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Continence promotion and health

F Phillips, C H S Ruxton
This paper presents a report of a nutrition conference held at EXPO 2015 in Milan. Over the course of a day, seven speakers from four continents discussed the evidence and scientific processes that underpin the development of dietary guidelines, highlighting issues and challenges at each stage. These include the quality of studies associating disease outcomes with diet, specifically a reliance on observational studies, short duration of intervention trials, low statistical power and lack of follow-up. Concerns were raised over the oversimplification of dietary messages which promote carbohydrates in general without evidence of benefit, while restricting fats when meta-analyses suggests that different fatty acids have different effects on disease risk...
October 6, 2016: Public Health
Sarah Gowling, Jennie Persson, Genevieve Holt, Sue Ashbourne, James Bloomfield, Hannah Shortland, Clare Bate
IAPT (Improving Access to Psychological Therapies) is a national programme aimed at increasing availability of evidence based psychological therapies in the NHS. IAPT is primarily for people who have mild to moderate, common mental health difficulties such as depression, anxiety, phobias and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The programme seeks to use the least intrusive method of care possible to treat people at the time when it will be of most help to them. Individuals are able to self-refer into most IAPT services or alternatively can request to be referred by their GP or other services in the community...
2016: BMJ Quality Improvement Reports
Susan L Whitney, Ahmad Alghadir, Alia Alghwiri, Kefah M Alshebber, Mohammed Alshehri, Joseph M Furman, Martin Mueller, Eva Grill
UNLABELLED: People with vestibular disorders report changes in symptoms based on their environment with many situations increasing their symptoms. The purpose of this paper was to utilize the International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health (ICF) from the World Health Organization (WHO) to describe common environmental triggers for dizziness in persons living with balance and vestibular disorders. A multi-centre cross-sectional study was conducted with four different centres on three different continents, including patients from the United States (Pittsburgh), Germany (Munich), Jordan (Amman) and Saudi Arabia (Riyadh)...
July 2, 2016: Journal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium & Orientation
Jacqueline Dennis
An assumption is often made that incontinence is inevitable in older people, or those with dementia or other long-term conditions. However, research has highlighted strategies that can help them to remain continent. A working group was established to develop a resource to promote continence for people with dementia and long-term conditions. This article explores the resource's key messages, as well as the importance of changing how incontinence is viewed, and what health professionals and the public expect of continence services...
May 18, 2016: Nursing Times
Rutendo B L Zinyama-Gutsire, Michael Christiansen, Paula L Hedley, Simbarashe Rusakaniko, Christian Hagen, Babill Stray-Pedersen, Raluca Buzdugan, Frances Cowan, Charles Chasela
Vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains a major global health problem. We assessed the association of mannose binding lectin (MBL) deficiency and vertical transmission of HIV. Novel diagnostics would be a major breakthrough in this regard. MBL is a liver-derived protein and a key component of the innate immune system. MBL levels may be classified as normal, intermediate, or deficient in the plasma and can use MBL2 haplotypes as a proxy. These haplotypes comprise polymorphisms in the MBL2 gene and promoter region and are known to result in varying levels of MBL deficiency...
July 2016: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
Stefanie Inge Rosin, Irena Zakarija-Grković
BACKGROUND: Integrated care is defined as concerted action of healthcare providers ensuring continuity of care within a patient-centered approach, thus contributing to healthcare efficiency and quality. Apart from the WHO/UNICEF Baby-Friendly Initiatives, integrated care has been poorly explored within the context of breastfeeding support. The aim of this study was to investigate the experience of breastfeeding support practitioners, identifying barriers and facilitators towards integrated care...
2016: International Breastfeeding Journal
Ana Gilza Quaresma Diniz, José Franscidavid Barbosa Belmino, Kaliany Adja Medeiros de Araújo, Aluska Tavares Vieira, Renner de Souza Leite
In the American continent, honeybee envenomation is a public health problem due to the high incidence and severity of the cases. Despite its medical importance, there is a lack of epidemiological studies on this topic in Brazil, especially referring to the Northeastern states. The present study has aimed to describe the epidemiological features of honeybee envenomation cases in the state of the Ceará, Northeastern Brazil, from 2007 to 2013. Data were collected from the Injury Notification Information System database of the Health Department of Ceará...
2016: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
Charles Shey Wiysonge, Zainab Waggie, Anthony Hawkridge, Barry Schoub, Shabir Ahmed Madhi, Helen Rees, Gregory Hussey
One means of improving healthcare workers' knowledge of and attitudes to vaccines is through running vaccine conferences which are accessible, affordable, and relevant to their everyday work. Various vaccinology conferences are held each year worldwide. These meetings focus heavily on basic science with much discussion about new developments in vaccines, and relatively little coverage of policy, advocacy, and communication issues. A negligible proportion of delegates at these conferences come from Africa, home to almost 40% of the global burden of vaccine-preventable diseases...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
Liesl Zühlke, Letitia Acquah
The World Health Organisation (WHO) supports pre-conception care (PCC) towards improving health and pregnancy outcomes. PPC entails a continuum of promotive, preventative and curative health and social interventions. PPC identifies current and potential medical problems of women of childbearing age towards strategising optimal pregnancy outcomes, whereas antenatal care constitutes the care provided during pregnancy. Optimised PPC and antenatal care would improve civil society and maternal, child and public health...
March 2016: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
R P F Guiné, J Duarte, M Ferreira, P Correia, M Leal, I Rumbak, I C Barić, D Komes, Z Satalić, M M Sarić, M Tarcea, Z Fazakas, D Jovanoska, D Vanevski, E Vittadini, N Pellegrini, V Szűcs, J Harangozó, A El-Kenawy, O El-Shenawy, E Yalçın, C Kösemeci, D Klava, E Straumite
OBJECTIVES: Because there is scientific evidence that an appropriate intake of dietary fibre should be part of a healthy diet, given its importance in promoting health, the present study aimed to develop and validate an instrument to evaluate the knowledge of the general population about dietary fibres. STUDY DESIGN: The present study was a cross sectional study. METHODS: The methodological study of psychometric validation was conducted with 6010 participants, residing in 10 countries from three continents...
September 2016: Public Health
Juan E Jiménez
This special issue of the Journal of Learning Disabilities focuses on studies of writing disabilities in Spanish-speaking children. The World Health Organization (2001) included writing difficulties as one of the problems considered to constitute an impediment to school participation, a significant element in the normal developmental process of the child. In this introduction, I describe the background of a larger project promoted by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)...
May 10, 2016: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Ferdinand Haschke, Dominik Grathwohl, Patrick Detzel, Philippe Steenhout, Natalia Wagemans, Peter Erdmann
Worldwide, 38% of women are now overweight (BMI 25-30) or obese (BMI ≥30). There is increasing evidence that maternal obesity can result in unfavorable (epigenetic) pre- and postnatal programming of important genes of the offspring. Infants of overweight mothers show faster weight gain during infancy, which is associated with higher risk of obesity during childhood and adult life. This can have lifelong consequences such as increased risk of noncommunicable diseases. Many studies indicate that infants of obese and nonobese mothers who were fed traditional (high-protein) formulas gain more rapidly weight than breastfed infants...
2016: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Izet Masic, Edin Begic, Lejla Zunic, Doncho Donev
INTRODUCTION: Materia Socio Medica Journal has a long history. It was founded in 1978. AIM: To evaluate journal articles in 2015 and compare findings to previous years. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study has retrospective and descriptive character, and included the period 2009-2015. RESULTS: A total of 99 articles were published in Materia Socio Medica during 2015 and it shows an upward trend during the period 2009-2015...
February 2016: Materia Socio-medica
Jody Phelan, Francesc Coll, Ruth McNerney, David B Ascher, Douglas E V Pires, Nick Furnham, Nele Coeck, Grant A Hill-Cawthorne, Mridul B Nair, Kim Mallard, Andrew Ramsay, Susana Campino, Martin L Hibberd, Arnab Pain, Leen Rigouts, Taane G Clark
BACKGROUND: Combating the spread of drug resistant tuberculosis is a global health priority. Whole genome association studies are being applied to identify genetic determinants of resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs. Protein structure and interaction modelling are used to understand the functional effects of putative mutations and provide insight into the molecular mechanisms leading to resistance. METHODS: To investigate the potential utility of these approaches, we analysed the genomes of 144 Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates from The Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) collection sourced from 20 countries in four continents...
2016: BMC Medicine
Karen Sliwa, Letitia Acquah, Bernard J Gersh, Ana Olga Mocumbi
Africa is a continent characterized by marked ethnic, sociodemographic, and economic diversity, with profound changes in many regions over the past 2 decades. This diversity has an impact on cardiovascular disease presentation and outcomes. Within Africa and within the individual countries, one can find regions having predominantly communicable diseases such as rheumatic heart disease, tuberculous pericarditis, or cardiomyopathy and others having a marked increase in noncommunicable disease such as hypertension and hypertensive heart disease...
March 22, 2016: Circulation
Stella Kagwiria Muthuri, Samuel Oji Oti, Richard James Lilford, Oyinlola Oyebode
BACKGROUND: Salt intake is associated with hypertension, the leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease. To promote population-level salt reduction, the World Health Organization recommends intervention around three core pillars: Reformulation of processed foods, consumer awareness, and environmental changes to increase availability and affordability of healthy food. This review investigates salt reduction interventions implemented and evaluated in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). METHODS: MEDLINE and google scholar electronic databases were searched for articles meeting inclusion criteria...
2016: PloS One
Michèle Ramsay
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2015: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Chun-Sheng Liang, Feng-Kui Duan, Ke-Bin He, Yong-Liang Ma
Recently, PM2.5 (atmospheric fine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm) have received so much attention that the observations, source appointment and countermeasures of it have been widely studied due to its harmful impacts on visibility, mood (mental health), physical health, traffic safety, construction, economy and nature, as well as its complex interaction with climate. A review on the PM2.5 related research is necessary. We start with summary of chemical composition and characteristics of PM2...
January 2016: Environment International
T P Scott, A Coetzer, K de Balogh, N Wright, L H Nel
Even though Africa has the highest per capita death rate from rabies of any continent, and the disease is almost entirely transmitted by the bites of rabid dogs, there has been no coordinated pan-African approach to controlling canine rabies. In order to attain an inclusive and unified network, the Pan-African Rabies Control Network (PARACON) was established in 2014. By following the 'One Health' concept, which involves close coordination between animal and human health sectors across national, regional and continental levels, PARACON will provide a platform to facilitate and promote coordinated and sustainable control strategies and programmes...
December 2015: Antiviral Research
M A Contín, M M Benedetto, M L Quinteros-Quintana, M E Guido
Light is the visible part of the electromagnetic radiation within a range of 380-780 nm; (400-700 on primates retina). In vertebrates, the retina is adapted to capturing light photons and transmitting this information to other structures in the central nervous system. In mammals, light acts directly on the retina to fulfill two important roles: (1) the visual function through rod and cone photoreceptor cells and (2) non-image forming tasks, such as the synchronization of circadian rhythms to a 24 h solar cycle, pineal melatonin suppression and pupil light reflexes...
February 2016: Eye
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