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Bronchial colonization

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657714/non-typeable-haemophilus-influenzae-detection-in-the-lower-airways-of-patients-with-lung-cancer-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#1
Krishna B Sriram, Amanda J Cox, Pathmanathan Sivakumaran, Maninder Singh, Annabelle M Watts, Nicholas P West, Allan W Cripps
Background: Chronic airway inflammation and hypersensitivity to bacterial infection may contribute to lung cancer pathogenesis. Previous studies have demonstrated that nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is the most common colonizing bacteria in the lower airways of patients with COPD. The objective of this study was to determine the presence of NTHi and immunoglobulin concentrations in patients with lung cancer, COPD and controls. Methods: Serum and bronchial wash samples were collected from patients undergoing diagnostic bronchoscopy...
2018: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650833/-a-case-of-local-recurrence-of-descending-colon-cancer-with-ileus-obstruction-and-lung-liver-and-brain-metastasis
#2
Ryouichi Tomita, Shigeru Fujisaki, Kenichi Sakurai, Takeo Azuhata, Yuko Takamoto
We report a 50-year-old man with local recurrence of descending colon cancer with ileus obstruction and brain metastasis, 2 years 6 months after initial resection due to perforation of descending colon cancer(Hartmann procedure, D2 lymph node resection, Stage II, tub2). He complained of left upper abdominal pain and abdominal fullness. He also complained of paresis of the right upper extremity and of experiencing convulsions 1 month before admission. He was diagnosed with local recurrence of descending colon cancer, based on findings of contrast radiography and the presence of colonic fiber...
April 2018: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602478/-post-traumatic-pulmonary-aspergilloma
#3
M Isnard, E Hullo, Y Robert, C Piolat, C Durand, S Lantuejoul, C Garnaud, I Pin
INTRODUCTION: Aspergillomas occur due to colonization of a pre-existing pulmonary, bronchial or pleural cavity by Aspergillus spp. Often asymptomatic, this pathology can reveal itself by recurrent haemoptysis or when bacterial superinfections occur. Aspergillomas occurring in post-traumatic cavities are rare and their management is poorly codified. CASE REPORT: A child suffered from a chest wound at the age of 13 years. Two years later, investigation of recurrent haemoptysis revealed a residual pneumatocele in the right lower lobe colonized by Aspergillus spp...
March 27, 2018: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548015/granular-cell-tumor-report-of-13-cases-in-a-veterans-administration-hospital
#4
Alexander D Jobrack, Suman Goel, Alvin M Cotlar
Introduction: Granular cell tumors (GCTs) are of neuroectodermal origin and account for 0.5% of soft tissue tumors. They are most prevalent in African-Americans in the fourth to sixth decades, with a predilection for the head and neck regions. GCTs usually resemble more common lesions and hence are difficult to diagnose preoperatively. The tumor is readily identified on needle biopsy. Although usually benign with a malignancy rate of only 2-3%, the malignant form has a reported 3-yr mortality of 60%...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492898/stem-cells-application-in-thoracic-surgery-current-perspective-and-future-directions
#5
Francesco Petrella, Lorenzo Spaggiari
Two main fields of clinical applications of stem cells in thoracic surgery have been explored: (a) regenerative medicine, that is a branch of translational research in tissue engineering and molecular biology dealing with the replacement, engineering or regeneration of cells, tissues and organs to restore normal function; (b) drug loading and delivery, that is an emerging field proposing stem cells as vectors to deliver anti-cancer agents for targeted therapies.Bronchopleural fistula is a pathological connection between the bronchus and the pleural cavity that may develop after lung resection, thus causing pleural empyema due to colonization by resident airway bacteria; stem cells and regenerative medicine approach can effectively contribute to impaired bronchial healing, thus preventive a septic and ventilator catastrophe...
March 1, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484049/delayed-recurrence-of-ulcerative-colitis-manifested-by-tracheobronchitis-bronchiolitis-and-bronchiolectasis
#6
Iclal Ocak, Gideon Bollino, Carl Fuhrman
Ulcerative colitis can cause inflammation of small and large airways, characterized by mucosal inflammation, tracheobronchial stenosis, bronchiestasis, and bronchiolitis. We present a case of tracheobronchitis and bronchiolitis associated with ulcerative colitis in a 58-year-old nonsmoking man, 17 years after the total colectomy and complete resolution of intestinal findings. Computed tomography demonstrated wall thickening of trachea and left main stem bronchus, and multiple bronchi around the both hilum with mild to moderate stenosis...
December 2017: Radiology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445273/new-bacterial-growth-in-bronchial-secretions-after-bronchoscopic-valve-implantation
#7
Nilab Sarmand, Daniela Gompelmann, Konstantina Kontogianni, Markus Polke, Felix Jf Herth, Ralf Eberhardt
Background: Bronchoscopic valve implantation is an established treatment in selected patients with severe lung emphysema. There is evidence in literature of increased bacterial colonization of various implants. So far, it is unclear if an increased bacterial colonization can also be observed after endoscopic valve therapy. Methods: Retrospective analysis of patients with examination of the bronchial secretions for presence or change of bacterial growth before and after valve implantation...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383404/response-of-the-respiratory-mucosal-cells-to-mycobacterium-avium-subsp-hominissuis-microaggregate
#8
Lmar Babrak, Luiz E Bermudez
Mycobacterium avium: subsp. hominissuis (MAH) is an opportunistic pathogen that commonly infects immunocompromised individuals. Recently, we described an invasive phenotypic change MAH undergoes when incubated with lung airway epithelial host cells for 24 h, which is accompanied with microaggregate formation in vitro. The microaggregate phenotype also resulted in higher colonization in the lungs of mice early during infection. Previously, we identified genes highly regulated during microaggregate formation and further characterized the function of two highly upregulated bacterial proteins, mycobacterial binding protein-1 (MBP-1) and mycobacterial inversion protein-1 (MIP-1), which were found to be involved in binding and invasion of the respiratory mucosa...
January 30, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359872/mycobacterium-abscessus-infections-in-lung-transplant-recipients-15-year-experience-from-a-single-institution
#9
Morsal Osmani, David Sotello, Salvador Alvarez, John A Odell, Mathew Thomas
PURPOSE: To evaluate our institutional experience with Mycobacterium abscessus infections occurring in lung transplant recipients (LTR). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed our prospectively collected institutional adult lung transplant database from 2001 to 2015 to identify patients with M. abscessus or Mycobacterium chelonae/abscessus infection before or after transplantation. Untreated, colonized patients were excluded from the study. Electronic health records of nine out of 516 lung recipients (1...
January 23, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329577/respiratory-explants-as-a-model-to-investigate-early-events-of-contagious-bovine-pleuropneumonia-infection
#10
Giovanni Di Teodoro, Giuseppe Marruchella, Andrea Di Provvido, Gianluca Orsini, Gaetano Federico Ronchi, Anna Rita D'Angelo, Nicola D'Alterio, Flavio Sacchini, Massimo Scacchia
Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a severe disease caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm). Knowledge on CBPP pathogenesis is fragmented and hampered by the limited availability of laboratory animal and in vitro models of investigation. The purpose of the present study is to assess respiratory explants as useful tools to study the early stages of CBPP. Explants were obtained from trachea, bronchi and lungs of slaughtered cattle, tested negative for Mycoplasma spp. and for the major bacterial and viral respiratory pathogens...
January 12, 2018: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296080/microbiological-airway-colonization-in-copd-patients-with-severe-emphysema-undergoing-endoscopic-lung-volume-reduction
#11
Franziska C Trudzinski, Frederik Seiler, Heinrike Wilkens, Carlos Metz, Annegret Kamp, Robert Bals, Barbara Gärtner, Philipp M Lepper, Sören L Becker
Background: Endoscopic lung volume reduction (eLVR) is a therapeutic option for selected patients with COPD and severe emphysema. Infectious exacerbations are serious events in these vulnerable patients; hence, prophylactic antibiotics are often prescribed postinterventionally. However, data on the microbiological airway colonization at the time of eLVR are scarce, and there are no evidence-based recommendations regarding a rational antibiotic regimen. Objective: The aim of this study was to perform a clinical and microbiological analysis of COPD patients with advanced emphysema undergoing eLVR with endobronchial valves at a single German University hospital, 2012-2017...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259090/-slc6a14-is-a-genetic-modifier-of-cystic-fibrosis-that-regulates-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-attachment-to-human-bronchial-epithelial-cells
#12
Michelle Di Paola, Amber J Park, Saumel Ahmadi, Elyse J Roach, Yu-Sheng Wu, Michaela Struder-Kypke, Joseph S Lam, Christine E Bear, Cezar M Khursigara
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the CFTR gene and is associated with progressive and ultimately fatal infectious lung disease. There can be considerable variability in disease severity among individuals with the same CFTR mutations, and recent genome-wide association studies have identified secondary genetic factors that contribute to this. One of these modifier genes is SLC6A14 , which encodes an amino acid transporter. Importantly, variants of this gene have been associated with age at first acquisition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa In this study, we aimed to determine the function of SLC6A14 in airway epithelia and how it might affect colonization by P...
December 19, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228377/genotyping-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-in-colonized-patients-with-various-pulmonary-diseases
#13
Magdalena Sokulska, Marta Kicia, Maria Wesolowska, Pawel Piesiak, Aneta Kowal, Maria Luísa Lobo, Zaneta Kopacz, Andrzej B Hendrich, Olga Matos
Pneumocystis jirovecii is an opportunistic fungus causing Pneumocystis pneumonia primarily in immunosuppressed patients. However, immunocompetent individuals may become colonized and, as asymptomatic carriers, serve as reservoirs of the pathogen. Moreover, these asymptomatic carriers are at higher risk of developing pneumonia if favorable conditions occur. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of P. jirovecii in patients with various pulmonary diseases and to characterize the genetic diversity of organisms circulating in the studied population...
December 8, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216403/staphylococcus-aureus-impacts-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-chronic-respiratory-disease-in-murine-models
#14
Cristina Cigana, Irene Bianconi, Rossella Baldan, Maura De Simone, Camilla Riva, Barbara Sipione, Giacomo Rossi, Daniela M Cirillo, Alessandra Bragonzi
Background: Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are key bacterial pathogens of the respiratory tract in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Although P. aeruginosa chronic bronchial infection is associated with a poorer prognosis, the consequences of S. aureus colonization on CF outcomes are controversial. Methods: In this paper, murine models of infection resembling traits of the CF human airways disease have been revisited using an infection schedule that mimics the sequence of events of pulmonary disease in CF patients...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155483/modelling-persistent-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-infection-of-human-airway-epithelium
#15
Oliver A Prince, Thomas M Krunkosky, Edward S Sheppard, Duncan C Krause
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a human respiratory tract pathogen causing acute and chronic airway disease states that can include long-term carriage and extrapulmonary spread. The mechanisms of persistence and migration beyond the conducting airways, however, remain poorly understood. We previously described an acute exposure model using normal human bronchial epithelium (NHBE) in air-liquid interface culture, showing that M. pneumoniae gliding motility is essential for initial colonisation and subsequent spread, including localisation to epithelial cell junctions...
March 2018: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152586/genomic-transcriptomic-and-phenotypic-analyses-of-neisseria-meningitidis-isolates-from-disease-patients-and-their-household-contacts
#16
Xiaoyun Ren, David A Eccles, Gabrielle A Greig, Jane Clapham, Nicole E Wheeler, Stinus Lindgreen, Paul P Gardner, Joanna K MacKichan
Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcus) can cause meningococcal disease, a rapidly progressing and often fatal disease that can occur in previously healthy children. Meningococci are found in healthy carriers, where they reside in the nasopharynx as commensals. While carriage is relatively common, invasive disease, associated with hypervirulent strains, is a comparatively rare event. The basis of increased virulence in some strains is not well understood. New Zealand suffered a protracted meningococcal disease epidemic, from 1991 to 2008...
November 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143505/-inhaled-antibiotics-for-the-management-of-non-cystic-fibrosis-bronchiectasis
#17
Gregory Berra, Émilie Chappuis-Gisin, Paola M Soccal, Jérôme Plojoux
Bronchiectasis is irreversible bronchial dilatation associated with chronic respiratory symptoms. Management is aimed at reducing symptoms and slowing the progression of the disease by interrupting the vicious circle: bronchial infection, inflammation, altered mucociliary clearance, lung destruction. Unlike the literature on inhaled antibiotics in cystic fibrosis, literature data are limited and of low quality for bronchiectasis of other causes. However, new recommendations from the European Respiratory Society propose the conditional use of inhaled antibiotics to prevent repeated infectious exacerbations and to eradicate Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization...
November 15, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049008/exogenous-murine-antimicrobial-peptide-cramp-significantly-exacerbates-ovalbumin-induced-airway-inflammation-but-ameliorates-oxazolone-induced-intestinal-colitis-in-balb-c-mice
#18
Yang Li, Xiaojie Chu, Cunbao Liu, Weiwei Huang, Yufeng Yao, Ye Xia, Pengyan Sun, Qiong Long, Xuejun Feng, Kui Li, Xu Yang, Hongmei Bai, Wenjia Sun, Yanbing Ma
Cathelicidin has been reported to be multifunctional. The current study aimed to investigate the influences of exogenous cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP) on inflammatory responses in different disease models. In OVA-induced allergic airway inflammation, CRAMP significantly enhanced the infiltration of inflammatory cells and accumulation of proinflammatory Th2 cytokine IL-13 and IL-33 in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF), exacerbated lung tissue inflammation and airway goblet cell hyperplasia, and elevated OVA-specific IgE level in serum...
January 2, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048473/use-of-taurolidine-in-lung-transplantation-for-cystic-fibrosis-and-impact-on-bacterial-colonization
#19
Mohamed Zeriouh, Anton Sabashnikov, Nikhil P Patil, Bastian Schmack, Barlomiej Zych, Prashant N Mohite, Diana García Sáez, Achim Koch, Ashham Mansur, Simona Soresi, Alexander Weymann, Nandor Marczin, Thorsten Wahlers, Fabio De Robertis, André Rüdiger Simon, Aron-Frederik Popov
OBJECTIVES: The presence of bacterial colonization that causes chronic pulmonary infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients remains a key issue before lung transplantation. We sought to assess the impact of intraoperative taurolidine lavage on bacterial colonization and long-term outcomes following lung transplantation in CF patients. METHODS: Between 2007 and 2013, 114 CF patients underwent lung transplantation at our institute, and taurolidine 2% bronchial lavage was applied in a substantial proportion of patients (n = 42)...
March 1, 2018: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037838/expression-and-epigenetic-regulation-of-cystatin-b-in-lung-cancer-and-colorectal-cancer
#20
Yunxia Ma, Yuan Chen, Iver Petersen
AIMS: Dysregulated expression of cystatin B (CSTB) has been implicated in various cancers. The aims of this study were to analyze the CSTB expression and investigate the epigenetic regulation of CSTB in lung and colon cancer cell lines, and also evaluate the clinical outcome of CSTB in primary lung and colorectal tumors. METHODS: CSTB expression in lung and colon cancer cell lines was analyzed by real-time RT-PCR and western blotting. Epigenetic regulation of CSTB was examined by demethylation, deacetylation tests and bisulfite sequencing (BS)...
June 6, 2017: Pathology, Research and Practice
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