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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428738/improved-localization-of-seizure-onset-zones-using-spatiotemporal-constraints-and-time-varying-source-connectivity
#1
Juan D Martinez-Vargas, Gregor Strobbe, Kristl Vonck, Pieter van Mierlo, German Castellanos-Dominguez
Presurgical evaluation of brain neural activity is commonly carried out in refractory epilepsy patients to delineate as accurately as possible the seizure onset zone (SOZ) before epilepsy surgery. In practice, any subjective interpretation of electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings is hindered mainly because of the highly stochastic behavior of the epileptic activity. We propose a new method for dynamic source connectivity analysis that aims to accurately localize the seizure onset zones by explicitly including temporal, spectral, and spatial information of the brain neural activity extracted from EEG recordings...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425584/changes-in-ciap2-survivin-and-bimel-expression-characterize-the-switch-from-autophagy-to-apoptosis-in-prolonged-starvation
#2
A Hay-Koren, S Bialik, V Levin-Salomon, A Kimchi
BACKGROUND: Autophagy is a catabolic process involving the engulfment of cytoplasmic content within autophagosomes followed by their delivery to lysosomes. This process is a survival mechanism, enabling cells to cope with nutrient deprivation by degradation and recycling of macromolecules. Yet during continued stress such as prolonged starvation, a switch from autophagy to apoptosis is often detected. OBJECTIVE: In this work, we characterized the temporal dynamics of the transition from autophagy towards apoptosis with the aim of elucidating the molecular mechanism regulating the switch from survival autophagy to apoptotic cell death...
May 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425209/identification-of-dynamic-load-for-prosthetic-structures
#3
Dequan Zhang, Xu Han, Zhongpu Zhang, Jie Liu, Chao Jiang, Nobuhiro Yoda, Xianghua Meng, Qing Li
Dynamic load exists in numerous biomechanical systems and its identification signifies a critical issue for characterizing dynamic behaviors and studying biomechanical consequence of the systems. This study aims to identify dynamic load in the dental prosthetic structures, namely three-unit implant-supported fixed partial denture (I-FPD) and teeth-supported fixed partial denture (T-FPD). The three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) models were constructed through patient's computerized tomography (CT) images...
April 20, 2017: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424566/influence-of-organic-molecules-on-the-aggregation-of-tio2-nanoparticles-in-acidic-conditions
#4
Karin Danielsson, Julián A Gallego-Urrea, Martin Hassellov, Stefan Gustafsson, Caroline M Jonsson
Engineered nanoparticles released into the environment may interact with natural organic matter (NOM). Surface complexation affects the surface potential, which in turn may lead to aggregation of the particles. Aggregation of synthetic TiO2 (anatase) nanoparticles in aqueous suspension was investigated at pH 2.8 as a function of time in the presence of various organic molecules and Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA), using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM)...
2017: Journal of Nanoparticle Research: An Interdisciplinary Forum for Nanoscale Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424513/super-multiplex-vibrational-imaging
#5
Lu Wei, Zhixing Chen, Lixue Shi, Rong Long, Andrew V Anzalone, Luyuan Zhang, Fanghao Hu, Rafael Yuste, Virginia W Cornish, Wei Min
The ability to visualize directly a large number of distinct molecular species inside cells is increasingly essential for understanding complex systems and processes. Even though existing methods have successfully been used to explore structure-function relationships in nervous systems, to profile RNA in situ, to reveal the heterogeneity of tumour microenvironments and to study dynamic macromolecular assembly, it remains challenging to image many species with high selectivity and sensitivity under biological conditions...
April 19, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422954/identification-of-the-contribution-of-contact-and-aerial-biomechanical-parameters-in-acrobatic-performance
#6
Diane Haering, Aurore Huchez, Franck Barbier, Patrice Holvoët, Mickaël Begon
INTRODUCTION: Teaching acrobatic skills with a minimal amount of repetition is a major challenge for coaches. Biomechanical, statistical or computer simulation tools can help them identify the most determinant factors of performance. Release parameters, change in moment of inertia and segmental momentum transfers were identified in the prediction of acrobatics success. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relative contribution of these parameters in performance throughout expertise or optimisation based improvements...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421821/modeling-and-dynamic-simulation-of-astronaut-s-upper-limb-motions-considering-counter-torques-generated-by-the-space-suit
#7
Jingwen Li, Qing Ye, Li Ding, Qianfang Liao
Extravehicular activity (EVA) is an inevitable task for astronauts to maintain proper functions of both the spacecraft and the space station. Both experimental research in a microgravity simulator (e.g. neutral buoyancy tank, zero-g aircraft or a drop tower/tube) and mathematical modeling were used to study EVA to provide guidance for the training on Earth and task design in space. Modeling has become more and more promising because of its efficiency. Based on the task analysis, almost 90% of EVA activity is accomplished through upper limb motions...
April 19, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418642/structure-and-dynamics-of-individual-diastereomeric-complexes-on-platinum-surface-studies-related-to-heterogeneous-enantioselective-catalysis
#8
Yi Dong, Guillaume Goubert, Michael N Groves, Jean-Christian Lemay, Bjørk Hammer, Peter H McBreen
The modification of heterogeneous catalysts through the chemisorption of chiral molecules is a method to create catalytic sites for enantioselective surface reactions. The chiral molecule is called a chiral modifier by analogy to the terms chiral auxiliary or chiral ligand used in homogeneous asymmetric catalysis. While there has been progress in understanding how chirality transfer occurs, the intrinsic difficulties in determining enantioselective reaction mechanisms are compounded by the multisite nature of heterogeneous catalysts and by the challenges facing stereospecific surface analysis...
April 18, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418050/reversible-helical-chirality-of-perylene-bisimide-aggregates-amino-acid-directed-chiral-transfer-and-chiral-inversion
#9
Yizhi Liu, Xinpei Gao, Fei Lu, Mei Hu, Lijuan Shi, Liqiang Zheng
Through the formation of dynamic covalent bonds, we succeeded, for the first time, in achieving a reversible chiral transfer from amino acids to perylene bisimide aggregates in aqueous solutions. Two opposite helical aggregations are induced with l-phenylalanine and l-tyrosine, respectively. It is possible that the change in configurations of phenyl groups in amino acids leads to the chiral inversion of BAPBI arrangements.
April 18, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417969/massive-introgression-drives-species-radiation-at-the-range-limit-of-anopheles-gambiae
#10
José L Vicente, Christopher S Clarkson, Beniamino Caputo, Bruno Gomes, Marco Pombi, Carla A Sousa, Tiago Antao, João Dinis, Giordano Bottà, Emiliano Mancini, Vincenzo Petrarca, Daniel Mead, Eleanor Drury, James Stalker, Alistair Miles, Dominic P Kwiatkowski, Martin J Donnelly, Amabélia Rodrigues, Alessandra Della Torre, David Weetman, João Pinto
Impacts of introgressive hybridisation may range from genomic erosion and species collapse to rapid adaptation and speciation but opportunities to study these dynamics are rare. We investigated the extent, causes and consequences of a hybrid zone between Anopheles coluzzii and Anopheles gambiae in Guinea-Bissau, where high hybridisation rates appear to be stable at least since the 1990s. Anopheles gambiae was genetically partitioned into inland and coastal subpopulations, separated by a central region dominated by A...
April 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416820/contrasting-evolutionary-genome-dynamics-between-domesticated-and-wild-yeasts
#11
Jia-Xing Yue, Jing Li, Louise Aigrain, Johan Hallin, Karl Persson, Karen Oliver, Anders Bergström, Paul Coupland, Jonas Warringer, Marco Cosentino Lagomarsino, Gilles Fischer, Richard Durbin, Gianni Liti
Structural rearrangements have long been recognized as an important source of genetic variation, with implications in phenotypic diversity and disease, yet their detailed evolutionary dynamics remain elusive. Here we use long-read sequencing to generate end-to-end genome assemblies for 12 strains representing major subpopulations of the partially domesticated yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its wild relative Saccharomyces paradoxus. These population-level high-quality genomes with comprehensive annotation enable precise definition of chromosomal boundaries between cores and subtelomeres and a high-resolution view of evolutionary genome dynamics...
April 17, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416803/optical-helicity-driven-magnetization-dynamics-in-metallic-ferromagnets
#12
Gyung-Min Choi, André Schleife, David G Cahill
Recent observations of switching of magnetic domains in ferromagnetic metals by circularly polarized light, so-called all-optical helicity dependent switching, has renewed interest in the physics that governs the interactions between the angular momentum of photons and the magnetic order parameter of materials. Here we use time-resolved-vectorial measurements of magnetization dynamics of thin layers of Fe, Ni and Co driven by picosecond duration pulses of circularly polarized light. We decompose the torques that drive the magnetization into field-like and spin-transfer components that we attribute to the inverse Faraday effect and optical spin-transfer torque, respectively...
April 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415271/mean-cluster-approach-indicates-cell-sorting-time-scales-are-determined-by-collective-dynamics
#13
Carine P Beatrici, Rita M C de Almeida, Leonardo G Brunnet
Cell migration is essential to cell segregation, playing a central role in tissue formation, wound healing, and tumor evolution. Considering random mixtures of two cell types, it is still not clear which cell characteristics define clustering time scales. The mass of diffusing clusters merging with one another is expected to grow as t^{d/d+2} when the diffusion constant scales with the inverse of the cluster mass. Cell segregation experiments deviate from that behavior. Explanations for that could arise from specific microscopic mechanisms or from collective effects, typical of active matter...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414921/distinct-distribution-patterns-of-proteobacterial-nirk-and-nirs-type-denitrifiers-in-the-yellow-river-estuary-china
#14
Fenge Li, Mingcong Li, Wenchong Shi, Han Li, Zhongtao Sun, Zheng Gao
Denitrification was considered to be the critical process removing reactive nitrogen in estuarine ecosystem. In the present study, the abundance, diversity and community structure of nirK- and nirS-type denitrifiers were compared in sediments from the Yellow River estuary. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) showed that the abundance of the two types denitrifiers performed different distribution patterns among the samples, indicating their distinct habitat preference. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the most sequences from cluster Ⅰ, Ⅲ, Ⅳ, Ⅴ for nirK-type denitrifiers were dominant distributed at the lower dissolved oxygen (DO) sites and sequences in other clusters were dominant at higher DO area...
April 17, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411958/effects-of-step-length-and-step-frequency-on-lower-limb-muscle-function-in-human-gait
#15
Yoong Ping Lim, Yi-Chung Lin, Marcus G Pandy
The aim of this study was to quantify the effects of step length and step frequency on lower-limb muscle function in walking. Three-dimensional gait data were used in conjunction with musculoskeletal modeling techniques to evaluate muscle function over a range of walking speeds using prescribed combinations of step length and step frequency. The body was modeled as a 10-segment, 21-degree-of-freedom skeleton actuated by 54 muscle-tendon units. Lower-limb muscle forces were calculated using inverse dynamics and static optimization...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411646/nano-armoring-of-enzymes-rational-design-of-polymer-wrapped-enzymes
#16
Kishore Raghupathi, Sankaran Thayumanavan
The formulation in which therapeutic proteins are administered plays a key role in retaining their biological activity. Enzyme wrapping, using synthetic polymers, is a strategy employed to provide enzymes with lower immunogenicity, longer circulation times, and better targeting capabilities. Protein-polymer complexation methods, involving covalent, noncovalent, and electrostatic interactions, that can provide means to develop formulations for retaining enzyme stability are discussed in this chapter. Amphiphilic self-cross-linkable polymer was used to encapsulate capsase-3 enzyme in the nanogel, while inverse emulsion polymerization method was used to entrap α-glucosidase enzyme in the nanogel...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411091/comparison-of-dynamic-monitoring-strategies-based-on-cd4-cell-counts-in-virally-suppressed-hiv-positive-individuals-on-combination-antiretroviral-therapy-in-high-income-countries-a-prospective-observational-study
#17
Ellen C Caniglia, Lauren E Cain, Caroline A Sabin, James M Robins, Roger Logan, Sophie Abgrall, Michael J Mugavero, Sonia Hernández-Díaz, Laurence Meyer, Remonie Seng, Daniel R Drozd, George R Seage, Fabrice Bonnet, Francois Dabis, Richard D Moore, Peter Reiss, Ard van Sighem, William C Mathews, Julia Del Amo, Santiago Moreno, Steven G Deeks, Roberto Muga, Stephen L Boswell, Elena Ferrer, Joseph J Eron, Sonia Napravnik, Sophie Jose, Andrew Phillips, Amy C Justice, Janet P Tate, John Gill, Antonio Pacheco, Valdilea G Veloso, Heiner C Bucher, Matthias Egger, Hansjakob Furrer, Kholoud Porter, Giota Touloumi, Heidi Crane, Jose M Miro, Jonathan A Sterne, Dominique Costagliola, Michael Saag, Miguel A Hernán
BACKGROUND: Clinical guidelines vary with respect to the optimal monitoring frequency of HIV-positive individuals. We compared dynamic monitoring strategies based on time-varying CD4 cell counts in virologically suppressed HIV-positive individuals. METHODS: In this observational study, we used data from prospective studies of HIV-positive individuals in Europe (France, Greece, the Netherlands, Spain, Switzerland, and the UK) and North and South America (Brazil, Canada, and the USA) in The HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration and The Centers for AIDS Research Network of Integrated Clinical Systems...
April 11, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410973/the-influence-of-relationship-power-and-partner-communication-on-the-syndemic-factor-among-hispanic-women
#18
Rosa M Gonzalez-Guarda, Brian E McCabe, Esther Mathurin, Summer D DeBastiani, Nilda Peragallo Montano
BACKGROUND: This study expands research on the substance abuse, intimate partner violence, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and depression syndemic theory for Hispanic women. We hypothesized relationship power and partner communication would be related to the syndemic. METHODS: Data were used from the baseline assessment of an effectiveness trial of SEPA (Salud/Health, Educación/Education, Prevención/Prevention, and Autocuidado/Self-care), an HIV/sexually transmitted infection risk reduction program for Hispanic women...
April 11, 2017: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408892/conceptualizing-the-dynamics-between-bicultural-identification-and-personal-social-networks
#19
Lydia Repke, Verónica Benet-Martínez
An adequate understanding of the acculturation processes affecting immigrants and their descendants involves ascertaining the dynamic interplay between the way these individuals manage their multiple (and sometimes conflictual) cultural value systems and identifications and possible changes in their social networks. To fill this gap, the present research examines how key acculturation variables (e.g., strength of ethnic/host cultural identifications, bicultural identity integration or BII) relate to the composition and structure of bicultural individuals' personal social networks...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405747/metabolic-responses-to-different-immune-challenges-and-varying-resource-availability-in-the-side-blotched-lizard-uta-stansburiana
#20
Geoffrey D Smith, Lorin A Neuman-Lee, Alison C Webb, Michael J Angilletta, Dale F DeNardo, Susannah S French
The energetic cost of immunity depends on many factors, including the type of challenge, the timing of the response, and the state of the animal. We measured changes in the standard metabolic rates of side-blotched lizards (Uta stansburiana Baird and Girard, 1852) in response to different immune challenges and nutritional states. In the first experiment, lizards were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection (to stimulate the response to a pathogen), cutaneous biopsy (as a proxy to a superficial wound), both injection and biopsy, or neither (control)...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
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