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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721633/decreased-vmat2-in-the-pancreas-of-humans-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-measured-in-vivo-by-pet-imaging
#1
Gary W Cline, Mika Naganawa, Laigao Chen, Kristin Chidsey, Santos Carvajal-Gonzalez, Sylvester Pawlak, Michelle Rossulek, Yanwei Zhang, Jason Bini, Timothy J McCarthy, Richard E Carson, Roberto A Calle
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The progressive loss of beta cell function is part of the natural history of type 2 diabetes. Autopsy studies suggest that this is, in part, due to loss of beta cell mass (BCM), but this has not been confirmed in vivo. Non-invasive methods to quantify BCM may contribute to a better understanding of type 2 diabetes pathophysiology and the development of therapeutic strategies. In humans, the localisation of vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 (VMAT2) in beta cells and pancreatic polypeptide cells, with minimal expression in other exocrine or endocrine pancreatic cells, has led to its development as a measure of BCM...
May 2, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717050/mouse-embryo-cryopreservation-by-high-osmolality-vitrification
#2
Keiji Mochida
In conventional vitrification methods, the embryos are vitrified under considerable supercooling (i.e., under nonequilibrium conditions). This protocol is a refinement of newer equilibrium vitrification methods. The equilibrium vitrification solution contains a high concentration of cryoprotectants that increase its osmolality and allows vitrified embryos to survive not only during storage in liquid nitrogen (LN2 ) at -196°C but also during temporary holding at -80°C (for at least 5 mo). This high-osmolality vitrification (HOV) method is as simple as conventional vitrification and provides essentially the same high postwarming survival rate...
May 1, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712976/impact-of-hiv-and-type-2-diabetes-on-gut-microbiota-diversity-tryptophan-catabolism-and-endothelial-dysfunction
#3
Hedda Hoel, Malene Hove-Skovsgaard, Johannes R Hov, Julie Christine Gaardbo, Kristian Holm, Martin Kummen, Knut Rudi, Felix Nwosu, Jørgen Valeur, Marco Gelpi, Ingebjørg Seljeflot, Per Magne Ueland, Jan Gerstoft, Henrik Ullum, Pål Aukrust, Susanne Dam Nielsen, Marius Trøseid
HIV infection and type 2 diabetes are associated with altered gut microbiota, chronic inflammation, and increased cardiovascular risk. We aimed to investigate the combined effect of these diseases on gut microbiota composition and related metabolites, and a potential relation to endothelial dysfunction in individuals with HIV-infection only (n = 23), diabetes only (n = 16) or both conditions (n = 21), as well as controls (n = 24). Fecal microbiota was analyzed by Illumina sequencing of the 16 S rRNA gene...
April 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709678/lysyl-oxidase-like-protein-2-loxl2-modules-barrier-function-in-cholangiocytes-in-cholestasis
#4
Marion J Pollheimer, Silvia Racedo, Amanda Mikels-Vigdal, Derek Marshall, Christopher Bowlus, Carolin Lackner, Tobias Madl, Tom H Karlsen, Johannes R Hov, Susan K Lyman, Joanne Adamkewicz, Victoria Smith, Emmanuel Moreau, Gernot Zollner, Tor Jacob Eide, Tatjana Stojakovic, Hubert Scharnagl, Hans-Jürgen Gruber, Rudolf E Stauber, Michael Trauner, Peter Fickert
BACKGROUND: The lysyl oxidase-like protein 2 (LOXL2) promotes stabilization of the extracellular matrix, chemotaxis, cell growth and cell mobility. We aimed to (i) identify stimuli of LOXL2 in cholangiopathies, (ii) characterize the effects of LOXL2 on biliary epithelial cells' (BECs) barrier function, (iii) compare LOXL2 expression in PSC, PBC, and disease controls, and (iv) to determine LOXL2 expression and cellular sources in 4 mouse models for cholangiopathies. METHODS: Cultured murine BECs were challenged with well-known triggers of cellular senescence, hypoxia, phospholipid-deficient Abcb4-/- mouse bile and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) and investigated for LOXL2, SNAIL1 and E-cadherin expression and transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) with and without LOX-inhibition...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709467/use-of-the-cam-icu-during-daily-sedation-stops-in-mechanically-ventilated-patients-as-assessed-and-experienced-by-intensive-care-nurses-a-mixed-methods-study
#5
Else Berit Steinseth, Sevald Høye, Reidun Hov
BACKGROUND: Mechanically ventilated patients are at risk of developing delirium, which increases mortality and prolongs their stay in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). AIM: To investigate the assessment of delirium by ICU nurses and their experiences of using the Confusion Assessment Method for Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU) in mechanically ventilated patients during daily sedation stops. METHODS: The study employed an explanatory sequential mixed-methods design...
April 27, 2018: Intensive & Critical Care Nursing: the Official Journal of the British Association of Critical Care Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651360/phosphatase-of-regenerating-liver-3-prl-3-is-overexpressed-in-classical-hodgkin-lymphoma-and-promotes-survival-and-migration
#6
Magnus Aassved Hjort, Håkon Hov, Pegah Abdollahi, Esten Nymoen Vandsemb, Unn-Merete Fagerli, Bendik Lund, Tobias Schmidt Slørdahl, Magne Børset, Torstein Baade Rø
Background: Phosphatase of regenerating liver-3 (PRL-3) is implicated in oncogenesis of hematological and solid cancers. PRL-3 expression increases metastatic potential, invasiveness and is associated with poor prognosis. With this study, we aimed to show a possible oncogenic role of PRL-3 in classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). Methods: PRL-3 expression was measured in 25 cHL patients by immunohistochemistry and gene expression was analyzed from microdissected malignant cells...
2018: Experimental Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533118/are-age-specific-reference-ranges-for-cyfra-21-1-appropriate
#7
Gustav Mikkelsen, Arne Åsberg, Gunhild Garmo Hov
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 13, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501255/airway-clearance-techniques-in-neuromuscular-disorders-a-state-of-the-art-review
#8
REVIEW
Michelle Chatwin, Michel Toussaint, Miguel R Gonçalves, Nicole Sheers, Uwe Mellies, Jesus Gonzales-Bermejo, Jesus Sancho, Brigitte Fauroux, Tiina Andersen, Brit Hov, Malin Nygren-Bonnier, Matthieu Lacombe, Kurt Pernet, Mike Kampelmacher, Christian Devaux, Kathy Kinnett, Daniel Sheehan, Fabrizio Rao, Marcello Villanova, David Berlowitz, Brenda M Morrow
This is a unique state of the art review written by a group of 21 international recognized experts in the field that gathered during a meeting organized by the European Neuromuscular Centre (ENMC) in Naarden, March 2017. It systematically reports the entire evidence base for airway clearance techniques (ACTs) in both adults and children with neuromuscular disorders (NMD). We not only report randomised controlled trials, which in other systematic reviews conclude that there is a lack of evidence base to give an opinion, but also include case series and retrospective reviews of practice...
March 2018: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498764/recurrent-attacks-of-acute-hepatic-porphyria-major-role-of-the-chronic-inflammatory-response-in-the-liver
#9
C Schmitt, H Lenglet, A Yu, C Delaby, A Benecke, T Lefebvre, P Letteron, V Paradis, S Wahlin, S Sandberg, P Harper, E Sardh, A K Sandvik, J R Hov, A K Aarsand, L Chiche, C Bazille, J-Y Scoazec, J To-Figueras, M Carrascal, J Abian, A Mirmiran, Z Karim, J-C Deybach, H Puy, K Peoc'h, H Manceau, L Gouya
BACKGROUND: Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is an inherited disorder of haem metabolism characterized by life-threatening acute neurovisceral attacks due to the induction of hepatic δ-aminolevulinic acid synthase 1 (ALAS1) associated with hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS) deficiency. So far, the treatment of choice is hemin which represses ALAS1. The main issue in the medical care of AIP patients is the occurrence of debilitating recurrent attacks. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether chronic hemin administration contributes to the recurrence of acute attacks...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490898/prehospital-advanced-diagnostics-and-treatment-of-acute-stroke-protocol-for-a-controlled-intervention-study
#10
Kristi G Bache, Maren Ranhoff Hov, Karianne Larsen, Volker Moræus Solyga, Christian G Lund
BACKGROUND: Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is a medical emergency. The outcome is closely linked to the time elapsing from symptom onset to treatment, and seemingly small delays can mean the difference between full recovery and physical and cognitive dysfunction. Recanalization to allow blood to reenter the affected area is most efficient immediately after symptoms occur, and intravenous thrombolysis must be initiated no later than 4.5 hours after the symptom onset. A liable diagnosis is mandatory to administer the appropriate treatment...
February 28, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415611/safety-features-of-freeway-weaving-segments-with-a-buffer-separated-high-occupancy-vehicle-hov-lane
#11
Kwangho Kim, Byung-Jung Park
This paper investigates the crash-rate distribution of the freeway weaving segments with a buffer-separated high-occupancy-vehicle lane. For this purpose, crash, traffic and geometry data were extracted from various sources. These extracted data were either spatially or spatiotemporally matched with one another, and used for both descriptive and model-based analyses. The descriptive analysis revealed that crash-rate distributions of the weaving segments depend not only on the class of the subject highway but also on the presence of an access point...
February 8, 2018: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282410/cerebrospinal-fluid-s100b-and-alzheimer-s-disease-biomarkers-in-hip-fracture-patients-with-delirium
#12
Karen Roksund Hov, Nils Bolstad, Ane-Victoria Idland, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Farrukh A Chaudhry, Frede Frihagen, Johan Ræder, Torgeir Bruun Wyller, Leiv Otto Watne
Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) S100B astrocyte-derived protein and delirium and to perform stratified analyses according to clinical and CSF markers of dementia. Methods: We performed a prospective cohort study in a university hospital setting. The participants were patients admitted for hip fracture ( n = 98) or for elective surgery ( n = 50). Delirium was assessed daily perioperatively in hip fracture patients using the Confusion Assessment Method...
September 2017: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239899/stroke-severity-quantification-by-critical-care-physicians-in-a-mobile-stroke-unit
#13
Maren R Hov, Jo Røislien, Thomas Lindner, Erik Zakariassen, Kristi C G Bache, Volker M Solyga, David Russell, Christian G Lund
BACKGROUND: Cerebral revascularization in acute stroke requires robust diagnostic tools close to symptom onset. The quantitative National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) is widely used in-hospital, whereas shorter and less specific stroke scales are used in the prehospital field. This study explored the accuracy and potential clinical benefit of using NIHSS prehospitally. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirteen anesthesiologists trained in prehospital critical care enrolled patients with suspected acute stroke in a mobile stroke unit...
December 12, 2017: European Journal of Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the European Society for Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239774/the-clinical-use-of-mechanical-insufflation-exsufflation-in-children-with-neuromuscular-disorders-in-europe
#14
REVIEW
Brit Hov, Tiina Andersen, Vegard Hovland, Michel Toussaint
Mechanical insufflation-exsufflation (MI-E) is a strategy to treat pulmonary exacerbations in neuromuscular disorders (NMDs). Pediatric guidelines for optimal setting titration of MI-E are lacking and the settings used in studies vary. Our objective was to assess the actual MI-E settings being used in current clinical treatment of children with NMDs and a survey was sent in July 2016 to European expertise centers. Ten centers from seven countries gave information on MI-E settings for 240 children aged 4 months to 17...
November 3, 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239366/five-priorities-for-weather-and-climate-research
#15
Øystein Hov, Deon Terblanche, Sarah Jones, Paolo M Ruti, Oksana Tarasova
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 14, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212539/the-relationships-between-the-combination-of-person-and-organization-related-conditions-and-patients-perceptions-of-palliative-care-quality
#16
Tuva Sandsdalen, Sevald Høye, Ingrid Rystedt, Vigdis Abrahamsen Grøndahl, Reidun Hov, Bodil Wilde-Larsson
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the combination of person- and organization- related conditions and the relationships with patients' perspectives of care quality. Such a combination could contribute knowledge reflecting the complexity of clinical practice, and enhance individualized care. The aim was to investigate the relationships between the combination of person- and organization-related conditions and patients' perceptions of palliative care quality. METHODS: A cross-sectional study, including 191 patients in the late palliative phase (73% response rate) admitted to hospice inpatient care (n = 72), hospice day care (n = 51), palliative units in nursing homes (n = 30) and home care (n = 38), was conducted between November 2013 and December 2014, using the instrument Quality from the Patients' Perspective specific to palliative care (QPP-PC)...
December 6, 2017: BMC Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162322/do-long-lived-plasma-cells-maintain-a-healthy-microbiota-in-the-gut
#17
REVIEW
Frode L Jahnsen, Espen S Bækkevold, Johannes R Hov, Ole J Landsverk
Disruptions to the gut microbiota have been associated with a variety of diseases. Understanding the underlying mechanisms that regulate the maintenance of a healthy microbiota may therefore have therapeutic implications. Secretory IgA play a unique role in immune-microbiota crosstalk by directly binding to bacteria in the gut lumen. Microbe-specific IgA responses co-develop with the assembly of the gut microbiota during infancy, and resemble those of adults by 2 years postnatally in the healthy host. We propose here that microbiota-specific IgA-producing gut plasma cells generated during infancy live for many decades and contribute to a stable microbiota community...
March 2018: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031214/land-use-regression-models-for-the-oxidative-potential-of-fine-particles-pm-2-5-in-five-european-areas
#18
John Gulliver, David Morley, Chrissi Dunster, Adrienne McCrea, Erik van Nunen, Ming-Yi Tsai, Nicoltae Probst-Hensch, Marloes Eeftens, Medea Imboden, Regina Ducret-Stich, Alessio Naccarati, Claudia Galassi, Andrea Ranzi, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, Ariadna Curto, David Donaire-Gonzalez, Marta Cirach, Roel Vermeulen, Paolo Vineis, Gerard Hoek, Frank J Kelly
Oxidative potential (OP) of particulate matter (PM) is proposed as a biologically-relevant exposure metric for studies of air pollution and health. We aimed to evaluate the spatial variability of the OP of measured PM2.5 using ascorbate (AA) and (reduced) glutathione (GSH), and develop land use regression (LUR) models to explain this spatial variability. We estimated annual average values (m-3 ) of OPAA and OPGSH for five areas (Basel, CH; Catalonia, ES; London-Oxford, UK (no OPGSH ); the Netherlands; and Turin, IT) using PM2...
January 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902124/guanylate-cyclase-c-activation-shapes-the-intestinal-microbiota-in-patients-with-familial-diarrhea-and-increased-susceptibility-for-crohn-s-disease
#19
Rune R Tronstad, Martin Kummen, Kristian Holm, Hilde L von Volkmann, Jarl A Anmarkrud, Marte L Høivik, Bjørn Moum, Odd H Gilja, Trygve Hausken, John Baines, Tom H Karlsen, Torunn Fiskerstrand, Johannes R Hov
BACKGROUND: With 25% prevalence of Crohn's disease, Familial GUCY2C diarrhea syndrome (FGDS) is a monogenic disorder potentially suited to study initiating factors in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We aimed to characterize the impact of an activating GUCY2C mutation on the gut microbiota in patients with FGDS controlling for Crohn's disease status and to determine whether changes share features with those observed in unrelated patients with IBD. METHODS: Bacterial DNA from fecal samples collected from patients with FGDS (N = 20), healthy relatives (N = 11), unrelated healthy individuals (N = 263), and IBD controls (N = 46) was subjected to sequencing of the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene to determine gut microbiota composition...
October 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816579/application-of-the-distance-based-f-test-in-an-mgwas-investigating-%C3%AE-diversity-of-intestinal-microbiota-identifies-variants-in-slc9a8-nhe8-and-3-other-loci
#20
Malte C Rühlemann, Frauke Degenhardt, Louise B Thingholm, Jun Wang, Jurgita Skiecevičienė, Philipp Rausch, Johannes R Hov, Wolfgang Lieb, Tom H Karlsen, Matthias Laudes, John F Baines, Femke-Anouska Heinsen, Andre Franke
Factors shaping the human intestinal microbiota range from environmental influences, like smoking and exercise, over dietary patterns and disease to the host's genetic variation. Recently, we could show in a microbiome genome-wide association study (mGWAS) targeting genetic variation influencing the β diversity of gut microbial communities, that approximately 10% of the overall gut microbiome variation can be explained by host genetics. Here, we report on the application of a new method for genotype-β-diversity association testing, the distance-based F (DBF) test...
August 17, 2017: Gut Microbes
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