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Catherine L Moyes, John Vontas, Ademir J Martins, Lee Ching Ng, Sin Ying Koou, Isabelle Dusfour, Kamaraju Raghavendra, João Pinto, Vincent Corbel, Jean-Philippe David, David Weetman
Both Aedes aegytpi and Ae. albopictus are major vectors of 5 important arboviruses (namely chikungunya virus, dengue virus, Rift Valley fever virus, yellow fever virus, and Zika virus), making these mosquitoes an important factor in the worldwide burden of infectious disease. Vector control using insecticides coupled with larval source reduction is critical to control the transmission of these viruses to humans but is threatened by the emergence of insecticide resistance. Here, we review the available evidence for the geographical distribution of insecticide resistance in these 2 major vectors worldwide and map the data collated for the 4 main classes of neurotoxic insecticide (carbamates, organochlorines, organophosphates, and pyrethroids)...
July 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Kanae Umeda, Masatsugu Miyara, Keishi Ishida, Seigo Sanoh, Shigeru Ohta, Yaichiro Kotake
Glutamate receptor 2 (GluA2/GluR2) is one of the four subunits of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptor (AMPAR); an increase in GluA2-lacking AMPARs contributes to neuronal vulnerability to excitotoxicity because of the receptor's high Ca(2+) permeability. Carbofuran is a carbamate pesticide used in agricultural areas to increase crop productivity. Due to its broad-spectrum action, carbofuran has also been used as an insecticide, nematicide, and acaricide. In this study, we investigated the effect of carbofuran on GluA2 protein expression...
July 19, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
Sukhmanpreet Kaur, Vijay Kumar, Mohit Chawla, Luigi Cavallo, Albert Poater, Niraj Upadhyay
Researchers have suggested that the reason behind infertility is pernicious effect of broad spectrum pesticides on non target, beneficial microorganism of soil. Here, studying the chelating effect of selective organophosphate and carbamate pesticides with essential metal ions, at all possible combinations of three different pH (4 ± 0.05, 7 ± 0.05 and 9 ± 0.05) and three different temperatures (15 ± 0.5°C, 30 ± 0.5°C and 45 ± 0.5°C), shows very fast rate of reaction which further increases with increase of pH and temperature...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
Walter Fabricio Silva Martins, Krishanthi Subramaniam, Keith Steen, Henry Mawejje, Triantafillos Liloglou, Martin James Donnelly, Craig Stephen Wilding
Insecticide resistance is typically associated with alterations to the insecticidal target-site or with gene expression variation at loci involved in insecticide detoxification. In some species copy number variation (CNV) of target site loci (e.g. the Ace-1 target site of carbamate insecticides) or detoxification genes has been implicated in the resistance phenotype. We show that field-collected Ugandan Culex quinquefasciatus display CNV for the voltage-gated sodium channel gene (Vgsc), target-site of pyrethroid and organochlorine insecticides...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
Xiaojuan Liu, Mengmeng Song, Ting Hou, Feng Li
This study addresses the need for sensitive pesticide assay by reporting a new label-free and immobilization-free homogeneous electroanalytical strategy, which combines acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-catalyzed hydrolysis product-mediated DNA conformational switch and rolling circle amplification (RCA) to detect organophosphorous and carbamate pesticides in a "signal-on" mode. When target pesticides were present, AChE activity was inhibited and could not trigger the following DNA conformational change and the RCA reaction, which results in numerous methylene blue (MB) molecules in a free state, generating a strong electrochemical response...
April 28, 2017: ACS Sensors
Mark D Jankowski, Murray E Moore, Erik K Hofmeister
West Nile virus is primarily maintained cryptically primarily in avian (Passerine) populations where it is transmitted by Culex spp. mosquitoes. Mosquito control measures currently include physical activities to reduce mosquito breeding sites, the application of mosquito larvicides, or aerosolized insecticides to kill adults (adulticides) when arboviral diseases such as West Nile virus (WNV) or Zika virus are detected in mosquito populations. Organochlorine, organohosphorus, carbamate and pyrethroid insecticides are often used...
July 19, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Lijuan Ma, Shiyong Huang, Liping Du, Ping Tang, Dongguang Xiao
In red wine, the contents of higher alcohols and ethyl carbamate (EC) are two significant health concerns. To reduce the production of higher alcohols by wine yeast YZ22 with low production of EC, one BAT2 was replaced by a BAT1 expression cassette first and then another BAT2 was deleted to obtain the mutant SYBB3. Real-Time quantitative PCR showed that the relative expression level of BAT1 in SYBB3 improved 28 times compared with that in YZ22. The yields of isobutanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol produced by mutant SYBB3 reduced by 39...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Xin-Yue Hu, Wen-Shan Zhang, Frank Rominger, Irene Wacker, Rasmus R Schröder, Michael Mastalerz
The synthesis of a highly acid and base-stable shape-persistent porous carbamate cage is presented. This cage is stable even in hot (100 °C) 1 M hydrochloric acid (pH = 0) or in concentrated hydrochloric acid (pH = -1) at room temperature without decomposition.
July 19, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Sutong Li, Xiaoxia Liu, Jie Lei, Junle Yang, Puxun Tian, Yi Gao
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a microangiopathic disease characterized by excessive urinary albumin excretion, which occurs in 30% of patients with diabetes mellitus. It is the second leading cause of end-stage renal diseases in China. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) is reported to be closely correlated with the inflammation underlying diabetes-associated renal damage. Crocin, a plant-derived compound, has antioxidant properties that may inhibit NF-κB. METHODS: In the present study, we used a conditionally immortalized mouse podocyte cell line to explore whether crocin could effectively block albuminuria...
July 18, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Xiangkun Meng, Xixia Xu, Haibo Bao, Jianjun Wang, Zewen Liu
Background: Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is an important neurotransmitter hydrolase in invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems. The number of AChEs is various among invertebrate species, with different functions including the 'classical' role in terminating synaptic transmission and other 'non-classical' roles. Methods: Using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technology, a new putative AChE-encoding gene was cloned from Pardosa pseudoannulata, an important predatory natural enemy. Sequence analysis and in vitro expression were employed to determine the structural features and biochemical properties of this putative AChE...
July 11, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Maud Bollenbach, Pedro G V Aquino, Joao Xavier de Araujo-Junior, Jean-Jacques Bourguignon, Frédéric Bihel, Christophe Salome, Patrick Wagner, Martine Schmitt
A simple, sustainable, efficient, mild, and low-cost protocol was developed for D-glucose-assisted Cu-catalyzed Ullmann reactions in water for amides, carbamates, and nitrogen-containing heterocycles. The reaction was compatible with diverse aryl/heteroaryl iodides, giving highly substituted pyridine, indole, or indazole rings. This method offers an attractive alternative to the existing protocols, because the reaction proceeds in aqueous media, occurs at or near ambient temperature, and provides the N-arylated products in good-to-high yields...
July 11, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Kavinda Chandimal Dayasiri, Shaluka F Jayamanne, Chamilka Y Jayasinghe
BACKGROUND: Pesticides are identified as one of the dangerous poisons globally in children and are associated with increased short- and long-term morbidity. Pesticide poisoning is the most common method of self-poisoning among adults in rural Sri Lanka, and the clinical management is associated with significant healthcare costs to the country. There is however little data published on acute pesticide poisoning among children in rural Sri Lanka. The current study aimed to comprehensively evaluate clinical profiles, harmful first aid measures, emergency clinical management, complications and outcomes related to acute pesticide poisoning among children in the rural community of Sri Lanka...
December 2017: International Journal of Emergency Medicine
Dianhao Guo, Jiapeng Luo, Yuenan Zhou, Huamei Xiao, Kang He, Chuanlin Yin, Jianhua Xu, Fei Li
BACKGROUND: Insecticide resistance is a substantial problem in controlling agricultural and medical pests. Detecting target site mutations is crucial to manage insecticide resistance. Though PCR-based methods have been widely used in this field, they are time-consuming and inefficient, and typically have a high false positive rate. Acetylcholinesterases (Ace) is the neural target of the widely used organophosphate (OP) and carbamate insecticides. However, there is not any software available to detect insecticide resistance associated mutations in RNA-Seq data at present...
July 10, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
Ting Chen, Lei Lu, Cai Xu, Xiaojing Lin, Yuet-Kin Leung, Shuk-Mei Ho, Xiong Z Ruan, Xuemei Lian
With emerging evidence connecting cholesterol dysregulation with disturbed pulmonary homeostasis, we are wondering if diet induced hypercholesterolemia would influence the susceptibility to chemical induced lung tumorigenesis in mice. Six to eight week-old male C57BL/6J mice were fed with either a high-cholesterol atherogenic diet (HCD) or matching normal diet (ND), respectively. Following 3 weeks diet adapting, a multi-dose intraperitoneal injections of ethyl carbamate (urethane, 1 g/kg body weight) were established and lung tumorigenesis assessments were taken after 15 weeks latency period...
July 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
Borja López-Pérez, Miguel A Maestro, Antonio Mouriño
Herein, we describe a versatile and efficient total synthesis of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol). The synthetic strategy relies on an unprecedented Si-assisted SN2'-syn displacement of carbamates by cuprates to set the challenging pivotal quaternary methyl group at the fused-ring junction of the CD-trans-hydrindane core. Other key transformations involve the catalytic asymmetric reduction of an α,β,γ,δ-unsaturated ester with CuH to generate the natural steroidal configuration at C20 and a Pauson-Khand cyclization to form the CD-ring skeleton...
July 18, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Lucia Biasutto, Andrea Mattarei, Michele Azzolini, Martina La Spina, Nicola Sassi, Matteo Romio, Cristina Paradisi, Mario Zoratti
Prodrugs of resveratrol are under development. Among the long-term goals, still largely elusive, are (1) modulating physical properties (e.g., water-soluble derivatives bearing polyethylene glycol chains), (2) changing distribution in the body (e.g., galactosyl derivatives restricted to the intestinal lumen), (3) increasing absorption from the gastrointestinal tract (e.g., derivatives imitating the natural substrates of endogenous transporters), and (4) hindering phase II metabolism (e.g., temporarily blocking the hydroxyls), all contributing to (5) increasing bioavailability...
July 4, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Anushka C Galasiti Kankanamalage, Yunjeong Kim, Athri D Rathnayake, Kevin R Alliston, Michelle M Butler, Steven C Cardinale, Terry L Bowlin, William C Groutas, Kyeong-Ok Chang
Ester and carbamate prodrugs of aldehyde bisulfite adduct inhibitors were synthesized in order to improve their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. The inhibitory activity of the compounds against norovirus 3C-like protease in enzyme and cell based assays was determined. The ester and carbamate prodrugs displayed equivalent potency to those of the precursor aldehyde bisulfite adducts and precursor aldehydes. Furthermore, the rate of ester cleavage was found to be dependent on alkyl chain length...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
M H Fletcher, C E Burns-Lynch, K W Knouse, L T Abraham, C W DeBrosse, W M Wuest
Our efforts to develop a scalable and divergent synthesis of cyclic di-nucleotide analog precursors have resulted in (1) an orthogonally protected di-amino carbohydrate as well as (2) the novel application of the Staudinger ligation to provide medium-sized macrocycles featuring carbamate or urea linkages.
June 7, 2017: RSC Advances
Rebecca L Siegelman, Thomas M McDonald, Miguel I Gonzalez, Jeffrey Martell, Phillip J Milner, Jarad A Mason, Adam H Berger, Abhoyjit S Bhown, Jeffrey R Long
In the transition to a clean-energy future, CO2 separations will play a critical role in mitigating current greenhouse gas emissions and facilitating conversion to cleaner-burning and renewable fuels. New materials with high selectivities for CO2 adsorption, large CO2 removal capacities, and low regeneration energies are needed to achieve these separations efficiently at scale. Here, we present a detailed investigation of nine diamine-appended variants of the metal-organic framework Mg2(dobpdc) (dobpdc(4-) = 4,4'-dioxidobiphenyl-3,3'-dicarboxylate) that feature step-shaped CO2 adsorption isotherms resulting from cooperative and reversible insertion of CO2 into metal-amine bonds to form ammonium carbamate chains...
July 2, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Aziguli Yimaer, Guangdi Chen, Meibian Zhang, Lifang Zhou, Xinglin Fang, Wei Jiang
BACKGROUND: Pesticide poisoning in children has been a serious public health issue around the world, especially in the developing countries where agriculture is still one of the largest economic sectors. The purpose of this study was to analyze epidemiological characteristics of acute pesticide poisoning in children from Zhejiang province, China. METHODS: The pesticide poisoning cases for children were retrieved from Occupational Disease Surveillance and Reporting System, Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, China...
June 28, 2017: BMC Public Health
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