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Catalyzed ring closure

Yizhou Liu, Jonathan S Lindsey
A new route to bacteriochlorins via Northern-Southern (N-S) self-condensation of a dihydrodipyrrin-acetal complements a prior Eastern-Western (E-W) route. Each bacteriochlorin was prepared in five steps from an α-halopyrrole and a 2,2-dimethylpent-4-ynoic acid. The first three steps follow Jacobi's synthesis of dihydrodipyrrins: Pd-mediated coupling to form a lactone-pyrrole, Petasis reagent treatment for methenylation, and Paal-Knorr type ring closure to form the 1,2,2-trimethyl-substituted dihydrodipyrrin...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Zhen-Yuan Liao, Pen-Yuan Liao, Tun-Cheng Chien
CuI-Catalyzed intramolecular aminocyanation of terminal alkynes in N-(2-ethynylphenyl)-N-sulfonylcyanamides was initiated by the formation of Cu-acetylide to trigger N-CN bond cleavage of the N-sulfonylcyanamide moiety followed by CN migration to form a β-cyano Cu-vinylidene intermediate. Subsequently, the indole ring closure furnished the corresponding 1-sulfonyl-3-cyanoindoles.
December 13, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Tomislav Gregorić, Mirela Sedić, Petra Grbčić, Andrea Tomljenović Paravić, Sandra Kraljević Pavelić, Mario Cetina, Robert Vianello, Silvana Raić-Malić
Regioselective 1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazole tethered pyrimidine-2,4-dione derivatives (5-23) were successfully prepared by the copper(I)-catalyzed click chemistry. While known palladium/copper-cocatalyzed method based on Sonogashira cross-coupling followed by the intramolecular 5-endo-dig ring closure generated novel 6-alkylfuro[2,3-d]pyrimidine-2-one-1,2,3-triazole hybrids (24b-37b), a small library of their 5-alkylethynyl analogs (24a-37a) was synthesized and described for the first time by tandem terminal alkyne dimerization and subsequent 5-endo-trig cyclization, which was additionally corroborated with computational and X-ray crystal structure analyses...
January 5, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Weijiang Ying, Lei Zhang, Paul A Wiget, James W Herndon
Substituted hydronaphthalenes where each of the ten carbons of the two-ring system contains functionality were obtained through a tandem [8+2] cycloaddition and base-catalyzed rearrangement process using dienylfurans and electron-deficient alkynes. If the [8+2] process is conducted under solvent-free conditions the process could be conducted in a single reaction flask without isolation of the chromatographically sensitive [8+2] cycloadducts. A mechanism involving base catalysed alkene positional isomerization followed by disrotatory electrocyclic ring closure was proposed for the key reaction step that converts [8+2] cycloadducts to hydronaphthalenes...
July 6, 2016: Tetrahedron Letters
Claudia Weilbeer, Marcel Sickert, Sergei Naumov, Christoph Schneider
We disclose herein the first enantioselective aza-Diels-Alder reaction of β-alkyl-substituted vinylketene silyl-O,O-acetals and imines furnishing a broad range of optically highly enriched 4-alkyl-substituted 2-piperidones. As a catalyst for this one-pot reaction we employed a chiral phosphoric acid which effects a vinylogous Mannich reaction directly followed by ring-closure to the lactam. Subsequent fully diastereoselective transformations including hydrogenation, enolate alkylation, and lactam alkylation/reduction processes converted the cycloadducts into various highly substituted piperidines of great utility for the synthesis of natural products and medicinally active compounds...
October 17, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Weichao Xue, Zheng-Wang Qu, Stefan Grimme, Martin Oestreich
A copper-catalyzed C(sp3)-Si cross-coupling of aliphatic C(sp3)-I electrophiles using an Si-B reagent as the silicon pronucleophile is reported. The reaction involves an alkyl radical intermediate that also engages in 5-exo-trig ring closures onto pendant alkenes prior to the terminating C(sp3)-Si bond formation. Several Ueno-Stork-type precursors cyclized with excellent diastereocontrol in good yields. The base-mediated release of the silicon nucleophile and the copper-catalyzed radical process are analyzed by quantum-chemical calculations, leading to a full mechanistic picture...
October 16, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Linjie Zheng, Yang Wang, Donghui Wei, Yan Qiao
In this paper, density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been employed to investigate the detailed mechanisms, origin of chemo- and stereoselectivity, and role of catalyst for the reaction of enals with nitroalkenes catalyzed by N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs). The calculated results disclose that the reaction contains seven steps, that is, the nucleophilic attack on the α, β-unsaturated aldehyde by NHC, the [1, 2]-proton transfer for the formation of Breslow intermediate, the β-protonation for affording enolate intermediate, the nucleophilic addition on the Re/Si face of enolate by the nitroalkenes, the [1, 5] proton transfer, the ring-closure process, and the regeneration of NHC...
November 7, 2016: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Maarten W van der Meijden, Tatyana Balandina, Oleksandr Ivasenko, Steven De Feyter, Klaus Wurst, Richard M Kellogg
A convergent synthesis of racemic [6]hexahelicene-7-carboxylic acid by cross-coupling of a bicyclic and a tricyclic component is described. A metal-catalyzed ring-closure is also a fundamental component of the synthetic approach. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) measurements of the racemate self-assembled on Au(111) at liquid-solid interface revealed the formation of ordered racemic 2D crystals.
October 4, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Dan Luo, Roberta Callari, Britta Hamberger, Sileshi Gizachew Wubshet, Morten T Nielsen, Johan Andersen-Ranberg, Björn M Hallström, Federico Cozzi, Harald Heider, Birger Lindberg Møller, Dan Staerk, Björn Hamberger
The seed oil of Euphorbia lathyris L. contains a series of macrocyclic diterpenoids known as Euphorbia factors. They are the current industrial source of ingenol mebutate, which is approved for the treatment of actinic keratosis, a precancerous skin condition. Here, we report an alcohol dehydrogenase-mediated cyclization step in the biosynthetic pathway of Euphorbia factors, illustrating the origin of the intramolecular carbon-carbon bonds present in lathyrane and ingenane diterpenoids. This unconventional cyclization describes the ring closure of the macrocyclic diterpene casbene...
August 23, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Maloy Nayak, Youngeun Jung, Ikyon Kim
A highly efficient synthetic route to pterocarpenes and coumestans is described. BCl3-mediated dehydrative cyclization of 1,3-diaryloxyacetones under mild conditions permitted regioselective ring closure to afford 3-((2-iodoaryloxy)methyl)benzofurans which were converted to the corresponding pterocarpenes by Pd-catalyzed intramolecular direct arylation. The subsequent benzylic oxidation led to coumestans. This sequence was applied to the formal syntheses of coumestrol and the proposed structure of plicadin as well as total syntheses of flemichapparins B and C...
September 14, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Keiko Hojo, Mohammed Akhter Hossain, Julien Tailhades, Fazel Shabanpoor, Lilian L L Wong, Emma E K Ong-Pålsson, Hanna E Kastman, Sherie Ma, Andrew L Gundlach, K Johan Rosengren, John D Wade, Ross A D Bathgate
Structure-activity studies of the insulin superfamily member, relaxin-3, have shown that its G protein-coupled receptor (RXFP3) binding site is contained within its central B-chain α-helix and this helical structure is essential for receptor activation. We sought to develop a single B-chain mimetic that retained agonist activity. This was achieved by use of solid phase peptide synthesis together with on-resin ruthenium-catalyzed ring closure metathesis of a pair of judiciously placed i,i+4 α-methyl, α-alkenyl amino acids...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Braja Gopal Das, Andrei Chirila, Moniek Tromp, Joost N H Reek, Bas de Bruin
A new strategy for the catalytic synthesis of substituted 1H-indenes via metalloradical activation of o-cinnamyl N-tosyl hydrazones is presented, taking advantage of the intrinsic reactivity of a Co(III) carbene radical intermediate. The reaction uses readily available starting materials and is operationally simple, thus representing a practical method for the construction of functionalized 1H-indene derivatives. The cheap and easy to prepare low spin cobalt(II) complex [Co(II)(MeTAA)] (MeTAA = tetramethyltetraaza[14]annulene) proved to be the most active catalyst among those investigated, which demonstrates catalytic carbene radical reactivity for a nonporphyrin cobalt(II) complex, and for the first time catalytic activity of [Co(II)(MeTAA)] in general...
July 20, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Wei Zhang, Yang Wang, Donghui Wei, Mingsheng Tang, Xinju Zhu
A systematic theoretical study has been carried out to understand the mechanism and stereoselectivity of N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-catalyzed intramolecular crossed-benzoin reaction of enolizable keto-aldehyde using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The calculated results reveal that the most favorable pathway contains four steps, i.e., the nucleophilic attack of NHC on the carbonyl carbon atom of a formyl group, the formation of a Breslow intermediate, a ring-closure process coupled with proton transfer, and regeneration of the catalyst...
July 6, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Katarzyna Ciesielska, Sophie L K W Roelants, Inge N A Van Bogaert, Stijn De Waele, Isabel Vandenberghe, Sara Groeneboer, Wim Soetaert, Bart Devreese
We recently discovered a novel enzyme in the exoproteome of Starmerella bombicola, which is structurally related to Candida antarctica lipase A. A knockout strain for this enzyme does no longer produce lactonic sophorolipids, prompting us to believe that this protein is the missing S. bombicola lactone esterase (SBLE). SBLE catalyzes a rather unusual reaction, i.e., an intramolecular esterification (lactonization) of acidic sophorolipids in an aqueous environment, which raised questions about its activity and mode of action...
November 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Qian Peng, Robert S Paton
This Account describes the use of quantum-chemical calculations to elucidate mechanisms and develop catalysts to accomplish highly selective cyclization reactions. Chemistry is awash with cyclic molecules, and the creation of rings is central to organic synthesis. Cyclization reactions, the formation of rings by the reaction of two ends of a linear precursor, have been instrumental in the development of predictive models for chemical reactivity, from Baldwin's classification and rules for ring closure to the Woodward and Hoffmann rules based on the conservation of orbital symmetry and beyond...
May 17, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
Nils Widderich, Stefanie Kobus, Astrid Höppner, Ramona Riclea, Andreas Seubert, Jeroen S Dickschat, Johann Heider, Sander H J Smits, Erhard Bremer
Ectoine is a compatible solute and chemical chaperone widely used by members of the Bacteria and a few Archaea to fend-off the detrimental effects of high external osmolarity on cellular physiology and growth. Ectoine synthase (EctC) catalyzes the last step in ectoine production and mediates the ring closure of the substrate N-gamma-acetyl-L-2,4-diaminobutyric acid through a water elimination reaction. However, the crystal structure of ectoine synthase is not known and a clear understanding of how its fold contributes to enzyme activity is thus lacking...
2016: PloS One
David Šarlah, Amadej Juranovič, Boris Kožar, Luka Rejc, Amalija Golobič, Andrej Petrič
Naphthalene derivatives bearing electron-accepting and electron-donating groups at the 2,6-positions belong to the family of D-π-A push-pull dyes. It has been found that these compounds, e.g., 2-(1-(6-((2-(fluoro)ethyl)(methyl)amino)naphthalen-2-yl)ethylidene)malononitrile (FDDNP), show not only interesting optical properties, such as solvatochromism, but they have the potential to label protein aggregates of different compositions formed in the brain of patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's (AD)...
March 2, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Pierre Quinodoz, Bruno Drouillat, Karen Wright, Jérôme Marrot, François Couty
We report herein an efficient synthesis of diversely substituted N-aryl-2-cyanoazetidines based on an anionic ring-closure reaction. These compounds can be prepared from β-amino alcohols in enantiomerically pure form through a three-step sequence involving (i) copper-catalyzed N-arylation, (ii) N-cyanomethylation of the secondary aniline, and (iii) one-pot mesylation followed by ring closure induced by a base. This high-yielding sequence gives access to azetidines with a predictable and adjustable substitution pattern and also with predictable diastereoselectivity...
April 1, 2016: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Éva Bokor, Zsolt Széles, Tibor Docsa, Pál Gergely, László Somsák
Various C-glucopyranosyl-1,2,4-triazolones were designed as potential inhibitors of glycogen phosphorylase. Syntheses of these compounds were performed with O-perbenzoylated glucose derivatives as precursors. High temperature ring closure of N(1)-carbamoyl-C-β-D-glucopyranosyl formamidrazone gave 3-β-D-glucopyranosyl-1,2,4-triazol-5-one. Reaction of N(1)-tosyl-C-β-D-glucopyranosyl formamidrazone with ClCOOEt furnished 3-β-D-glucopyranosyl-1-tosyl-1,2,4-triazol-5-one. In situ prepared β-D-glucopyranosylcarbonyl isocyanate was transformed by PhNHNHBoc into 3-β-D-glucopyranosyl-1-phenyl-1,2,4-triazol-5-one, while the analogous 1-(2-naphthyl) derivative was obtained from the unsubstituted triazolone by naphthalene-2-boronic acid in a Cu(II) catalyzed N-arylation...
June 24, 2016: Carbohydrate Research
Maarten W van der Meijden, Edith Gelens, Natalia Murillo Quirós, Javier D Fuhr, J Esteban Gayone, Hugo Ascolani, Klaus Wurst, Magalí Lingenfelder, Richard M Kellogg
A convergent synthesis of racemic 5-amino[6]hexahelicene is described. Cross-coupling reactions are used to assemble a pentacyclic framework, and a metal-catalyzed ring-closure comprises the final step. The enantiomers were separated by means of chromatography and the absolute configurations were assigned by comparison of the CD spectra with hexahelicene. The t1/2  value for racemization at 210 °C was approximately 1 hour. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) measurements were carried out on enantiopure and racemic samples of aminohelicene on Au(111) under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions...
January 22, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
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