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Mahejibin Khan, Amit Kumar
The understanding of the 3-dimensional enzyme structure is important for the point of protein engineering and applications. Computer-based molecular modelling is a vital tool for theoretical predication of enzyme activities and finding their substrates and inhibitors. SMlipA lipase was cloned from forest soil metagenome and characterized as broad spectrum enzyme with high stability in various organic solvents. In the present study, to understand the mechanism of SMlipA lipase and to identify the key residues involved in enzyme-substrate interaction, three dimensional-computational model of SMlipA has been generated and validated for stereo-chemical and amino-acid environment quality using appropriate programs, and further validation of the active-site architecture was achieved by performing docking studies with different ligand...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
Marco Muth, Stefanie Rothkötter, Steven Paprosch, Reiner P Schmid, Klaus Schnitzlein
Lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis of triglycerides yields glycerol and free fatty-acids, provided that the enzyme is non-regioselective. For an Sn-1,3 regioselective enzyme, such as lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus, the final product is no longer glycerol but Sn-2 monoglyceride instead. However, surface active molecules generated by lipolysis may have a detrimental effect on the interfacial biocatalysis since it is known that low molecular weight surfactants can displace proteins from interfaces. By using drop profile analysis tensiometry, we evaluated the interfacial properties of the lipase-generated molecules and their competitive effect on the adsorption behavior of the lipase and on the proceeding lipolysis...
October 12, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
M I Boguś, E Włóka, A Wrońska, A Kaczmarek, M Kazek, K Zalewska, M Ligęza-Żuber, M Gołębiowski
Entomopathogenic fungi infect insects via penetration through the cuticle, which varies remarkably in chemical composition across species and life stages. Fungal infection involves the production of enzymes that hydrolyse cuticular proteins, chitin and lipids. Host specificity is associated with fungus-cuticle interactions related to substrate utilization and resistance to host-specific inhibitors. The soil fungus Conidiobolus coronatus (Constantin) (Entomophthorales: Ancylistaceae) shows virulence against susceptible species...
October 22, 2016: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Amanda S Harper-Leatherman, Jean Marie Wallace, Debra R Rolison
Sol-gel-derived aerogels are three-dimensional, nanoscale materials that combine large surface area with high porosity. These traits make them useful for any rate-critical chemical process, particularly sensing or electrochemical applications, once physical or chemical moieties are incorporated into the gels to add their functionality to the ultraporous scaffold. Incorporating biomolecules into aerogels, other than such rugged species as lipases or cellulose, has been challenging due to the inability of most biomolecules to remain structurally intact within the gels during the necessary supercritical fluid (SCF) processing...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Joyeeta Mukherjee, Munishwar N Gupta
Protein-coated microcrystals (PCMC) are a high-activity preparation of enzymes for use in low-water media. The protocols for the preparation of PCMCs of Subtilisin Carlsberg and Candida antarctica lipase B (CAL B) are described. The combi-PCMC concept is useful both for cascade and non-cascade reactions. It can also be beneficial to combine two different specificities of a lipase when the substrate requires it. Combi-PCMC of CALB and Palatase used for the conversion of coffee oil present in spent coffee grounds to biodiesel is described...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Joel L Kaar
Widespread interest in the use of room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) as solvents in anhydrous biocatalytic reactions has largely been met with underwhelming results. Enzymes are frequently inactivated in RTILs as a result of the influence of solvent on the enzyme's microenvironment, be it through interacting with the enzyme or enzyme-bound water molecules. The purpose of this chapter is to present a rational approach to mediate RTIL-enzyme interactions, which is essential if we are to realize the advantages of RTILs over conventional solvents for biocatalysis in full...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Shelley D Minteer
This chapter describes methods for enzyme stabilization using micellar solutions. Micellar solutions have been shown to increase the thermal stability, as well as the pH and solvent tolerance of enzymes. This field is traditionally referred to as micellar enzymology. This chapter details the use of ionic and nonionic micelles for the stabilization of polyphenol oxidase, lipase, and catalase, although this method could be used with any enzymatic system or enzyme cascade system.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Junyong Zhang, Zuojin Liu, Zhengrong Lian, Rui Liao, Yi Chen, Yi Qin, Jinlong Wang, Qing Jiang, Xiaobo Wang, Jianping Gong
Monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) is a key enzyme in lipid metabolism that is demonstrated to be involved in tumor progression through both energy supply of fatty acid (FA) oxidation and enhancing cancer cell malignance. The aim of this study was to investigate whether MAGL could be a potential therapeutic target and prognostic indicator for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To evaluate the relationship between MAGL levels and clinical characteristics, a tissue microarray (TMA) of 353 human HCC samples was performed...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Wei Tuo, Natascha Leleu-Chavain, John Spencer, Supojjanee Sansook, Regis Millet, Philippe Chavatte
Fatty acid ethanolamides (FAEs) and endocannabinoids (ECs) have been shown to alleviate pain and inflammation, regulate motility and appetite, and produce anti-cancer, anxiolytic, and neuroprotective efficacies via cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) or type 2 (CB2), or via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α) stimulation. FAEs and ECs are synthesized by a series of endogenous enzymes, including N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine-phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD), diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL), or phospholipase C (PLC), and their metabolism is mediated by several metabolic enzymes, including fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), N-acylethanolamine acid amidase (NAAA), or cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Monalize Salete Mota, Cesar Bauer Gomes, Ismail Teodoro Souza Júnior, Andréa Bittencourt Moura
This study aimed to evaluate the biocontrol potential of bacteria isolated from different plant species and soils. The production of compounds related to phytopathogen biocontrol and/or promotion of plant growth in bacterial isolates was evaluated by measuring the production of antimicrobial compounds (ammonia and antibiosis) and hydrolytic enzymes (amylases, lipases, proteases, and chitinases) and phosphate solubilization. Of the 1219 bacterial isolates, 92% produced one or more of the eight compounds evaluated, but only 1% of the isolates produced all the compounds...
October 4, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
Yongjin He, Jingbo Li, Sitharam Kodali, Bilian Chen, Zheng Guo
Dramatic decline in the quality and quantity of ω-3 PUFAs from marine resource demands new environmental-friendly technology to produce high quality ω-3 PUFAs concentrates in a better bioavailable form. Accordingly this work demonstrated an exceptionally highly efficient non-aqueous approach that non-regiospecific and non ω-3 PUFAs preferential Candida antarctica lipase A (CAL-A), functioning as a near-ideal biocatalyst, is capable to directly concentrate ω-3 PUFAs from 20% to 30% in oils to up to >90% in monoacylglycerols form through one step reaction...
March 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Yafeng Wang, Mingxu Wang, Xiaoqing Zhang, Jing Nie, Ming Zhang, Xiaohong Liu, Le Ma
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of the hepatic lipase (LIPC) rs493258 polymorphism and susceptibility to age-related macular degeneration (AMD). A systematic search in PubMed, EMBASE, and ISI web of science databases was performed to identify eligible published studies without language restrictions up to April 2016. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) in different stages of AMD were estimated under different genetic models using meta-analytic methods. Seven studies comprising 20,559 cases and 17,200 controls met the inclusion criteria and were included in the meta-analysis...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Joana Roßberg, Falko O Rottke, Burkhard Schulz, Andreas Lendlein
The influence of terminal functionalization of oligo(ε-caprolactone)s (OCL) with phenylboronic acid pinacol ester or phenylboronic acid on the enzymatic degradation behavior at the air-water interface is investigated by the Langmuir monolayer degradation technique. While the unsubstituted OCL immediately degrades after injection of the enzyme lipase from Pseudomonas cepacia, enzyme molecules are incorporated into the films based on end-capped OCL before degradation. This incorporation of enzymes does not inhibit or suppress the film degradation, but retards it significantly...
October 20, 2016: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Tianpei Huang, Xiaojuan Zhang, Jieru Pan, Xiaoyu Su, Xin Jin, Xiong Guan
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), one of the most successful biopesticides, may expand its potential by producing bacteriocins (thuricins). The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial potential of a novel Bt bacteriocin, thuricin BtCspB, produced by Bt BRC-ZYR2. The results showed that this bacteriocin has a high similarity with cold-shock protein B (CspB). BtCspB lost its activity after proteinase K treatment; however it was active at 60 °C for 30 min and was stable in the pH range 5-7. The partial loss of activity after the treatments of lipase II and catalase were likely due to the change in BtCspB structure and the partial degradation of BtCspB, respectively...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Gang Chen, Dongsheng Yu, Xue Nian, Junyi Liu, Ronald J Koenig, Bin Xu, Liang Sheng
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the most common form of chronic liver disease, manifests as an over-accumulation of hepatic fat. We have recently shown that mice with genetic knockout of a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) steroid receptor RNA activator (SRA) (SRAKO) are resistant to high fat diet-induced obesity with a phenotype that includes improved glucose tolerance and attenuated hepatic steatosis. The underlying mechanism was investigated in the present study. We found that hepatic levels of SRA and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), a major hepatic triacylglycerol (TAG) hydrolase, were inversely regulated by fasting in mice, and the expression of liver ATGL was induced by SRAKO under normal and high fat diet (HFD) feeding...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Bartosz Gląb, Mirela Beganovic, Sanket Anaokar, Meng-Shu Hao, Allan Rasmusson, Jana Patton-Vogt, Antoni Banaś, Sten Stymne, Ida Lager
Glycero-3-phosphocholine (GPC), the product of the complete deacylation of phosphatidylcholine (PC), was long thought to not be a substrate for reacylation. However it was recently shown that cell-free extracts from yeast and plants could acylate GPC with acyl groups from acyl-CoA. By screening enzyme activities of extracts derived from a yeast knock-out collection, we were able to identify and clone the yeast gene (GPC1) encoding the enzyme, named glycerophosphocholine acyltransferase (GPCAT). By homology search we also identified and cloned GPCAT genes from three plant species...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Zoltán Mátrai, Hajnalka Andrikovics, Anikó Szilvási, András Bors, András Kozma, Emma Ádám, Gabriella Halm, Éva Karászi, Attila Tordai, Tamás Masszi
The marked clinical heterogeneity of CLL makes early prognosis assessment important. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) has been shown to confer adverse prognosis in CLL, recent data indicating it might also contribute to CLL cell survival and metabolism. We determined LPL mRNA expression in unselected peripheral blood of 84 CLL patients by RT PCR. Results were correlated with other prognostic markers and outcome. 30/84 (40 %) of cases were LPL positive based on the cutoff established by ROC analysis. In LPL positive patients significantly shorter median survival (136 vs 258 months, p < 0...
October 18, 2016: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
Emmanuel Anyachukwu Irondi, Samson Olalekan Agboola, Ganiyu Oboh, Aline Augusti Boligon
AIM: To evaluate the phenolics composition and inhibitory effect of the leaves extracts of Ocimum basilicum and Ocimum gratissimum on two key enzymes (pancreatic lipase [PL] and angiotensin 1-converting enzyme [ACE]) involved in obesity and hypertension in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The phenolics (flavonoids and phenolic acids) were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection. PL and ACE inhibitory effects; DPPH* and ABTS*(+) scavenging activities of the extracts were tested using spectrophotometric methods...
September 2016: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
Sindy P Buitrago, Diego Garzón-Ospina, Manuel A Patarroyo
BACKGROUND: Designing a vaccine against Plasmodium vivax has focused on selecting antigens involved in invasion mechanisms that must have domains with low polymorphism for avoiding allele-specific immune responses. The rhoptry neck protein 4 (RON4) forms part of the tight junction, which is essential in the invasion of hepatocytes and/or erythrocytes; however, little is known about this locus' genetic diversity. METHODS: DNA sequences from 73 Colombian clinical isolates from pvron4 gene were analysed for characterizing their genetic diversity; pvron4 haplotype number and distribution, as well as the evolutionary forces determining diversity pattern, were assessed by population genetics and molecular evolutionary approaches...
October 18, 2016: Malaria Journal
Wimonrat Panpetch, Jennifer K Spinler, James Versalovic, Somying Tumwasorn
BACKGROUND: Interleukin (IL)-8 is the key agent for initiating an inflammatory response to infection with Helicobacter pylori. Some strains of Lactobacillus spp. are known to colonize the stomach and suppress inflammation caused by H. pylori. In this study, we characterized two gastric-derived lactobacilli, Lactobacillus salivarius (LS) strains B37 and B60, capable of inhibiting H. pylori-induced IL-8 production by gastric epithelial cells. RESULTS: Conditioned media from LS-B37 and LS-B60 suppressed H...
October 18, 2016: BMC Microbiology
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