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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150310/zika-virus-in-french-polynesia-2013-14-anatomy-of-a-completed-outbreak
#1
REVIEW
Didier Musso, Hervé Bossin, Henri Pierre Mallet, Marianne Besnard, Julien Broult, Laure Baudouin, José Eduardo Levi, Ester C Sabino, Frederic Ghawche, Marion C Lanteri, David Baud
The Zika virus crisis exemplified the risk associated with emerging pathogens and was a reminder that preparedness for the worst-case scenario, although challenging, is needed. Herein, we review all data reported during the unexpected emergence of Zika virus in French Polynesia in late 2013. We focus on the new findings reported during this outbreak, especially the first description of severe neurological complications in adults and the retrospective description of CNS malformations in neonates, the isolation of Zika virus in semen, the potential for blood-transfusion transmission, mother-to-child transmission, and the development of new diagnostic assays...
November 14, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147858/community-interventions-to-increase-stroke-preparedness-and-acute-stroke-treatment-rates
#2
REVIEW
Kathleen M Kelly, Kathryn T Holt, Gina M Neshewat, Lesli E Skolarus
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute stroke treatments reduce the risk of post-stroke disability. These treatments, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and intra-arterial treatment, are highly time-dependent; thus, one of the main barriers to treatment is pre-hospital delay. Stroke preparedness is defined as the ability to recognize stroke symptoms and the intent to activate emergency medical services (EMS). This review describes types of acute stroke treatment and preparedness interventions, including recent mass media interventions to increase acute stroke treatment rates, and adult and youth community interventions to increase stroke preparedness...
November 16, 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142759/forced-migrants-involved-in-setting-the-agenda-and-designing-research-to-reduce-impacts-of-complex-emergencies-combining-swarm-with-patient-and-public-involvement
#3
Julii Suzanne Brainard, Enana Al Assaf, Judith Omasete, Steve Leach, Charlotte C Hammer, Paul R Hunter
Plain English summary: The UK's National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Protection Research Unit in Emergency Preparedness and Response was asked to undertake research on how to reduce the impact of complex national/international emergencies on public health. How to focus the research and decide on priority topics was challenging, given the nature of complex events. Using a type of structured brain-storming, the researchers identified the ongoing UK, European and international migration crisis as both complex and worthy of deeper research...
2017: Res Involv Engagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141723/emergence-epidemiology-and-transmission-dynamics-of-2009-pandemic-a-h1n1-influenza-in-kampala-uganda-2009-2015
#4
Matthew J Cummings, Barnabas Bakamutumaho, Wan Yang, Joseph F Wamala, John Kayiwa, Nicholas Owor, Barbara Namagambo, Timothy Byaruhanga, Allison Wolf, Julius J Lutwama, Jeffrey Shaman, Max R O'Donnell
In sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about the epidemiology of pandemic-prone influenza viruses in urban settings. Using data from a prospective sentinel surveillance network, we characterized the emergence, epidemiology, and transmission dynamics of 2009 pandemic A/H1N1 influenza (H1N1pdm09) in Kampala, Uganda. After virus introduction via international air travel from England in June 2009, we estimated the basic reproductive number in Kampala to be 1.06-1.13, corresponding to attack rates of 12-22%. We subsequently identified 613 cases of influenza in Kampala from 2009 to 2015, of which 191 (31...
October 30, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140769/addressing-maternal-health-during-cdc-s-ebola-response-in-the-united-states
#5
Sascha Ellington, Mirna Perez, Diane Morof, Marianne E Zotti, William Callaghan, Dana Meaney-Delman, Maleeka Glover, Quynh-Chau Ha, Denise J Jamieson
Previous outbreaks suggest that pregnant women with Ebola virus disease (EVD) are at increased risk for severe disease and death. Healthcare workers who treat pregnant women with EVD are at increased risk of body fluid exposure. Despite the absence of pregnant women with EVD in the United States, CDC activated the Maternal Health Team (MHT), a functional unit dedicated to emergency preparedness and response issues, on October 18, 2014. We describe major activities of the MHT. A high-priority MHT activity was to publish guiding principles early in the response...
November 2017: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138016/the-challenges-of-detecting-and-responding-to-a-lassa-fever-outbreak-in-an-ebola-affected-setting
#6
E L Hamblion, P Raftery, A Wendland, E Dweh, G S Williams, R N C George, L Soro, V Katawera, P Clement, A N Gasasira, E Musa, T K Nagbe
OBJECTIVES: Lassa fever(LF), a priority emerging pathogen likely to cause major epidemics, is endemic in much of West Africa and difficult to distinguish from other viral haemorrhagic fevers including Ebola virus disease(EVD). Definitive diagnosis requires laboratory confirmation not widely available in affected settings. We report the public health action to contain a LF outbreak and challenges encountered in an EVD-affected setting. METHODS: In February 2016 a rapid response team was deployed in Liberia in response to a cluster of LF cases...
November 11, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136271/emergency-preparedness-training-preferences-and-perceived-barriers-to-training-among-various-healthcare-providers-and-public-health-practitioners-in-massachusetts
#7
John Broach, Mary-Elise Smith
INTRODUCTION: Emergency preparedness training is vital to a wide range of healthcare and public health disciplines. Although agencies may try to tailor their training efforts based on perceived need, the topics and methods of instruction may be misguided, resulting in wasted effort and poor participation in training events. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to understand in a rigorous way, the training preferences and barriers to training among practitioners in Massachusetts...
April 2017: American Journal of Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131370/mental-ill-health-among-adult-patients-at-healthcare-centres-in-sweden-district-nurses-experiences
#8
Ann-Christin Janlöv, Linda Johansson, Eva K Clausson
BACKGROUND: Mental ill-health among the general population is increasing in Sweden. Primary Health Care (PHC) and Healthcare Centres (HCC), where district nurses (DNs) work, bear the basic responsibility for treatment of mental ill-health, while severe mental ill-health fall under the responsibility of psychiatric specialist care. The increased prevalence of mental ill-health in the community means that DNs increasingly encounter people with mental health problems - not least as a comorbidity...
November 13, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119221/preparing-japanese-surgeons-for-potential-mass-casualty-situations-will-require-innovative-and-systematic-programs
#9
H Uchino, V Y Kong, J L Bruce, G V Oosthuizen, W Bekker, G L Laing, D L Clarke
INTRODUCTION: The ongoing state of global geo-political instability means that it is prudent to prepare civilian surgeons to manage major military-type trauma. Japan has enjoyed a prolonged period of peace and consequently it is unlikely that surgeons will have been exposed to a sufficient volume of cases. This study reviews the state of trauma training and preparedness in Japan and reviews the trauma workload of a major Japanese emergency medical center and compared with a major South African trauma center with the intention of quantifying and comparing the time needed to gain adequate exposure to major trauma at the two centers...
November 8, 2017: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112646/transfusion-preparedness-strategies-for-obstetric-hemorrhage-a-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#10
Brett D Einerson, Zuzana Stehlikova, Richard E Nelson, Brandon K Bellows, Kensaku Kawamoto, Erin A S Clark
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of common obstetric transfusion preparedness strategies to prevent emergency-release transfusions. METHODS: A decision analytic model compared five commonly used transfusion preparedness strategies in a general obstetric population. Patients were classified as being at low, moderate, or high risk for transfusion. The most prepared strategy used a policy of universal type and screen plus crossmatch for high-risk patients...
November 3, 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110738/what-can-we-learn-from-simulation-based-training-to-improve-skills-for-end-of-life-care-insights-from-a-national-project-in-israel
#11
Mayer Brezis, Yael Lahat, Meir Frankel, Alan Rubinov, Davina Bohm, Matan J Cohen, Meni Koslowsky, Orit Shalomson, Charles L Sprung, Henia Perry-Mezare, Rina Yahalom, Amitai Ziv
BACKGROUND: Simulation-based training improves residents' skills for end-of-life (EOL) care. In the field, staff providers play a significant role in handling those situations and in shaping practice by role modeling. We initiated an educational intervention to train healthcare providers for improved communication skills at EOL using simulation of sensitive encounters with patients and families. METHODS: Hospital physicians and nurses (n = 1324) attended simulation-based workshops (n = 100) in a national project to improve EOL care...
November 6, 2017: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108735/emergency-department-patient-burden-from-an-electronic-dance-music-festival
#12
Neeraj Chhabra, Renee P Gimbar, Lisa M Walla, Trevonne M Thompson
BACKGROUND: Electronic dance music (EDM) festivals are increasingly common and psychoactive substance use is prevalent. Although prehospital care can obviate the transfer of many attendees to health care facilities (HCFs), little is known regarding the emergency department (ED) burden of patients presenting from EDM festivals. OBJECTIVES: This study describes the patient volume, length of stay (LOS), and presenting complaints of patients from a 3-day EDM festival in close proximity to an area ED...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098145/emerging-and-reemerging-diseases-in-the-world-health-organization-who-eastern-mediterranean-region-progress-challenges-and-who-initiatives
#13
REVIEW
Evans Buliva, Mohamed Elhakim, Nhu Nguyen Tran Minh, Amgad Elkholy, Peter Mala, Abdinasir Abubakar, Sk Md Mamunur Rahman Malik
The Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) of the World Health Organization (WHO) continues to be a hotspot for emerging and reemerging infectious diseases and the need to prevent, detect, and respond to any infectious diseases that pose a threat to global health security remains a priority. Many risk factors contribute in the emergence and rapid spread of epidemic diseases in the Region including acute and protracted humanitarian emergencies, resulting in fragile health systems, increased population mobility, rapid urbanization, climate change, weak surveillance and limited laboratory diagnostic capacity, and increased human-animal interaction...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098119/process-review-for-development-of-quantitative-risk-analyses-for-transboundary-animal-disease-to-pathogen-free-territories
#14
REVIEW
Jonathan Miller, Ken Burton, Joe Fund, Adrian Self
Outbreaks of transboundary animal diseases (TADs) have the potential to cause significant detriment to animal, human, and environmental health; severe economic implications; and national security. Challenges concerning data sharing, model development, decision support, and disease emergence science have recently been promoted. These challenges and recommendations have been recognized and advocated in the disciplines intersecting with outbreak prediction and forecast modeling regarding infectious diseases. To advance the effective application of computation and risk communication, analytical products ought to follow a collaboratively agreed common plan for implementation...
2017: BioResearch Open Access
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089191/a-multi-site-feasibility-study-to-assess-fever-and-wheezing-in-children-after-influenza-vaccines-using-text-messaging
#15
Melissa S Stockwell, Colin D Marchant, A Patrica Wodi, Elizabeth D Barnett, Karen R Broder, Kathleen Jakob, Paige Lewis, Meyer Kattan, Anne Marie Rezendes, Angela Barrett, Devindra Sharma, Nadira Fernandez, Philip LaRussa
BACKGROUND: Using text messaging for vaccine safety monitoring, particularly for non-medically attended events, would be valuable for pandemic influenza and emergency vaccination program preparedness. We assessed the feasibility and acceptability of text messaging to evaluate fever and wheezing post-influenza vaccination in a prospective, observational, multi-site pediatric study. METHODS: Children aged 2-11 years old, with an emphasis on children with asthma, were recruited during the 2014-2015 influenza season from three community-based clinics in New York City, and during the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 seasons from a private practice in Fall River, Massachusetts...
October 28, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084119/high-performing-local-health-departments-relate-their-experiences-at-community-engagement-in-emergency-preparedness
#16
Monica Schoch-Spana, Sanjana Ravi, Diane Meyer, Laura Biesiadecki, Geoffrey Mwaungulu
CONTEXT: Local health departments (LHDs) are implementing a national mandate to engage community partners, including individuals, businesses, and community- and faith-based organizations in the larger public health emergency preparedness (PHEP) enterprise. OBJECTIVE: Investigate how LHDs of varying size and resource levels successfully engage the community in PHEP to help uncover "best practices" that aspiring agencies can replicate, particularly in low-resource environments...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083948/chimpanzee-adenoviral-vectors-as-vaccines-for-outbreak-pathogens
#17
Katie Ewer, Sarah Sebastian, Alexandra J Spencer, Sarah Gilbert, Adrian V S Hill, Teresa Lambe
The 2014-15 Ebola outbreak in West Africa highlighted the potential for large disease outbreaks caused by emerging pathogens and has generated considerable focus on preparedness for future epidemics. Here we discuss drivers, strategies and practical considerations for developing vaccines against outbreak pathogens. Chimpanzee adenoviral (ChAd) vectors have been developed as vaccine candidates for multiple infectious diseases and prostate cancer. ChAd vectors are safe and induce antigen-specific cellular and humoral immunity in all age groups, as well as circumventing the problem of pre-existing immunity encountered with human Ad vectors...
October 30, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079071/occult-spinal-cord-injury-after-blunt-force-trauma-in-a-patient-with-achondroplasia-a-case-report-and-review-of-trauma-management-strategy
#18
Martin Huecker, Zach Harris, Eric Yazel
BACKGROUND: Achondroplastic dwarfism is associated with anatomic abnormalities that can predispose to occult injury and challenges in trauma management. Airway anatomy is problematic due to macrocephaly, midface hypoplasia, and a narrow nasopharynx. Manipulation of the neck is very dangerous due to the high likelihood of preexisting cervicomedullary stenosis. Restrictive lung disease and obstructive sleep apnea may complicate respiratory status. Peripheral and central venous access can be difficult to obtain...
October 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079065/terrorist-stabbings-distinctive-characteristics-and-how-to-prepare-for-them
#19
Ofer Merin, Roman Sonkin, Avraham Yitzhak, Hagai Frenkel, Adi Leiba, Alon D Schwarz, Eli Jaffe
BACKGROUND: The number of terror attack incidents is on the increase worldwide. The knife is one of the weapons most commonly used among terrorists. Appropriate preparation in trauma units for coping with the increasing numbers of terrorist-inflicted stabbings is different from the preparation suitable for civilian stabbings. Therapeutic and logistic guidelines need to be adjusted to accommodate those differences. OBJECTIVES: Characterize the unique injuries related to terrorist stabbing, and suggest preparedness actions...
October 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070085/the-south-dakota-model-health-care-professions-student-disaster-preparedness-and-deployment-training
#20
Matt P Owens, Cheri Buffington, Michael P Frost, Randall J Waldner
OBJECTIVE: The Association of American Medical Colleges recommended an increase in medical education for public health emergencies, bioterrorism, and weapons of mass destruction in 2003. The University of South Dakota Sanford School of Medicine (USD SSOM) implemented a 1-day training event to provide disaster preparedness training and deployment organization for health professions students called Disaster Training Day (DTD). METHODS: Hospital staff and emergency medical services personnel provided the lecture portion of DTD using Core Disaster Life Support (CDLS; National Disaster Life Support Foundation) as the framework...
October 26, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
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