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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727521/ethical-guidance-for-disaster-response-specifically-around-crisis-standards-of-care-a-systematic-review
#1
Jonathon P Leider, Debra DeBruin, Nicole Reynolds, Angelica Koch, Judy Seaberg
BACKGROUND: Terrorism, disease outbreaks, and other natural disasters and mass casualty events have pushed health care and public health systems to identify and refine emergency preparedness protocols for disaster response. Ethical guidance, alongside legal and medical frameworks, are increasingly common components of disaster response plans. OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the prevalence and content of ethical guidance offered for disaster response, specifically around crisis standards of care (CSCs)...
July 20, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700774/a-unique-program-to-incorporate-volunteers-into-a-nationwide-emergency-medical-system-maximizing-preparedness-for-a-mass-casualty-incident
#2
Eli Jaffe, Evan Avraham Alpert, Ari M Lipsky
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 12, 2017: JAMA Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698515/post-disaster-food-and-nutrition-from-urban-agriculture-a-self-sufficiency-analysis-of-nerima-ward-tokyo
#3
Giles Bruno Sioen, Makiko Sekiyama, Toru Terada, Makoto Yokohari
Background: Post-earthquake studies from around the world have reported that survivors relying on emergency food for prolonged periods of time experienced several dietary related health problems. The present study aimed to quantify the potential nutrient production of urban agricultural vegetables and the resulting nutritional self-sufficiency throughout the year for mitigating post-disaster situations. Methods: We estimated the vegetable production of urban agriculture throughout the year. Two methods were developed to capture the production from professional and hobby farms: Method I utilized secondary governmental data on agricultural production from professional farms, and Method II was based on a supplementary spatial analysis to estimate the production from hobby farms...
July 10, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697859/emergency-preparedness-for-mass-gatherings-lessons-of-12-31-stampede-in%C3%A2-shanghai-bund
#4
Yong-He Dong, Fei Liu, Yong-Mei Liu, Xia-Rong Jiang, Zhong-Xin Zhao
According to WHO, one of these mass gatherings with critical risk is stampedes. Shanghai "12.31" stampede was a preventable tragedy that the government and event planner hold responsibility for. At the same time, it can be a legacy for improvement in the future. The government should draw experience on the implementation of an emergency preparedness system, in order to improve the rapid emergency response during mass gatherings in the future.
May 25, 2017: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692384/advancing-the-use-of-emergency-department-syndromic-surveillance-data-new-york-city-2012-2016
#5
Ramona Lall, Jasmine Abdelnabi, Stephanie Ngai, Hilary B Parton, Kelly Saunders, Jessica Sell, Amanda Wahnich, Don Weiss, Robert W Mathes
INTRODUCTION: The use of syndromic surveillance has expanded from its initial purpose of bioterrorism detection. We present 6 use cases from New York City that demonstrate the value of syndromic surveillance for public health response and decision making across a broad range of health outcomes: synthetic cannabinoid drug use, heat-related illness, suspected meningococcal disease, medical needs after severe weather, asthma exacerbation after a building collapse, and Ebola-like illness in travelers returning from West Africa...
July 2017: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688117/serologic-evidence-of-west-nile-virus-and-usutu-virus-infections-in-eurasian-coots-in-the-netherlands
#6
S M Lim, M Geervliet, J H Verhagen, G J D M Müskens, F A Majoor, A D M E Osterhaus, B E E Martina
West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV) are arboviruses that are maintained in enzootic transmission cycles between mosquitoes and birds and are occasionally transmitted to mammals. As arboviruses are currently expanding their geographic range and emerging in often unpredictable locations, surveillance is considered an important element of preparedness. To determine whether sera collected from resident and migratory birds in the Netherlands as part of avian influenza surveillance would also represent an effective source for proactive arbovirus surveillance, a random selection of such sera was screened for WNV antibodies using a commercial ELISA...
July 7, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682192/a-systematic-review-of-literature-on-effectiveness-of-training-in-emergency-risk-communication
#7
Ann Neville Miller, Timothy Sellnow, Lindsay Neuberger, Andrew Todd, Rebecca Freihaut, Jane Noyes, Tomas Allen, Nyka Alexander, Marsha Vanderford, Gaya Gamhewage
Although disaster preparedness training is regularly conducted for a range of health-related professions, little evidence-based guidance is available about how best to actually develop capacity in staff for conducting emergency risk communication. This article presents results of a systematic review undertaken to inform the development of World Health Organization guidelines for risk communication during public health and humanitarian emergencies. A total of 6,720 articles were screened, with 24 articles identified for final analysis...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681652/building-an-environmentally-accountable-medical-curriculum-through-international-collaboration
#8
Sarah Catherine Walpole, Aditya Vyas, Janie Maxwell, Ben J Canny, Robert Woollard, Caroline Wellbery, Kathleen E Leedham-Green, Peter Musaeus, Uzma Tufail-Hanif, Karina Pavão Patrício, Hanna-Andrea Rother
BACKGROUND: Global environmental change is associated with significant health threats. The medical profession can address this challenge through advocacy, health system adaptation and workforce preparedness. Stewardship of health systems with attention to their environmental impacts can contribute to mitigation of and adaptation to negative health impacts of environmental change. Medical schools have an integral role in training doctors who understand the interdependence of ecosystems and human health...
July 6, 2017: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676492/local-emergency-medical-response-after-a-terrorist-attack-in-norway-a-qualitative-study
#9
Aleidis S Brandrud, Michael Bretthauer, Guttorm Brattebø, May Jb Pedersen, Kent Håpnes, Karin Møller, Trond Bjorge, Bjørnar Nyen, Lars Strauman, Ada Schreiner, Gro S Haldorsen, Maria Bergli, Eugene Nelson, Tamara S Morgan, Per Hjortdahl
INTRODUCTION: On 22 July 2011, Norway suffered a devastating terrorist attack targeting a political youth camp on a remote island. Within a few hours, 35 injured terrorist victims were admitted to the local Ringerike community hospital. All victims survived. The local emergency medical service (EMS), despite limited resources, was evaluated by three external bodies as successful in handling this crisis. This study investigates the determinants for the success of that EMS as a model for quality improvement in healthcare...
July 4, 2017: BMJ Quality & Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676414/cultural-competency-training-in-emergency-medicine
#10
Oren J Mechanic, Nicole M Dubosh, Carlo L Rosen, Alden M Landry
BACKGROUND: The Emergency Department is widely regarded as the epicenter of medical care for diverse and largely disparate types of patients. Physicians must be aware of the cultural diversity of their patient population to appropriately address their medical needs. A better understanding of residency preparedness in cultural competency can lead to better training opportunities and patient care. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess residency and faculty exposure to formal cultural competency programs and assess future needs for diversity education...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668462/how-is-europe-positioned-for-a-re-emergence-of-schmallenberg-virus
#11
Anastasios Stavrou, Janet M Daly, Ben Maddison, Kevin Gough, Rachael Tarlinton
Schmallenberg virus (SBV) caused a large scale epidemic in Europe from 2011 to 2013, infecting ruminants and causing foetal deformities after infection of pregnant animals. The main impact of the virus was financial loss due to restrictions on trade of animals, meat and semen. Although effective vaccines were produced, their uptake was never high. Along with the subsequent decline in new SBV infections and natural replacement of previously exposed livestock, this has resulted in a decrease in the number of protected animals...
May 3, 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663209/is-it-possible-to-develop-a-universal-influenza-virus-vaccine-toward-a-universal-influenza-virus-vaccine-potential-target-antigens-and-critical-aspects-for-vaccine-development
#12
Florian Krammer, Adolfo García-Sastre, Peter Palese
Influenza viruses cause seasonal epidemics as well as pandemics and are a significant concern for human health. Current influenza virus vaccines show efficacy when they are antigenically well matched to circulating strains. Seasonal influenza viruses undergo antigenic drift at a high rate and, therefore, current vaccines have to be reformulated and readministered on an annual basis. Mismatches between vaccine strains and circulating strains frequently occur, significantly decreasing vaccine efficacy. In addition, current seasonal influenza virus vaccines have limited efficacy against newly emerging pandemic viruses...
June 29, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661290/employer-requirements-to-work-during-emergency-responses-key-ethics-considerations
#13
Lainie Rutkow, Holly A Taylor, Tia Powell
Local health departments and their employees are at the forefront of emergency preparedness and response. Yet, recent studies have found that some local public health workers are unwilling to report to work in a variety of disaster scenarios. This can greatly compromise a response, as many local health departments need "all hands on deck" to effectively meet increased demands. To address these concerns, local health departments have employed varied policy strategies to ensure that employees do report to work...
March 2017: Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics: a Journal of the American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659222/changes-to-the-korean-disaster-medical-assistance-system-after-numerous-multi-casualty-incidents-in-2014-and-2015
#14
Myeong-Il Cha, Minhong Choa, Seunghwan Kim, Jinseong Cho, Dai Hai Choi, Minsu Cho, Won Kim, Chu Hyun Kim, Daehyun Kang, Yun Jung Heo, Jung Eon Kim, Han Deok Yoon, Soon Joo Wang
OBJECTIVE: A number of multiple-casualty incidents during 2014 and 2015 brought changes to Korea's disaster medical assistance system. We report these changes here. METHODS: Reports about these incidents, revisions to laws, and the government's revised medical disaster response guidelines were reviewed. RESULTS: The number of DMAT (Disaster Medical Assistance Team) staff members was reduced to 4 from 8, and the mobilization method changed...
June 29, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659215/how-evacuees-obtained-health-care-information-after-the-great-east-japan-earthquake-a-qualitative-interview-study
#15
Haruka Ota, Kikuko Miyazaki, Takeo Nakayama
OBJECTIVE: To explore how evacuees obtained health care information at their evacuation destinations after the Great East Japan Earthquake. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured interviews of 11 evacuees who moved to City A in Kyoto Prefecture following the Great East Japan Earthquake. The interviews explored how the evacuees obtained health care information, including the main factors of influence. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed to identify trends by using the constant comparative method...
June 29, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657992/ready-or-not-obstetrics-and-gynecology-resident-preparedness-for-female-pelvic-medicine-and-reconstructive-surgery-training
#16
Tanaka J Dune, Robert H Blackwell, Arianna Griffin, Susanne Taege, Juliana Sung, Elizabeth R Mueller, Linda Brubaker
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the perception of female pelvic medicine and reconstructive surgery (FPMRS) program directors (PDs) and obstetrics and gynecology (OG) FMPRS fellows regarding the adequacy of OG residency as preparation for FPMRS fellowship. METHODS: Electronic invitations to complete a modified version of a validated survey were extended to FPMRS PDs and their second- and third-year OG FPMRS fellows who had just completed their first or second year of FPMRS fellowship, respectively...
June 27, 2017: Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657905/methods-of-minimizing-doses-incurred-by-external-exposure-while-moving-in-radiation-hazardous-areas
#17
Konstantin Chizhov, Malgorzata K Sneve, Sergey Shinkarev, Alexander Tsovyanov, Graham Smith, Aleksander Krasnoschekov, Aleksander Kosnikov, Igor Kemsky, Victor Kryuchkov
Radiation doses received by workers during their movement within areas contaminated as a result of events and activities, leading to emergency or existing exposure situations, may provide a substantial contribution to total external exposure during remediation work. This paper describes an approach to minimize worker external exposure in these circumstances, based on graph theory. The paper describes several tasks, including: searching for a route with the lowest dose, searching for an optimal bypass with a given set of control points and searching for the optimal road network coverage...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654317/federal-funding-for-health-security-in-fy2018
#18
Crystal Watson, Matthew Watson, Tara Kirk Sell
This article is the latest in an annual series analyzing federal funding for health security programs. It examines proposed funding in the President's Budget Request for FY2018 and provides updated amounts for FY2017 and actual funding for FY2010 through FY2016. The proposed FY2018 budget for health security-related programs represents a significant decrease in funding from prior years and previous administrations. In total, the President's proposed FY2018 budget includes $12.45 billion for health security-related programs, an estimated decrease in funding of $1...
June 27, 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648861/preparing-clinicians-for-re-emerging-arbovirus-infectious-diseases-in-europe
#19
REVIEW
Louise Sigfrid, Chantal Reusken, Isabella Eckerle, Veronique Nussenblatt, Sam Lipworth, Janey Messina, Moritz Kraemer, Onder Ergonul, Anna Papa, Marion Koopmans, Peter Horby
BACKGROUND: Arthropod-borne virus (Arbovirus) infections are considered an emerging threat for Europe, with an increase in cases in recent decades. The increase in global travel and trade has contributed to the introduction of vectors and viruses into new geographical areas. Tropical arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya have re-emerged causing local, sporadic outbreaks ignited by travel-imported cases. The recent Zika virus outbreak in the Americas highlighted a need to strengthen preparedness to (re-)emerging arbovirus infections globally...
June 22, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646851/development-of-an-education-campaign-to-reduce-delays-in-pre-hospital-response-to-stroke
#20
Caterina Caminiti, Peter Schulz, Barbara Marcomini, Elisa Iezzi, Silvia Riva, Umberto Scoditti, Andrea Zini, Giovanni Malferrari, Maria Luisa Zedde, Donata Guidetti, Enrico Montanari, Mario Baratti, Licia Denti
BACKGROUND: Systematic reviews call for well-designed trials with clearly described intervention components to support the effectiveness of educational campaigns to reduce patient delay in stroke presentation. We herein describe the systematic development process of a campaign aimed to increase stroke awareness and preparedness. METHODS: Campaign development followed Intervention Mapping (IM), a theory- and evidence-based tool, and was articulated in two phases: needs assessment and intervention development...
June 24, 2017: BMC Emergency Medicine
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