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Bronchial colonization

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403899/hepato-bronchial-fistula-secondary-to-perforated-sigmoid-diverticulitis-a-case-report
#1
Jun Sunny Yin, Shaylan Govind, Daniele Wiseman, Richard Inculet, Raymond Kao
BACKGROUND: Patients with diverticulitis are predisposed to hepatic abscesses via seeding through the portal circulation. Hepatic abscesses are well-documented sequelae of diverticulitis, however instances of progression to hepato-bronchial fistulization are rare. We present a case of diverticulitis associated with hepatic abscess leading to hepato-bronchial fistulization, which represents a novel disease course not yet reported in the literature. CASE PRESENTATION: A 61-year-old Caucasian man presented with a history of unintentional weight loss and dyspnea both at rest and with exertion...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374433/clinical-implications-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-location-in-the-lungs-of-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis
#2
REVIEW
J E Moore, P Mastoridis
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the leading cause of lung infection in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Antibiotics are regarded as the foundational pharmacological treatment for the suppressive management of chronic P. aeruginosa infections and to eradicate the first infection by P. aeruginosa. Inhalation remains a preferred route for drug administration, providing direct access to the site of infection while minimizing systemic side effects...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358811/alterations-in-airway-microbiota-in-patients-with-pao2-fio2-ratio-%C3%A2-300-after-burn-and-inhalation-injury
#3
Dana M Walsh, Shaun D McCullough, Scott Yourstone, Samuel W Jones, Bruce A Cairns, Corbin D Jones, Ilona Jaspers, David Diaz-Sanchez
BACKGROUND: Injury to the airways after smoke inhalation is a major mortality risk factor in victims of burn injuries, resulting in a 15-45% increase in patient deaths. Damage to the airways by smoke may induce acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which is partly characterized by hypoxemia in the airways. While ARDS has been associated with bacterial infection, the impact of hypoxemia on airway microbiota is unknown. Our objective was to identify differences in microbiota within the airways of burn patients who develop hypoxemia early after inhalation injury and those that do not using next-generation sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339291/bronchial-microbiome-pa-biofilm-forming-capacity-and-exacerbation-in-severe-copd-patients-colonized-by-p-aeruginosa
#4
Marian Garcia-Nuñez, Sara Marti, Carmen Puig, Vicente Perez-Brocal, Laura Millares, Salud Santos, Carmen Ardanuy, Andres Moya, Josefina Liñares, Eduard Monsó
AIM: The bronchial microbiome of severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients colonized by Pseudomonas aeruginosa was analyzed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing to identify differences related to biofilm-forming capacity. PATIENTS & METHODS: Patient sputum samples from 21 patients were studied. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences related to biofilm-forming capacity were only found for genera with relative abundances <1%, and Fusobacterium was over-represented when biofilm-forming capacity was high...
April 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214209/expression-and-promoter-dna-methylation-of-mlh1-in-colorectal-cancer-and-lung-cancer
#5
Yunxia Ma, Yuan Chen, Iver Petersen
AIMS: Aberrant DNA methylation is a common molecular feature in human cancer. The aims of this study were to analyze the methylation status of MLH1, one of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes, in human colorectal and lung cancer and to evaluate its clinical relevance. METHODS: The expression of MLH1 was analyzed in 8 colorectal cancer (CRC) and 8 lung cancer cell lines by real-time RT-PCR and western blotting. The MLH1 protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays including 121 primary CRC and 90 lung cancer patient samples...
January 22, 2017: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205418/pediatric-neuroendocrine-carcinoid-tumors-management-pathology-and-imaging-findings-in-a-pediatric-referral-center
#6
Andrew J Degnan, Shannon Tocchio, Waleed Kurtom, Sameh S Tadros
BACKGROUND: While neuroendocrine (carcinoid) tumors are increasingly recognized in the adult population, they are often not suspected in children. PROCEDURE: Retrospective review of all well-differentiated neuroendocrine (carcinoid) tumors was performed based on pathology reports from a quaternary pediatric medical center between January 2003 and June 2016. Clinical presentations, treatment approaches, imaging findings, and outcomes were reviewed and analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 45 cases of pathology-proven carcinoid tumor were reported with an average age of 14...
February 16, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186979/osteotropism-of-neuroendocrine-tumors-role-of-the-cxcl12-cxcr4-pathway-in-promoting-emt-in-vitro
#7
Mauro Cives, Davide Quaresmini, Francesca Maria Rizzo, Claudia Felici, Stella D'Oronzo, Valeria Simone, Franco Silvestris
Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) metastasize to the skeleton in approximately 20% of patients. We have previously shown that the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) regulates the NET osteotropism and that CXCR4 overexpression predicts bone spreading. Here, we unravel the molecular mechanisms linking the activation of the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis to the bone colonization of NETs using cell lines representative of pancreatic (BON1, CM, QGP1), intestinal (CNDT 2.5), and bronchial origin (H727). By combining flow cytometry and ELISA, BON1, CM and QGP1 cells were defined as CXCR4high/CXCL12low, while H727 and CNDT 2...
April 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178767/probiotic-bacteria-inhibit-the-bovine-respiratory-pathogen-mannheimia-haemolytica-serotype-1-in-vitro
#8
S Amat, S Subramanian, E Timsit, T W Alexander
This study evaluated the potential of probiotic bacteria to inhibit growth and cell adhesion of the bovine respiratory pathogen Mannheimia haemoltyica serotype 1. The inhibitory effects of nine probiotic strains (Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. casei, L. helveticus, L. plantarum, L. rhamnosus, Lactococcus lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus and two Paenibacillus polymyxa strains) against M. haemolytica were evaluated using a spot-on-lawn method. Probiotic strains were then tested for their adherence to bovine bronchial epithelial (BBE) cells and the ability to displace and compete against M...
February 8, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165139/carboxylated-nanodiamonds-can-be-used-as-negative-reference-in-in-vitro-nanogenotoxicity-studies
#9
H Moche, V Paget, D Chevalier, E Lorge, N Claude, H A Girard, J C Arnault, S Chevillard, F Nesslany
Nanodiamonds (NDs) are promising nanomaterials for biomedical applications. However, a few studies highlighted an in vitro genotoxic activity for detonation NDs, which was not evidenced in one of our previous work quantifying γ-H2Ax after 20 and 100 nm high-pressure high-temperature ND exposures of several cell lines. To confirm these results, in the present work, we investigated the genotoxicity of the same 20 and 100 nm NDs and added intermediate-sized NDs of 50 nm. Conventional in vitro genotoxicity tests were used, i...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060951/hiv-infects-bronchial-epithelium-and-suppresses-components-of-the-mucociliary-clearance-apparatus
#10
S Chinnapaiyan, T Parira, R Dutta, M Agudelo, A Morris, M Nair, H J Unwalla
Recurrent lung infections and pneumonia are emerging as significant comorbidities in the HIV-infected population in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). HIV infection has been reported to suppress nasal mucociliary clearance (MCC). Since the primary components driving nasal MCC and bronchial MCC are identical, it is possible that bronchial MCC is affected as well. Effective MCC requires optimal ciliary beating which depends on the maintenance of the airway surface liquid (ASL), a function of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) activity and the integrity of the signaling mechanism that regulates ciliary beating and fluid secretion...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992521/evaluation-of-the-xpert-carba-r-cepheid-assay-using-contrived-bronchial-specimens-from-patients-with-suspicion-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-for-the-detection-of-prevalent-carbapenemases
#11
Almudena Burillo, Mercedes Marín, Emilia Cercenado, Guillermo Ruiz-Carrascoso, María Jesús Pérez-Granda, Jesús Oteo, Emilio Bouza
There is a critical need for rapid diagnostic methods for multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens in patients with a suspicion of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). The Xpert Carba-R detects 5 targets for carbapenemase-producing organisms (blaKPC, blaNDM, blaVIM, blaOXA-48, and blaIMP-1). Our objective was to evaluate the performance of this assay directly on bronchial aspirates and to correlate the cycle number for a positive result (Ct) with the bacterial count. Bronchial aspirates from patients with a suspicion of VAP were spiked with a dilution of 1 of 4 MDR organisms carrying the resistance genes detected by the test prepared to a final concentration of 102-105 cfu/mL...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938674/mannheimia-haemolytica-biofilm-formation-on-bovine-respiratory-epithelial-cells
#12
Ismail Boukahil, Charles J Czuprynski
Mannheimia haemolytica is the most important bacterial agent associated with the bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC), which causes worldwide economic losses to the cattle industry. M. haemolytica cells initially colonize the tonsillar crypts in the upper respiratory tract of cattle, from where they can subsequently descend into the lungs to cause disease. Many bacteria exist as biofilms inside their hosts. We hypothesize that M. haemolytica colonization of cattle during its commensal state may include biofilm formation...
December 25, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936923/evaluation-of-the-automated-becton-dickinson-max-real-time-pcr-platform-for-detection-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii
#13
Jung-Yien Chien, Chia-Jung Liu, Pei-Chien Chuang, Tai-Fen Lee, Yu-Tsung Huang, Chun-Hsing Liao, Chien-Ching Hung, Wan-Huei Sheng, Chong-Jen Yu, Po-Ren Hsueh
AIM: We evaluated the performance of the automated quantitative BD MAX (Becton Dickinson) real-time PCR platform for detecting Pneumocystis jirovecii. MATERIALS & METHODS: A total of 34 retrospective and 137 prospective samples were included. RESULTS: Retrospectively, all (100%) positive samples were correctly detected by this platform compared with a nested PCR. Among prospective samples, the overall sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio and negative likelihood ratio were 92...
January 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671059/esculentin-1a-derived-peptides-promote-clearance-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-internalized-in-bronchial-cells-of-cystic-fibrosis-patients-and-lung-cell-migration-biochemical-properties-and-a-plausible-mode-of-action
#14
Floriana Cappiello, Antonio Di Grazia, Li-Av Segev-Zarko, Silvia Scali, Loretta Ferrera, Luis Galietta, Alessandro Pini, Yechiel Shai, Y Peter Di, Maria Luisa Mangoni
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the major microorganism colonizing the respiratory epithelium in cystic fibrosis (CF) sufferers. The widespread use of available antibiotics has drastically reduced their efficacy, and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a promising alternative. Among them, the frog skin-derived AMPs, i.e., Esc(1-21) and its diastereomer, Esc(1-21)-1c, have recently shown potent activity against free-living and sessile forms of P. aeruginosa Importantly, this pathogen also escapes antibiotics treatment by invading airway epithelial cells...
December 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623953/fungal-aflatoxins-reduce-respiratory-mucosal-ciliary-function
#15
Robert J Lee, Alan D Workman, Ryan M Carey, Bei Chen, Phillip L Rosen, Laurel Doghramji, Nithin D Adappa, James N Palmer, David W Kennedy, Noam A Cohen
Aflatoxins are mycotoxins secreted by Aspergillus flavus, which can colonize the respiratory tract and cause fungal rhinosinusitis or bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. A. flavus is the second leading cause of invasive aspergillosis worldwide. Because many respiratory pathogens secrete toxins to impair mucociliary immunity, we examined the effects of acute exposure to aflatoxins on airway cell physiology. Using air-liquid interface cultures of primary human sinonasal and bronchial cells, we imaged ciliary beat frequency (CBF), intracellular calcium, and nitric oxide (NO)...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27545731/respiratory-allergic-disorders
#16
REVIEW
Jason Raymond Woloski, Skye Heston, Sheyla Pamela Escobedo Calderon
Allergic asthma refers to a chronic reversible bronchoconstriction influenced by an allergic trigger, leading to symptoms of cough, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is a complex hypersensitivity reaction, often in patients with asthma or cystic fibrosis, occurring when bronchi become colonized by Aspergillus species. The clinical picture is dominated by asthma complicated by recurrent episodes of bronchial obstruction, fever, malaise, mucus production, and peripheral blood eosinophilia...
September 2016: Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27524978/direct-molecular-diagnosis-of-aspergillosis-and-cyp51a-profiling-from-respiratory-samples-of-french-patients
#17
Yanan Zhao, Cécile Garnaud, Marie-Pierre Brenier-Pinchart, Anne Thiébaut-Bertrand, Christel Saint-Raymond, Boubou Camara, Rebecca Hamidfar, Odile Cognet, Danièle Maubon, Muriel Cornet, David S Perlin
BACKGROUND: Microbiological diagnosis of aspergillosis and triazole resistance is limited by poor culture yield. To better estimate this shortcoming, we compared culture and molecular detection of A. fumigatus in respiratory samples from French patients at risk for aspergillosis. METHODS: A total of 97 respiratory samples including bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL), bronchial aspirates (BA), tracheal aspirates, sputa, pleural fluids, and lung biopsy were collected from 33 patients having invasive aspergillosis (n = 12), chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (n = 3), allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (n = 7), or colonization (n = 11) and 28 controls...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27485548/bronchial-colonization-and-complications-after-lung-cancer-surgery
#18
Jelmer E Oor, Johannes M A Daniels, Yvette J Debets-Ossenkopp, Elly S M de Lange-de Klerk, Jan W A Oosterhuis, Chris Dickhoff, Koen J Hartemink
PURPOSE: Infectious complications occur following pulmonary resections preceded or not by induction chemoradiotherapy. We aimed to investigate whether bacterial colonization of the bronchial tree at the time of surgery was associated with postoperative complications. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of all patients who underwent open anatomical pulmonary resections for malignancies at a single center was performed. Demographical data of the included patients, intraoperative data, and data on the postoperative course of patients were collected...
September 2016: Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27477800/low-grade-disease-activity-in-early-life-precedes-childhood-asthma-and-allergy
#19
REVIEW
Bo Lund Krogsgaard Chawes
Asthma and allergies are today the most common chronic diseases in children and the leading causes of school absences, chronic medication usage, emergency department visits and hospitalizations, which affect all members of the family and represent a significant societal and scientific challenge. These highly prevalent disorders are thought to originate from immune distortion in early childhood, but the etiology and heterogeneity of the disease mechanisms are not understood, which hampers preventive initiatives and makes treatment inadequate...
August 2016: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27475005/-endobronchial-aspergilloma-revealing-a-bronchial-carcinoma
#20
Hajar Slimani, Mouna Soualhi, Nouzha Sadak, Rachida Zahraoui, Jamal-Eddine Bourkadi
Endobronchial aspergillosis is a rare presentation of pulmonary aspergillosis in immunocompetent patients; this raises questions about structural changes inducing airflow stasis in order to colonize the bronchial lumen. We present the case of a patient diagnosed with endobronchial aspergilloma covering a bronchial adenocarcinoma.
August 2016: Annales de Pathologie
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