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Haige Li, Chen Chen, Dehang Wang
Ultrasound scanning has widespread used in clinical practice and also has therapeutic applications. Simvastatin is a statins that is able to competitively inhibit the activity of 3‑hydroxy‑3‑methylglutaryl‑coenzyme A reductase. The aim of the present study was to investigate the roles and mechanisms of low‑frequency ultrasound (LFU) and microbubbles combined with simvastatin on MCF‑7 cell growth and apoptosis. Cell viability, apoptosis and cell cycle were evaluated using an MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively...
July 12, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Qi Yu, Fang Wang, Xiaodong Meng, Yiren Gong, Yanli Wang, Cangbao Xu, Siwang Wang
Low‑density lipoprotein receptors (LDLRs) may serve a role in the diabetogenic effect of statins; however, the effects of statins on LDLR expression and its regulation in the pancreas and islets have yet to be determined. To exclude the long‑term effects of treatment with atorvastatin, which allows mice to adapt, male C57BL/j and apolipoprotein E‑deficient mice were acutely treated with oral atorvastatin for 6 weeks, and glucose homeostasis and LDLR expression in the pancreas and islets were examined...
July 3, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Gencer Baris, François Mach
Low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) is a well-accepted causal risk factor for athero-thrombotic cardiovascular disease, as demonstrated in large epidemiological studies, including Mendelian randomization data. Several randomized controlled trials and meta-analyzes have shown that lipid lowering therapies, such as statins and more recently the non-statin agents ezetimibe and Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin Kexin type 9 (PCSK9) monoclonal antibodies (mAb), reduce cardiovascular events across a broad range of baseline LDL-C levels...
June 22, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Axel Leporowski, Brian Godman, Amanj Kurdi, Sean MacBride-Stewart, Margaret Ryan, Simon Hurding, Renata Crm do Nascimento, Marion Bennie, Alec Morton
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Prescribing of lipid lowering agents (LLAs) has increased worldwide including in Scotland with increasing prevalence of coronary heart disease, and higher dose statins have been advocated in recent years. There have also been initiatives to encourage prescribing of generic versus patented statins to save costs without compromising care. There is a need to document these initiatives and outcomes to provide future direction. METHOD: Assessment of utilization (items dispensed) and expenditure of key LLAs (mainly statins) and expenditure between 2001 and 2015 in Scotland alongside initiatives...
July 17, 2018: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
Slobodan M Janković, Danka Tešić, Marina Kostić
Evolocumab is fully human monoclonal antibody which binds to proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), and prevents its blocking effect on recycling of liver low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) receptors. Areas covered: The aim of this review was to assess efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness of evolocumab in adult patients with high cardiovascular risk. Major research databases MEDLINE, EBSCO and CENTRAL were systematically searched for relevant study reports. Expert commentary: Even when given in full doses, statins augmented with ezetimibe and cholesterol-binding resins could not reduce cholesterol baseline level for more than 66%, while evolocumab reduces cholesterol level for 75% or even more...
July 17, 2018: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
Thomas Olsen, Kathrine J Vinknes, Gard Ft Svingen, Eva R Pedersen, Indu Dhar, Grethe S Tell, Rune Blomhoff, Per M Ueland, Øivind Midttun, Helga Refsum, Ottar K Nygård
Background Plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) has been implicated in the development of cardiovascular disease, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Vitamin A (Vit-A) is involved in homocysteine metabolism and we therefore explored the potential interaction between plasma tHcy and serum Vit-A in relation to incident acute myocardial infarction. Methods Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the prospective relationships between tHcy and acute myocardial infarction in 2205 patients from Western Norway undergoing elective coronary angiography for suspected stable angina pectoris...
January 1, 2018: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
Sabina Sayeed, Adrian F Hernandez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 17, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
Meredith A Sigler, Lee Congdon, Krystal L Edwards
Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common complication in patients with metabolic syndrome. The role of statin therapy specifically for the treatment of NAFLD remains unknown. The aim of this review is to discuss outcomes of recent articles analyzing statin therapy in patients with NAFLD. Findings: A total of 12 trials met the inclusion criteria. Statins were not found to increase the prevalence of NAFLD once confounding variables were considered...
2018: Clinical Medicine Insights. Gastroenterology
David S Fedson
Almost all new treatments being developed for the next influenza pandemic target the virus. During the Ebola crisis in West Africa, patients were treated with an inexpensive generic statin/angiotensin receptor blocker combination that appeared to greatly improve survival. These drugs target the host response, not the virus, and probably reverse endothelial dysfunction. Scientists and health officials have shown little interest in this idea. Yet, during the early months of the next pandemic, vaccines will be unavailable and treatment options will be limited...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Public Health Policy
Karen L Saban, Herbert L Mathews, Fred B Bryant, Dina Tell, Cara Joyce, Holli A DeVon, Linda Witek Janusek
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States and exacts a disproportionate toll on minorities. Growing evidence demonstrates that perceived discrimination is a significant contributing factor to psychological distress, chronic low-grade inflammation, and cardiovascular health. However, little is known regarding the extent to which perceived discrimination contributes to the inflammatory response to acute stress. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the influence of perceived discrimination on the inflammatory response to a laboratory acute stress paradigm in women at risk for CVD...
July 14, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Masami Shingaki, Kiyofumi Morishita, Toshio Baba, Tsuyoshi Shibata, Kohei Narayama
PURPOSE: Often, we experience cases of aneurysm shrinkage and no aneurysm shrinkage after successful endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR), without postoperative endoleaks. We studied these cases to ascertain the predictive factors for aneurysm shrinkage. METHODS: From 2007 to 2014, we selected 255 cases that comprised aneurysm shrinkage (> 4 mm) and no-shrinkage cases (shrinkage from 0 to 4 mm). Excluding 36 cases of endoleaks, 43 cases without one-year follow-up CT scan, and 3 cases of aortic dissection, we assessed 93 cases of aneurysm shrinkage (S group) and 80 cases of no aneurysm shrinkage (N group) at one-year follow-up...
July 13, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Robert S Rosenson, Robert A Hegele, Sergio Fazio, Christopher P Cannon
Variants in proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) provide insights into mechanisms regulating low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels. Human monoclonal antibodies that target PCSK9 lower LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) levels by 55% to 72% in different high-risk patient groups. Clinical trials with PCSK9 inhibitors have demonstrated reductions in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease events, particularly in patients with recent acute coronary syndrome, multivessel coronary artery disease, or peripheral arterial disease...
July 17, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Nancy R Cook, Samia Mora, Paul M Ridker
BACKGROUND: Although lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is associated with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), its contribution to prediction remains controversial. OBJECTIVES: This study examined the association and clinical utility of Lp(a) with incident CVD in women. METHODS: A turbidimetric assay assessed Lp(a) in 3 cohorts of women (the WHS [Women's Health Study] [N = 24,558], a case-cohort sample from the WHI [Women's Health Initiative] Observational Study [n = 1,815 cases, subcohort n = 1,989], and the JUPITER [Justification for Use of Statins in Prevention] trial [n = 2,569]) and in men from JUPITER (n = 5,161)...
July 17, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Jocelyn Fotso Soh, Susana G Torres-Platas, Serge Beaulieu, Outi Mantere, Robert Platt, Istvan Mucsi, Sybille Saury, Suzane Renaud, Andrea Levinson, Ana C Andreazza, Benoit H Mulsant, Daniel Müller, Ayal Schaffer, Annemiek Dols, Pablo Cervantes, Nancy Cp Low, Nathan Herrmann, Birgitte M Christensen, Francesco Trepiccione, Tarek Rajji, Soham Rej
BACKGROUND: Lithium is the gold-standard treatment for bipolar disorder, is highly effective in treating major depressive disorder, and has anti-suicidal properties. However, clinicians are increasingly avoiding lithium largely due to fears of renal toxicity. Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus (NDI) occurs in 15-20% of lithium users and predicts a 2-3 times increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We recently found that use of statins is associated with lower NDI risk in a cross-sectional study...
July 16, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Maria Giovanna Lupo, Nicola Ferri
Genetic and clinical studies have demonstrated that loss-of-function variants in the angiopoietin-like 3 (ANGPTL3) gene are associated with decreased plasma levels of triglycerides (TGs), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), which leads to a significant reduction in cardiovascular risk. For this reason, ANGPTL3 is considered an important new pharmacological target for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) together with more conventional lipid lowering therapies, such as statins and anti proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) monoclonal antibodies...
July 14, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
Constantine E Kosmas, Alba Muñoz Estrella, Andreas Sourlas, Delia Silverio, Elizabeth Hilario, Peter D Montan, Eliscer Guzman
The discovery of proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9), a serine protease which binds to the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors and targets the receptors for lysosomal degradation, offered an additional route through which plasma LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels can be controlled. Initially, the therapeutic approaches to reduce circulating levels of PCSK9 were focused on the use of monoclonal antibodies. To that effect, evolocumab and alirocumab, two human monoclonal antibodies directed against PCSK9, given on a background of statin therapy, have been shown to markedly decrease LDL-C levels and significantly reduce cardiovascular risk...
July 13, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Florine Tissier, Firas Farhat, Clothilde Philouze, Jean-Claude Desfontis, Romain Didier, Martine Gilard, M Yassine Mallem, Jacques Mansourati, Christine Moisan, Karine PIchavant-Rafini, Michael Theron, Aline Amérand
Statins are currently used in prevention of cardiovascular diseases in high risk populations, and could be considered in primary prevention. However, few studies are available on the long-term effects of low-doses of statins, especially on mitochondrial function and ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) metabolism at cardiac level. This study aimed to determine potential effects of a long-term atorvastatin treatment, at low-dose concentration, on the myocardium mitochondrial respiration. 34 Watanabe rabbits were treated or not with atorvastatin (2...
July 16, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Turki A Althunian, Anthonius de Boer, Rolf H H Groenwold, Olaf H Klungel
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact on non-inferiority decisions when using a single margin or single preserved fraction (PF) for all non-inferiority trials within a pharmacological class. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A search in PubMed, EMBASE, and CENTRAL resulted in seven active-controlled statin trials (nine non-inferiority comparisons ) for treating hyperlipidemia. The impact of using a single margin was assessed by calculating whether this margin corresponds to different PFs among comparator statins which will demonstrate that the threshold of demonstrating non-inferiority (in terms of the PF) varies among comparator statins...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Jessica Warns, Gurdeep Marwarha, Natalie Freking, Othman Ghribi
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most diagnosed cancer in the western world, affecting 1 out of approximately 22 people in their lifetime. Several epidemiological studies suggest a positive association between high plasma cholesterol levels and colorectal cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms by which cholesterol may alter the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) are ill-defined as the cholesterol lowering drugs statins do not appear to decrease a patient's risk of developing colorectal cancer. Cholesterol is metabolized to active derivatives including cholesterol oxidization products (COP), known as oxysterols, which have been shown to alter cellular proliferation...
July 13, 2018: Biochimie
Chan Joon Kim, Eun Ji Han, Eun-Ho Chu, Byung-Hee Hwang, Jin-Jin Kim, Ki-Bae Seung, Sung Hoon Kim, Joon Hyun O, Kiyuk Chang
BACKGROUND: Asian patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are frequently prescribed moderate-intensity statin in real practice, even during the early stage of ACS. Under assessment herein was the effect of moderate-intensity statin therapy on the resolution of plaque inflammation during the first month after ACS, a period with highest recurrent ischemic events, using dual time point ¹⁸F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT). METHODS: This prospective study included statin-naïve patients with ACS and non-calcified carotid plaques (³ 3 mm on ultrasound images)...
July 16, 2018: Cardiology Journal
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