO3 and (Sm0.55Tb0.45)FeO3, which possess weak and strong linear birefringence, respectively. Our finding is that the effect of linear birefringence on the result of a magneto-optical pump-probe experiment strongly depends on the mechanism of excitation...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319382/time-resolved-spectroscopic-investigation-of-charge-trapping-in-carbon-nitrides-photocatalysts-for-hydrogen-generation
#3
Robert Godin, Yiou Wang, Martijn A Zwijnenburg, Junwang Tang, James R Durrant
Carbon nitride (g-C3N4) as a benchmark polymer photocatalyst is attracting significant research interest because of its visible light photocatalytic performance combined with good stability and facile synthesis. However, little is known about the fundamental photophysical processes of g-C3N4, which are key to explain and promote photoactivity. Using time-resolved absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopies, we have investigated the photophysics of a series of carbon nitrides on timescales ranging from femtoseconds to seconds...
March 20, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315524/a-cellular-mechanism-for-inverse-effectiveness-in-multisensory-integration
#4
Torrey Ls Truszkowski, Oscar A Carrillo, Julia Bleier, Carolina Ramirez-Vizcarrondo, Molly McQuillan, Christopher P Truszkowski, Arseny S Khakhalin, Carlos D Aizenman
To build a coherent view of the external world, an organism needs to integrate multiple types of sensory information from different sources, a process known as multisensory integration (MSI). In a prior study (Felch et al. 2016) we showed that the temporal dependence of MSI in the optic tectum of Xenopus laevis tadpoles is mediated by the network dynamics of the recruitment of local inhibition by sensory input. This was one of the first cellular-level mechanisms described for MSI. Here we expand this cellular level view of MSI by focusing on the principle of inverse effectiveness, another central feature of MSI stating that the amount of multisensory enhancement observed inversely depends on the size of unisensory responses...
March 18, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304386/effect-of-pregnancy-in-myopia-progression-the-sun-cohort
#5
A Fernández-Montero, M Bes-Rastrollo, J Moreno-Montañés, L Moreno-Galarraga, M Á Martínez-González
PurposePrevious studies have suggested that pregnancy may induce myopia progression. However, no longitudinal study with a large sample size and long-term follow-up has assessed this association. Our objective was to investigate whether pregnancy was related to mid- or long-term myopic refraction changes.Patients and methodsA prospective study was conducted in a Mediterranean cohort. The study included 10 401 women (20-50 years old) from the SUN Project. SUN project is a multipurpose, prospective, and dynamic cohort of university graduates conducted in Spain...
March 17, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304174/diffusion-of-polymers-through-periodic-networks-of-lipid-based-nanochannels
#6
Reza Ghanbari, Salvatore Assenza, Abhijit Saha, Raffaele Mezzenga
We present an experimental investigation on the diffusion of unfolded polymers in the triply-periodic water-channel network of inverse bicontinuous cubic phases. Depending on the chain size, our results indicate the presence of two different dynamical regimes corresponding to Zimm and Rouse diffusion. We support our findings by scaling arguments based on a combination of blob and effective-medium theories, and suggest the presence of a third regime where dynamics is driven by reptation. Our experimental results also show an increasing behavior of the partition coefficient as a function of polymer molecular weight, indicative of a reduction of the conformational degrees of freedom induced by the confinement...
March 17, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304166/twisted-macrocycles-with-folded-ortho-phenylene-subunits
#7
Zacharias J Kinney, C Scott Hartley
Many foldamers, oligomers that adopt well-defined secondary structures, are now known, including many exhibiting functional behavior. However, examples of foldamer subunits within larger architectures remain rare, despite the importance of higher-order structure in biomacromolecules. Here, we investigate the dynamic covalent assembly of short o-phenylenes, a simple class of aromatic foldamers, into twisted macrocycles. o-Phenylene tetramers have been combined with rod-shaped p-phenylene-, tolane-, and diphenylbutadiyene-based linkers using imine formation...
March 17, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303730/biomechanical-properties-of-the-pelvic-floor-muscles-of-continent-and-incontinent-women-using-an-inverse-finite-element-analysis
#8
M E T Silva, S Brandão, M P L Parente, T Mascarenhas, R M Natal Jorge
Pelvic disorders can be associated with changes in the biomechanical properties in the muscle, ligaments and/or connective tissue form fascia and ligaments. In this sense, the study of their mechanical behavior is important to understand the structure and function of these biological soft tissues. The aim of this study was to establish the biomechanical properties of the pelvic floor muscles of continent and incontinent women, using an inverse finite element analysis (FEA). The numerical models, including the pubovisceral muscle and pelvic bones were built from magnetic resonance (MR) images acquired at rest...
March 17, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303720/primary-newcastle-disease-vaccination-of-broilers-comparison-of-the-antibody-seroresponse-and-adverse-vaccinal-reaction-after-eye-nose-drop-or-coarse-spray-application-and-implication-of-the-results-for-a-previously-developed-coarse-dry-powder-vaccine
#9
W J M Landman, C Vervaet, J P Remon, K Huyge, J H H van Eck
To compare antibody seroresponse and adverse vaccinal reaction induced by Newcastle disease (ND) vaccination after eye-nose drop or coarse spray, groups of SPF broiler hens were vaccinated at day 4 (day of hatch is day 0) and intratracheally inoculated with Escherichia coli at day 11. Body weight gain (BWG) was assessed between day 4 and day 18; colibacillosis lesions and serum antibodies were determined at day 18. Meaningful comparison requires similar vaccine uptake. Vaccine virus loss during spray relative to eye-nose drop, which was assessed by comparing the results of endpoint titrations, was 3 log10...
March 17, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302766/csf-clearance-in-alzheimer-disease-measured-with-dynamic-pet
#10
Mony J de Leon, Yi Li, Nobuyuki Okamura, Wai H Tsui, Les A Saint Louis, Lidia Glodzik, Ricardo S Osorio, Juan Fortea, Tracy Butler, Elizabeth Pirraglia, Silvia Fossati, Hee-Jin Kim, Roxana O Carare, Maiken Nedergaard, Helene Benveniste, Henry Rusinek
Evidence supporting the hypothesis that reduced cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) clearance is involved in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) comes from primarily from rodent models. However, unlike rodents where predominant extra-cranial CSF egress is via olfactory nerves traversing the cribriform plate, human CSF clearance pathways are not well characterized. Using dynamic Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with (18)F-THK5117 a tracer for tau pathology, the ventricular CSF time activity was used as a biomarker for CSF clearance...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302143/altered-aortic-3d-hemodynamics-and-geometry-in-pediatric-marfan-syndrome-patients
#11
Roel L F van der Palen, Alex J Barker, Emilie Bollache, Julio Garcia, Michael J Rose, Pim van Ooij, Luciana T Young, Arno A W Roest, Michael Markl, Joshua D Robinson, Cynthia K Rigsby
BACKGROUND: Blood flow dynamics make it possible to better understand the development of aortopathy and cardiovascular events in patients with Marfan syndrome (MFS). Aortic 3D blood flow characteristics were investigated in relation to aortic geometry in children and adolescents with MFS. METHODS: Twenty-five MFS patients (age 15.6 ± 4.0 years; 11 females) and 21 healthy controls (age 16.0 ± 2.6 years; 12 females) underwent magnetic resonance angiography and 4D flow CMR for assessment of thoracic aortic size and 3D blood flow velocities...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300292/hdac1-and-hdac3-underlie-dynamic-h3k9-acetylation-during-embryonic-neurogenesis-and-in-schizophrenia-like-animals
#12
Josef Večeřa, Eva Bártová, Jana Krejčí, Soňa Legartová, Denisa Komůrková, Jana Rudá-Kučerová, Tibor Štark, Eva Dražanová, Tomáš Kašpárek, Alexandra Šulcová, Frank J Dekker, Wiktor Szymanski, Christian Seiser, Georg Weitzer, Raphael Mechoulam, Vincenzo Micale, Stanislav Kozubek
Although histone acetylation is one of the most widely studied epigenetic modifications, there is still a lack of information regarding how the acetylome is regulated during brain development and pathophysiological processes. We demonstrate that the embryonic brain (E15) is characterized by an increase in H3K9 acetylation as well as decreases in the levels of HDAC1 and HDAC3. Moreover, experimental induction of H3K9 hyperacetylation led to the overexpression of NCAM in the embryonic cortex and depletion of Sox2 in the subventricular ependyma, which mimicked the differentiation processes...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298037/impact-of-bifurcation-angle-and-inflow-coefficient-on-the-rupture-risk-of-bifurcation-type-basilar-artery-tip-aneurysms
#13
Sherif Rashad, Shin-Ichiro Sugiyama, Kuniyasu Niizuma, Kenichi Sato, Hidenori Endo, Shunsuke Omodaka, Yasushi Matsumoto, Miki Fujimura, Teiji Tominaga
OBJECTIVE Risk factors for aneurysm rupture have been extensively studied, with several factors showing significant correlations with rupture status. Several studies have shown that aneurysm shape and hemodynamics change after rupture. In the present study the authors investigated a static factor, the bifurcation angle, which does not change after rupture, to understand its effect on aneurysm rupture risk and hemodynamics. METHODS A hospital database was retrospectively reviewed to identify patients with cerebral aneurysms treated surgically or endovascularly in the period between 2008 and 2015...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298001/driven-transport-on-open-filaments-with-interfilament-switching-processes
#14
Subhadip Ghosh, Ignacio Pagonabarraga, Sudipto Muhuri
We study a two-filament driven lattice gas model with oppositely directed species of particles moving on two parallel filaments with filament-switching processes and particle inflow and outflow at filament ends. The filament-switching process is correlated with the occupation number of the adjacent site such that particles switch filaments with finite probability only when oppositely directed particles meet on the same filament. This model mimics some of the coarse-grained features observed in context of microtubule-(MT) based intracellular transport, wherein cellular cargo loaded and off-loaded at filament ends are transported on multiple parallel MT filaments and can switch between the parallel microtubule filaments...
February 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297975/reconstructing-network-topology-and-coupling-strengths-in-directed-networks-of-discrete-time-dynamics
#15
Pik-Yin Lai
Reconstructing network connection topology and interaction strengths solely from measurement of the dynamics of the nodes is a challenging inverse problem of broad applicability in various areas of science and engineering. For a discrete-time step network under noises whose noise-free dynamics is stationary, we derive general analytic results relating the weighted connection matrix of the network to the correlation functions obtained from time-series measurements of the nodes for networks with one-dimensional intrinsic node dynamics...
February 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297961/atomic-scale-origin-of-dynamic-viscoelastic-response-and-creep-in-disordered-solids
#16
Rico Milkus, Alessio Zaccone
Viscoelasticity has been described since the time of Maxwell as an interpolation of purely viscous and purely elastic response, but its microscopic atomic-level mechanism in solids has remained elusive. We studied three model disordered solids: a random lattice, the bond-depleted fcc lattice, and the fcc lattice with vacancies. Within the harmonic approximation for central-force lattices, we applied sum rules for viscoelastic response derived on the basis of nonaffine atomic motions. The latter motions are a direct result of local structural disorder, and in particular, of the lack of inversion symmetry in disordered lattices...
February 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297947/monte-carlo-approach-to-calculate-ionization-dynamics-of-hot-solid-density-plasmas-within-particle-in-cell-simulations
#17
D Wu, X T He, W Yu, S Fritzsche
A physical model based on a Monte Carlo approach is proposed to calculate the ionization dynamics of hot-solid-density plasmas within particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, and where the impact (collision) ionization (CI), electron-ion recombination (RE), and ionization potential depression (IPD) by surrounding plasmas are taken into consideration self-consistently. When compared with other models, which are applied in the literature for plasmas near thermal equilibrium, the temporal relaxation of ionization dynamics can also be simulated by the proposed model...
February 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297908/kink-antikink-asymmetry-and-impurity-interactions-in-topological-mechanical-chains
#18
Yujie Zhou, Bryan Gin-Ge Chen, Nitin Upadhyaya, Vincenzo Vitelli
We study the dynamical response of a diatomic periodic chain of rotors coupled by springs, whose unit cell breaks spatial inversion symmetry. In the continuum description, we derive a nonlinear field theory which admits topological kinks and antikinks as nonlinear excitations but where a topological boundary term breaks the symmetry between the two and energetically favors the kink configuration. Using a cobweb plot, we develop a fixed-point analysis for the kink motion and demonstrate that kinks propagate without the Peierls-Nabarro potential energy barrier typically associated with lattice models...
February 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297870/dynamics-of-field-driven-population-inversion-in-a-confined-colloidal-mixture
#19
S Chung, S Samin, C Holm, J G Malherbe, S Amokrane
We study, using Langevin dynamics simulations, the change in composition of a binary colloidal mixture confined in a finite-length channel, induced by an external field. The field-induced transition from a near-bulk composition to an inverted population is studied as a function of time, for different field strengths and system parameters. For state points corresponding to reversible field cycles, the cyclic filling and emptying of the channel by the minority species are compared. Extrapolation of the physical relaxation times to the colloidal regime is performed through a series of simulations at increasing value of the damping parameter...
February 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297846/entanglement-prethermalization-in-an-interaction-quench-between-two-harmonic-oscillators
#20
Tatsuhiko N Ikeda, Takashi Mori, Eriko Kaminishi, Masahito Ueda
Entanglement prethermalization (EP) refers to a quasi-stationary nonequilibrium state of a composite system in which each individual subsystem looks thermal but the entire system remains nonthermal due to quantum entanglement between subsystems. We theoretically study the dynamics of EP following a coherent split of a one-dimensional harmonic potential in which two interacting bosons are confined. This problem is equivalent to that of an interaction quench between two harmonic oscillators. We show that this simple model captures the bare essentials of EP; that is, each subsystem relaxes to an approximate thermal equilibrium, whereas the total system remains entangled...
February 2017: Physical Review. E
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