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warfarin understanding

Mohamed Zaiou, Hamid El Amri
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. The basic causes of CVD are not fully understood yet. Substantial evidence suggests that genetic predisposition plays a vital role in the physiopathology of this complex disease. Hence, identification of genetic contributors to CVD will likely add diagnostic accuracy and better prediction of an individual's risk. With high-throughput genetics and genomics technology and newer genome-wide study approaches, a number of genetic variations across the human genome were uncovered...
October 6, 2016: Clinical Genetics
E Pandya, B V Bajorek
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: The importance of 'shared decision-making' is much emphasized in recent clinical guidelines regarding stroke management in atrial fibrillation (AF), more so following the inclusion of non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOACs) among the treatment options. It is important that patients are navigated through balanced and unbiased information about the available treatment options, so as to understand the risk and benefits associated with the therapies, and to enable them to accordingly communicate their concerns and views with their clinicians prior to therapy selection...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
Y Chugh, R T Faillace
The risk stratification of patients with coexisting non valvular atrial fibrillation and congestive heart failure, is often a clinical challenge, as the definitions of congestive heart failure in the popular CHADS2 and CHA2DS2VASc scoring systems, and amongst major clinical trials on Warfarin and Novel Oral Anticoagulants (NOAC) have heterogeneity. Available evidence reveals that any heart failure and/or left ventricular systolic dysfunction is associated with higher rates of stroke/systemic embolism and bleeding in patients with non valvular atrial fibrillation compared to patients without heart failure and normal left ventricular function...
September 17, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
David K Cundiff, Paul S Agutter
BACKGROUND: Nutrition researchers recently recognized that deficiency of vitamin K2 (menaquinone: MK-4-MK-13) is widespread and contributes to cardiovascular disease (CVD). The deficiency of vitamin K2 or vitamin K inhibition with warfarin leads to calcium deposition in the arterial blood vessels. METHODS: Using publicly available sources, we collected food commodity availability data and derived nutrient profiles including vitamin K2 for people from 168 countries...
August 24, 2016: Curēus
Rohit Kumar, Aref M Rahman, Brian L Henry
Dabigatran was the first direct-acting oral anticoagulant approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in people with atrial fibrillation, based on data from the Randomized Evaluation of Long-Term Anticoagulation Therapy (RE-LY) trial. Over 18,000 patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation and a moderate-to-high risk of thromboembolic stroke were randomized to warfarin or dabigatran. With respect to the primary endpoints for efficacy and safety, dabigatran was superior to warfarin in the prevention of stroke and thromboembolism and noninferior with respect to major bleeding...
2016: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine
Jennifer Y Lo, L LuAnn Minich, Lloyd Y Tani, Jacob Wilkes, Qian Ding, Shaji C Menon
Management guidelines for refractory Kawasaki disease (KD) are vague. We sought to assess practice variation and identify factors associated with large/complex coronary artery aneurysms (LCAA) and resource utilization in refractory KD. This retrospective cohort study identified patients aged ≤18 years with KD (2004 to 2014) using the Pediatric Health Information System. Refractory KD was defined as receiving >1 dose of intravenous immunoglobulin. Demographics, medications, concomitant infections, length of stay (LOS), and charges were collected...
August 31, 2016: American Journal of Cardiology
Charlotte H So, Mark H Eckman
The combined use of aspirin and oral anticoagulant therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and stable coronary artery disease (CAD) has been questioned due to an increased risk of major bleeding with little to no benefit in preventing ischemic events. (1) To better understand patterns and indications for combined antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy and identify patients who might reasonably be treated with oral anticoagulant (OAC) therapy alone. (2) To perform an updated literature review regarding the use of combined antiplatelet and OAC therapy in patients with AF and stable CAD...
September 24, 2016: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
Matteo Cassina, Giulia A Cagnoli, Daniela Zuccarello, Elena Di Gianantonio, Maurizio Clementi
Exposure to teratogenic drugs during pregnancy is associated with a wide range of embryo-fetal anomalies and sometimes results in recurrent and recognizable patterns of malformations; however, the comprehension of the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of drug-induced birth defects is difficult, since teratogenesis is a multifactorial process which is always the result of a complex interaction between several environmental factors and the genetic background of both the mother and the fetus. Animal models have been extensively used to assess the teratogenic potential of pharmacological agents and to study their teratogenic mechanisms; however, a still open issue concerns how the information gained through animal models can be translated to humans...
September 14, 2016: European Journal of Medical Genetics
Zaheer Ahmed, Seemeen Hassan, Gary A Salzman
Warfarin was the only oral anticoagulant available for the treatment of venous thromboembolism for about half a century until the recent approval of novel oral agents dabigatran, rivoraxaban and apixaban. This presents new classes of medications less cumbersome to use. They do not require frequent laboratory monitoring or have nurmerous drug interactions. On the other hand it also poses a challenge to the physicians deciding which agent to use in specific patient populations, how to predict the bleeding risk compared to warfarin and between the different novel agents and how to manage bleeding with relatively recent discovery of few potential antidotes...
April 2016: Current Drug Therapy
Emanuel Raschi, Matteo Bianchin, Walter Ageno, Roberto De Ponti, Fabrizio De Ponti
Non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants, also known as direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs), have entered the market in 2008 with the expected breakthrough potential of circumventing limitations related to treatment with vitamin K antagonists (eg, warfarin) by virtue of their pharmacological properties. Although data derived from premarketing randomized clinical trials have largely demonstrated the clinical benefit of DOACs, especially in terms of reduced risk of intracranial bleeding, it is important to monitor the safety in the postmarketing phase, which better reflects real-world patients with comorbidities and polypharmacotherapy, in order to assess the actual risk-benefit profile...
August 25, 2016: Polskie Archiwum Medycyny Wewnętrznej
Kelly C Rogers, Melanie P Shelton, Shannon W Finks
Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs), originally developed as an alternative for vitamin K antagonists, are shifting the landscape of antithrombotic therapy. DOACs such as dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban offer enhancements in safety, convenience, and efficacy compared with warfarin. However, as choices for oral anticoagulation therapy have increased, so has the need for effectual antidotes before urgent surgical procedures and for the reversal of serious adverse events caused by DOACs. To date, one antidote has been FDA approved in the United States for the reversal of dabigatran, and two antidotes are undergoing phase 2and 3clinical trials...
November 2016: Cardiology in Review
Darcy R Flora, Allan E Rettie, Richard C Brundage, Timothy S Tracy
Multiple factors can impact warfarin therapy, including genetic variations in the drug-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9). Compared with individuals with the wild-type allele, CYP2C9*1, carriers of the common *3 variant have significantly impaired CYP2C9 metabolism. Genetic variations in CYP2C9, the primary enzyme governing the metabolic clearance of the more potent S-enantiomer of the racemic anticoagulant warfarin, may impact warfarin-drug interactions. To establish a baseline for such studies, plasma and urine concentrations of R- and S-warfarin and 10 warfarin metabolites were monitored for up to 360 hours following a 10-mg warfarin dose in healthy subjects with 4 different CYP2C9 genotypes: CYP2C9*1/*1 (n = 8), CYP2C9*1/*3 (n = 9), CYP2C9*2/*3 (n = 3), and CYP2C9*3/*3 (n = 4)...
August 19, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Charlotte Gils, Anton Pottegård, Zandra Nymand Ennis, Per Damkier
BACKGROUND: Estimating the true risk of fetal malformations attributable to the use of medications is difficult and perception of risk by health professionals will impact their counseling and treatment of patients who need medication during pregnancy. The objective of this study was to assess the perception of the teratogenic risk of 9 commonly and 3 rarely prescribed drugs among general practitioners and specialists in obstetrics/gynecology. METHODS: All 811 general practitioners in the Region of Southern Denmark and all 502 specialist obstetricians/gynecologists in Denmark as a whole were invited to participate in the study based on an online questionnaire...
2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Kareem Bedeir, Robert P Giugliano, Basel Ramlawi
One in every five strokes is due to atrial fibrillation. Anticoagulation is the evidence-based practice for stroke risk reduction in patients with atrial fibrillation. After decades of using warfarin, the recent years have seen an exponential increase in the available oral anticoagulants. An understanding of where things stand regarding indications, relative safety and efficacy as well as the limitations of each available choice is crucial.
November 1, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Ekta Y Pandya, Beata Bajorek
The role of the direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in practice has been given extensive consideration recently, albeit largely from the clinician's perspective. However, the effectiveness and safety of using anticoagulants is highly dependent on the patient's ability to manage and take these complex, high-risk medicines. This structured narrative review explores the published literature to identify the factors underpinning patients' non-adherence to anticoagulants in atrial fibrillation (AF), and subsequently contemplates to what extent the DOACs might overcome the known challenges with traditional warfarin therapy...
July 20, 2016: Patient
Matthew S Robbins, Amaal J Starling, Tamara M Pringsheim, Werner J Becker, Todd J Schwedt
BACKGROUND: Cluster headache (CH), the most common trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia, is an extremely debilitating primary headache disorder that is often not optimally treated. New evidence-based treatment guidelines for CH will assist clinicians with identifying and choosing among current treatment options. OBJECTIVES: In this systematic review we appraise the available evidence for the acute and prophylactic treatment of CH, and provide an update of the 2010 American Academy of Neurology (AAN) endorsed systematic review...
July 2016: Headache
Safoora Fatima, Anne Holbrook, Sam Schulman, Steve Park, Sue Troyan, Greg Curnew
BACKGROUND: Multiple antithrombotic agents are available for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF). A decision aid can assist patients in making informed decisions that best serves their needs. OBJECTIVE: To validate a decision aid to assist patients in choosing between antithrombotic agents (antiplatelets, warfarin, direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs)) for AF. METHODS: Patients (60years or older) were recruited for this prospective study...
September 2016: Thrombosis Research
Benjamin French, Le Wang, Brian F Gage, Richard B Horenstein, Nita A Limdi, Stephen E Kimmel
OBJECTIVE: Randomized trials have reported inconsistent evidence on the effectiveness of algorithms that use genotypes to initiate warfarin therapy. The Clarification of Optimal Anticoagulation through Genetics (COAG) trial initiated therapy on the basis of predicted maintenance doses, with a pharmacogenetic-guided algorithm in one study group and a clinically guided algorithm in the other. The European Pharmacogenetics of Anticoagulant Therapy (EU-PACT) consortium initiated therapy on the basis of loading doses, with an algorithm-based prediction in one study group and a fixed-dose regimen in the other...
October 2016: Pharmacogenetics and Genomics
Linda J Thomson Mangnall, David W Sibbritt, Nihaya Al-Sheyab, Robyn D Gallagher
OBJECTIVES: Globally, mechanical valves are predominant as replacements for adolescents and younger adults with rheumatic heart disease (RHD). Mechanical valve implantation necessitates lifelong antithrombotic management (warfarin) and associated lifestyle modification, with event-free survival largely dependent on international normalised therapeutic ratios (INRs) remaining within the target therapeutic range. There is limited information on factors that may influence warfarin adherence among younger people or those in resource-limited settings...
2016: Heart Asia
Michio Kimura, Makiko Go, Mina Iwai, Eiseki Usami, Hitomi Teramachi, Tomoaki Yoshimura
INTRODUCTION: When rapid feedback to physicians must be provided, e.g. monitoring therapy with the oral anticoagulant warfarin or providing therapeutic support for patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy, the involvement of pharmacists is required for outpatients. We launched a pharmacist outpatient service for patients with cancer taking oral anti-cancer agents. We evaluated the role and usefulness of the pharmacist outpatient service for these patients undergoing oral monotherapy with anti-cancer agents...
June 20, 2016: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
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