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Bronchial colonization

S Chinnapaiyan, T Parira, R Dutta, M Agudelo, A Morris, M Nair, H J Unwalla
Recurrent lung infections and pneumonia are emerging as significant comorbidities in the HIV-infected population in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). HIV infection has been reported to suppress nasal mucociliary clearance (MCC). Since the primary components driving nasal MCC and bronchial MCC are identical, it is possible that bronchial MCC is affected as well. Effective MCC requires optimal ciliary beating which depends on the maintenance of the airway surface liquid (ASL), a function of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) activity and the integrity of the signaling mechanism that regulates ciliary beating and fluid secretion...
2017: PloS One
Almudena Burillo, Mercedes Marín, Emilia Cercenado, Guillermo Ruiz-Carrascoso, María Jesús Pérez-Granda, Jesús Oteo, Emilio Bouza
There is a critical need for rapid diagnostic methods for multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens in patients with a suspicion of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). The Xpert Carba-R detects 5 targets for carbapenemase-producing organisms (blaKPC, blaNDM, blaVIM, blaOXA-48, and blaIMP-1). Our objective was to evaluate the performance of this assay directly on bronchial aspirates and to correlate the cycle number for a positive result (Ct) with the bacterial count. Bronchial aspirates from patients with a suspicion of VAP were spiked with a dilution of 1 of 4 MDR organisms carrying the resistance genes detected by the test prepared to a final concentration of 102-105 cfu/mL...
2016: PloS One
Ismail Boukahil, Charles J Czuprynski
Mannheimia haemolytica is the most important bacterial agent associated with the bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC), which causes worldwide economic losses to the cattle industry. M. haemolytica cells initially colonize the tonsillar crypts in the upper respiratory tract of cattle, from where they can subsequently descend into the lungs to cause disease. Many bacteria exist as biofilms inside their hosts. We hypothesize that M. haemolytica colonization of cattle during its commensal state may include biofilm formation...
December 25, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
Jung-Yien Chien, Chia-Jung Liu, Pei-Chien Chuang, Tai-Fen Lee, Yu-Tsung Huang, Chun-Hsing Liao, Chien-Ching Hung, Wan-Huei Sheng, Chong-Jen Yu, Po-Ren Hsueh
AIM: We evaluated the performance of the automated quantitative BD MAX (Becton Dickinson) real-time PCR platform for detecting Pneumocystis jirovecii. MATERIALS & METHODS: A total of 34 retrospective and 137 prospective samples were included. RESULTS: Retrospectively, all (100%) positive samples were correctly detected by this platform compared with a nested PCR. Among prospective samples, the overall sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio and negative likelihood ratio were 92...
January 2017: Future Microbiology
Floriana Cappiello, Antonio Di Grazia, Li-Av Segev-Zarko, Silvia Scali, Loretta Ferrera, Luis Galietta, Alessandro Pini, Yechiel Shai, Y Peter Di, Maria Luisa Mangoni
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the major microorganism colonizing the respiratory epithelium in cystic fibrosis (CF) sufferers. The widespread use of available antibiotics has drastically reduced their efficacy, and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a promising alternative. Among them, the frog skin-derived AMPs, i.e., Esc(1-21) and its diastereomer, Esc(1-21)-1c, have recently shown potent activity against free-living and sessile forms of P. aeruginosa Importantly, this pathogen also escapes antibiotics treatment by invading airway epithelial cells...
December 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Robert J Lee, Alan D Workman, Ryan M Carey, Bei Chen, Phillip L Rosen, Laurel Doghramji, Nithin D Adappa, James N Palmer, David W Kennedy, Noam A Cohen
Aflatoxins are mycotoxins secreted by Aspergillus flavus, which can colonize the respiratory tract and cause fungal rhinosinusitis or bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. A. flavus is the second leading cause of invasive aspergillosis worldwide. Because many respiratory pathogens secrete toxins to impair mucociliary immunity, we examined the effects of acute exposure to aflatoxins on airway cell physiology. Using air-liquid interface cultures of primary human sinonasal and bronchial cells, we imaged ciliary beat frequency (CBF), intracellular calcium, and nitric oxide (NO)...
2016: Scientific Reports
Jason Raymond Woloski, Skye Heston, Sheyla Pamela Escobedo Calderon
Allergic asthma refers to a chronic reversible bronchoconstriction influenced by an allergic trigger, leading to symptoms of cough, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is a complex hypersensitivity reaction, often in patients with asthma or cystic fibrosis, occurring when bronchi become colonized by Aspergillus species. The clinical picture is dominated by asthma complicated by recurrent episodes of bronchial obstruction, fever, malaise, mucus production, and peripheral blood eosinophilia...
September 2016: Primary Care
Yanan Zhao, Cécile Garnaud, Marie-Pierre Brenier-Pinchart, Anne Thiébaut-Bertrand, Christel Saint-Raymond, Boubou Camara, Rebecca Hamidfar, Odile Cognet, Danièle Maubon, Muriel Cornet, David S Perlin
BACKGROUND: Microbiological diagnosis of aspergillosis and triazole resistance is limited by poor culture yield. To better estimate this shortcoming, we compared culture and molecular detection of A. fumigatus in respiratory samples from French patients at risk for aspergillosis. METHODS: A total of 97 respiratory samples including bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL), bronchial aspirates (BA), tracheal aspirates, sputa, pleural fluids, and lung biopsy were collected from 33 patients having invasive aspergillosis (n = 12), chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (n = 3), allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (n = 7), or colonization (n = 11) and 28 controls...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jelmer E Oor, Johannes M A Daniels, Yvette J Debets-Ossenkopp, Elly S M de Lange-de Klerk, Jan W A Oosterhuis, Chris Dickhoff, Koen J Hartemink
PURPOSE: Infectious complications occur following pulmonary resections preceded or not by induction chemoradiotherapy. We aimed to investigate whether bacterial colonization of the bronchial tree at the time of surgery was associated with postoperative complications. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of all patients who underwent open anatomical pulmonary resections for malignancies at a single center was performed. Demographical data of the included patients, intraoperative data, and data on the postoperative course of patients were collected...
September 2016: Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery
Bo Lund Krogsgaard Chawes
Asthma and allergies are today the most common chronic diseases in children and the leading causes of school absences, chronic medication usage, emergency department visits and hospitalizations, which affect all members of the family and represent a significant societal and scientific challenge. These highly prevalent disorders are thought to originate from immune distortion in early childhood, but the etiology and heterogeneity of the disease mechanisms are not understood, which hampers preventive initiatives and makes treatment inadequate...
August 2016: Danish Medical Journal
Hajar Slimani, Mouna Soualhi, Nouzha Sadak, Rachida Zahraoui, Jamal-Eddine Bourkadi
Endobronchial aspergillosis is a rare presentation of pulmonary aspergillosis in immunocompetent patients; this raises questions about structural changes inducing airflow stasis in order to colonize the bronchial lumen. We present the case of a patient diagnosed with endobronchial aspergilloma covering a bronchial adenocarcinoma.
August 2016: Annales de Pathologie
Rachael E Tarlinton, Lauren Alder, Joanna Moreton, Grazieli Maboni, Richard D Emes, Sabine Tötemeyer
BACKGROUND: Toll like receptors are one of the major innate immune system pathogen recognition systems. There is little data on the expression of the TLR10 member of this family in the horse. RESULTS: This paper describes the genetic structure of the Equine TLR10 gene and its RNA expression in a range of horse tissues. It describes the phylogenetic analysis of the Equine TLR1,6,10,2 annotations in the horse genome, firmly identifying them in their corresponding gene clades compared to other species and firmly placing the horse gene with other TLR10 genes from odd-toed ungulates...
July 19, 2016: BMC Research Notes
Giovanna E Carpagnano, Donato Lacedonia, Maria Iole Natalicchio, Grazia Cotugno, Luigi Zoppo, Domenico Martinelli, Raffaele Antonetti, Maria Pia Foschino-Barbaro
INTRODUCTION: Today, an increasing interest is being addressed to the viral aetiology of lung tumours. As a consequence, research efforts are currently being directed to the identification of the new viruses involved in lung carcinogenesis toward which the screening programs could be directed. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the airways colonization by the Epstein- Barr virus (EBV) and Citomegalovirus (CMV) in patients affected by lung cancer using, as a respiratory non-invasive sample, the exhaled breath condensate (EBC)...
July 16, 2016: Clinical Respiratory Journal
Paola Prandini, Francesco De Logu, Camilla Fusi, Lisa Provezza, Romina Nassini, Giulia Montagner, Serena Materazzi, Silvia Munari, Eliana Gilioli, Valentino Bezzerri, Alessia Finotti, Ilaria Lampronti, Anna Tamanini, Mariacristina Dechecchi, Giuseppe Lippi, Carla M Ribeiro, Alessandro Rimessi, Paolo Pinton, Roberto Gambari, Pierangelo Geppetti, Giulio Cabrini
Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization, prominent inflammation with massive expression of the neutrophil chemokine IL-8 and luminal infiltrates of neutrophils are hallmarks of chronic lung disease in Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients. The nociceptive Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) calcium channels have been recently found involved in non-neurogenic inflammation. Here, we investigated the role of TRPA1 in CF respiratory inflammatory models in vitro. Expression of TRPA1 was evaluated in CF lung tissue sections and cells by immunohistochemistry and by immunofluorescence...
June 9, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Michael J Watson, Shernita L Lee, Abigail J Marklew, Rodney C Gilmore, Martina Gentzsch, Maria F Sassano, Michael A Gray, Robert Tarran
CFTR is an apical membrane anion channel that regulates fluid homeostasis in many organs including the airways, colon, pancreas and sweat glands. In cystic fibrosis, CFTR dysfunction causes significant morbidity/mortality. Whilst CFTR's function as an ion channel has been well described, its ability to regulate other proteins is less understood. We have previously shown that plasma membrane CFTR increases the surface density of the adenosine 2B receptor (A2BR), but not of the β2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR), leading to an enhanced, adenosine-induced cAMP response in the presence of CFTR...
2016: Scientific Reports
Carla Bellinghausen, Fahad Gulraiz, Alexandra C A Heinzmann, Mieke A Dentener, Paul H M Savelkoul, Emiel F Wouters, Gernot G Rohde, Frank R Stassen
BACKGROUND: Colonization of the airways with potential pathogenic bacteria is observed in a number of chronic respiratory diseases, such as COPD or cystic fibrosis. Infections with respiratory viruses are known triggers of exacerbations of these diseases. We here investigated if pre-exposure to bacteria alters the response of lung epithelial cells to subsequent viral infection. METHODS: Bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B cells and primary bronchial epithelial cells) were exposed to heat-inactivated Haemophilus influenzae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Streptococcus pneumoniae and subsequently infected with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), type 2 human adenovirus or influenza B...
2016: Respiratory Research
Muhammad Abdullah, Paul Stonelake
A very rare case of traumatic diaphragmatic hernia is reported in a 65-year-old woman who presented 46 years after her initial thoracoabdominal injury with tension faecopneumothorax caused by a perforated colon in the chest cavity. She presented in a critical condition with severe respiratory distress, sepsis and acute kidney injury. She had a long-standing history of bronchial asthma with respiratory complications and had experienced progressive shortness of breath for the past year. A recent CT scan had excluded the presence of a diaphragmatic hernia but showed a significantly raised left hemidiaphragm...
May 31, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
Tomoki Fukuoka, Masaaki Sano, Nasa Tominaga, Shotaro Sanada, Yasuo Uno, Hisaharu Oya, Tetsuo Nishi, Katsumi Koshikawa
Bronchial stump fistula is a post-operative complication with poor outcome after pulmonary lobectomy. In order to prevent this complication, the bronchial stump is covered with pericardial fat tissue in our hospital. The case was 58 year old male who received adjuvant chemotherapy after sigmoidectomy for sigmoid colon cancer. As he developed multiple pulmonary metastases, 48 courses of chemotherapy were performed. The lesions had been localized at the right lower lobe, and neither increase in the size of these lesions nor development of other lesions were observed...
May 2016: Kyobu Geka. the Japanese Journal of Thoracic Surgery
Shaghayegh Tavakoli Tabazavareh, Aaron Seitz, Peter Jernigan, Carolin Sehl, Simone Keitsch, Stephan Lang, Barbara C Kahl, Michael Edwards, Heike Grassmé, Erich Gulbins, Katrin Anne Becker
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infections occur early in a high percentage of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and it is believed that these infections facilitate further colonization of CF lungs with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). Previous studies demonstrated a marked reduction of sphingosine in tracheal and bronchial epithelial cells in CF compared to wild type mice, while ceramide is massively increased in CF mice. METHODS: We investigated the effect of C18-sphingosine and C16-ceramide on S...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Elisabeth M Haisma, Anikó Göblyös, Bep Ravensbergen, Alwin E Adriaans, Robert A Cordfunke, Jasmijn Schrumpf, Ronald W A L Limpens, Kirsten J M Schimmel, Jan den Hartigh, Pieter S Hiemstra, Jan Wouter Drijfhout, Abdoelwaheb El Ghalbzouri, Peter H Nibbering
We previously found the LL-37-derived peptide P60.4Ac to be effective against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) on human epidermal models (EMs). The goal of this study was to identify the preferred carrier for this peptide for topical application on skin and mucosal surfaces. We prepared P60.4Ac in three formulations, i.e., a water-in-oil cream with lanolin (Softisan 649), an oil-in-water cream with polyethylene glycol hexadecyl ether (Cetomacrogol), and a hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (hypromellose) 4000 gel...
July 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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