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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915195/hydrogen-deuterium-exchange-a-unique-and-effective-method-for-ms-fragmentation-behavior-elucidation-of-ginkgolides-and-its-application-to-systematic-research-in-ginkgo-biloba
#1
Xingliang Niu, Jun Luo, Deran Xu, Hongyan Zou, Lingyi Kong
Ginkgolides, the main active constituents of Ginkgo biloba, possess significant selectively inhibition on platelet-activating factor and pancreatic lipase and attract wide attention in pharmacological research area. In our study, an effective hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange method was developed by exchanging the α-Hs of lactone groups in ginkgolides with Ds, which was very useful for the elucidation of the fragmentation patterns of ginkgolides in Quadrupole Time-of-flight Mass Spectrometry (Q-TOF-MS), especially in accurately distinguishing the type and position of substituent in framework of ginkgolides...
November 26, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913180/structure-activity-and-in-vivo-evaluation-of-a-novel-lipoprotein-lipase-lpl-activator
#2
Werner J Geldenhuys, Joel Caporoso, Thomas C Leeper, Yoon-Kwang Lee, Li Lin, Altaf S Darvesh, Prabodh Sadana
Elevated triglycerides (TG) contribute towards increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is an enzyme that is responsible for the metabolism of core triglycerides of very-low density lipoproteins (VLDL) and chylomicrons in the vasculature. In this study, we explored the structure-activity relationships of our lead compound (C10d) that we have previously identified as an LPL agonist. We found that the cyclopropyl moiety of C10d is not absolutely necessary for LPL activity. Several substitutions were found to result in loss of LPL activity...
November 21, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911483/effects-of-dietary-heme-iron-and-exercise-training-on-abdominal-fat-accumulation-and-lipid-metabolism-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#3
Masanori Katsumura, Shoko Takagi, Hana Oya, Shohei Tamura, Takaoki Saneyasu, Kazuhisa Honda, Hiroshi Kamisoyama
Animal by-products can be recycled and used as sources of essential nutrients. Water-soluble heme iron (WSHI), a functional food additive for supplementing iron, is produced by processing animal blood. In this study, we investigated the effects of dietary supplementation of 3% WSHI and exercise training for 4 weeks on the accumulation of abdominal fat and lipid metabolism in mice fed high-fat diet. Exercise-trained mice had significantly less perirenal adipose tissue, whereas WSHI-fed mice tended to have less epididymal adipose tissue...
December 2, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911408/defining-substrate-specificities-for-lipase-and-phospholipase-candidates
#4
Diana X Sahonero-Canavesi, Maritza Zavaleta-Pastor, Lourdes Martínez-Aguilar, Isabel M López-Lara, Otto Geiger
Microorganisms produce a wide spectrum of (phospho)lipases that are secreted in order to make external substrates available for the organism. Alternatively, other (phospho)lipases may be physically associated with the producing organism causing a turnover of intrinsic lipids and frequently giving rise to a remodeling of the cellular membranes. Although potential (phospho)lipases can be predicted with a number of algorithms when the gene/protein sequence is available, experimental proof of the enzyme activities, substrate specificities, and potential physiological functions has frequently not been obtained...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911148/effects-of-chronic-estrogen-administration-in-the-ventromedial-nucleus-of-the-hypothalamus-vmh-on-fat-and-bone-metabolism-in-ovariectomized-rats
#5
Z Zhang, J Liu, A G Veldhuis-Vlug, Y Su, E Foppen, B C J van der Eerden, M Koedam, N Bravenboer, A Kalsbeek, A Boelen, E Fliers, P H Bisschop
Estrogen deficiency after ovariectomy (OVX) results in increased adiposity and bone loss, which can be prevented by systemic 17-β estradiol (E2) replacement. Studies in transgenic mice suggested that in addition to direct actions of estrogen in peripheral tissues, also estrogen signaling in the hypothalamus regulates fat distribution and bone metabolism. We hypothesized that the protective effect of systemic E2 on fat and bone metabolism in the OVX model is partly mediated through the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH)...
December 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910984/enzyme-immobilized-clay-nanotube-chitosan-membranes-with-sustainable-biocatalytic-activities
#6
Jiajia Sun, Raghuvara Yendluri, Kai Liu, Ying Guo, Yuri Lvov, Xuehai Yan
We have developed a simple and effective strategy to prepare an enzymatic membrane by the admixing of a halloysite clay nanotube-lipase complex and a chitosan solution. The loading of 3 wt% lipase into the lumen of halloysite clay nanotubes was enhanced with an electrostatic interaction. 10 wt% of lipase-nanotubes were dispersed in an aqueous chitosan solution and cast as a coating. The enzymatic chitosan-halloysite membranes displayed increased pH, temperature stability and long-term usability for the catalytic decomposition of lipids: 90% of the initial activity was preserved at 80 °C, 70% of the functionality remained at the high pH of 9, and 85% of the activity was sustained after ten continuous cycles of use...
December 2, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909876/sonochemical-effect-on-activity-and-conformation-of-commercial-lipases
#7
Shamraja S Nadar, Virendra K Rathod
The enzyme under lower-intensity ultrasonic irradiation leads to favourable conformational changes, thereby enhancing its activity. The augmentation of activity of ultrasound-treated enzyme is strongly dependent on ultrasound intensity, duty cycle and exposure time, which was investigated for commercial lipases. Thermomyces lanuginosus (TL) lipase showed a 1.3-fold enhanced activity after irradiating at 22 kHz and 11.38 W cm(-2) with 50 % duty cycle for 25-min ultrasonic treatment and 1.5-fold enhanced activity was observed for lipozyme (candida antarctica lipase B (CALB)) lipase, at 22 kHz and 15...
December 1, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909554/high-maysin-corn-silk-extract-reduces-body-weight-and-fat-deposition-in-c57bl-6j-mice-fed-high-fat-diets
#8
Eun Young Lee, Sun Lim Kim, Hyeon Jung Kang, Myung Hwan Kim, Ae Wha Ha, Woo Kyoung Kim
BACKGROUNG/OBJECTIVES: The study was performed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of action of high maysin corn silk extract on body weight and fat deposition in experimental animals. MATERIALS/METHODS: A total of 30 male C57BL/6J mice, 4-weeks-old, were purchased and divided into three groups by weight using a randomized block design. The normal-fat (NF) group received 7% fat (diet weight basis), the high-fat (HF) group received 25% fat and 0.5% cholesterol, and the high-fat corn silk (HFCS) group received high-fat diet and high maysin corn silk extract at 100 mg/kg body weight through daily oral administration...
December 2016: Nutrition Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908779/lipoprotein-lipase-does-not-increase-significantly-in-the-postprandial-plasma
#9
Nobuyoshi Ishiyama, Kouji Sakamaki, Younosuke Shimomura, Kazuhiko Kotani, Kokoro Tsuzaki, Naoki Sakane, Kazuya Miyashita, Isao Fukamachi, Junji Kobayashi, Kimber L Stanhope, Peter J Havel, Keiko Kamachi, Akira Tanaka, Yoshiharu Tokita, Tetsuo Machida, Masami Murakami, Katsuyuki Nakajima
BACKGROUND: Previous reports have shown that lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity significantly increases in the postprandial plasma associated with the increase of TG-rich lipoproteins. Therefore, we have reexamined those relationships using newly developed LPL assay with the different kinds of food intake. METHODS: Standard meal (n=81), 50g of fat (n=54), 75g of glucose (n=25) and cookie (25g fat and 75g carbohydrate fat) (n=28) were administered in generally healthy volunteers...
November 28, 2016: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908755/synthesis-evaluation-and-molecular-modelling-studies-of-2-carbazol-3-yl-2-oxoacetamide-analogues-as-a-new-class-of-potential-pancreatic-lipase-inhibitors
#10
S N C Sridhar, George Ginson, P O Venkataramana Reddy, Mukund P Tantak, Dalip Kumar, Atish T Paul
A series of twenty four 2-(carbazol-3-yl)-2-oxoacetamide analogues were synthesized, characterized and evaluated for their pancreatic lipase (PL) inhibitory activity. Porcine PL was used against 4-nitrophenyl butyrate (method A) and tributyrin (methods B and C) as substrates during the PL inhibition assay. Compounds 7e, 7f and 7p exhibited potential PL inhibitory activity (IC50 values of 6.31, 8.72 and 9.58μM, respectively in method A; and Xi50 of 21.85, 21.94 and 26.2, respectively in method B). Further, inhibition kinetics of 7e, 7f and 7p against PL, using method A, revealed their competitive nature of inhibition...
November 18, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906430/recurrent-acute-pancreatitis-in-bowel-malrotation
#11
G Alessandri, A Amodio, L Landoni, N De' Liguori Carino, C Bassi
OBJECTIVE: Recurrent acute pancreatitis is an uncommon diagnosis in teenagers. Excluded alcohol and biliary stones, more prevalent aetiologies in these group of patients are genetic pancreatitis, pancreatic duct system abnormalities, neoplasia, traumas and congenital abnormalities of the duodenum such as duodenal duplication or diverticulum. Two reported cases of recurrent pancreatitis associated to midgut malrotation were described in English literature. Bowel malrotation is a difficult diagnosis in a teenager or a young adult and a common delay is documented...
November 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905924/current-knowledge-and-perspectives-of-paenibacillus-a-review
#12
REVIEW
Elliot Nicholas Grady, Jacqueline MacDonald, Linda Liu, Alex Richman, Ze-Chun Yuan
Isolated from a wide range of sources, the genus Paenibacillus comprises bacterial species relevant to humans, animals, plants, and the environment. Many Paenibacillus species can promote crop growth directly via biological nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, production of the phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and release of siderophores that enable iron acquisition. They can also offer protection against insect herbivores and phytopathogens, including bacteria, fungi, nematodes, and viruses...
December 1, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905292/the-effect-of-iron-deficiency-on-the-temporal-changes-in-the-expression-of-genes-associated-with-fat-metabolism-in-the-pregnant-rat
#13
Susan M Hay, Harry J McArdle, Helen E Hayes, Valerie J Stevens, William D Rees
Iron is essential for the oxidative metabolism of lipids. Lipid metabolism changes during gestation to meet the requirements of the growing fetus and to prepare for lactation. The temporal effects of iron deficiency during gestation were studied in female rats fed complete or iron-deficient diets. Plasma triglycerides were elevated in the iron-deficient group throughout gestation. There were time-dependent changes in the triglyceride content of the maternal liver, falling at the midpoint of gestation and then increasing on d21...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903836/sericin-ameliorated-dysmorphic-mitochondria-in-high-cholesterol-diet-streptozotocin-rat-by-antioxidative-property
#14
Sumate Ampawong, Duangnate Isarangkul, Pornanong Aramwit
Sericin has been implicated in lower cholesterolemic effect due to its properties with several mechanisms. Mitochondria are one of the most important targets to be affected in high blood cholesterol and glucose conditions. The protective role of sericin on mitochondria remains doubtful. To examine this role, electron microscopic, histopathologic, immunohistochemical, and biochemical studies were performed in a high-cholesterol diet/streptozotocin rat model. The results demonstrated that sericin reduced blood cholesterol without hypoglycemic effect...
November 29, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903595/lifelong-imbalanced-linoleic-alpha-linolenic-acid-intake-impairs-emotional-and-cognitive-behavior-in-adult-rats-via-changes-in-brain-endocannabinoid-system
#15
Erica Zamberletti, Fabiana Piscitelli, Valentina De Castro, Elisabetta Murru, Marina Gabaglio, Paola Colucci, Chiara Fanali, Pamela Prini, Tiziana Bisogno, Mauro Maccarrone, Patrizia Campolongo, Sebastiano Banni, Tiziana Rubino, Daniela Parolaro
Imbalanced dietary n-3 and n-6 PUFA content has been associated with a number of neurological conditions. Endocannabinoids are n-6 PUFA derivatives, whose brain concentrations are sensitive to modifications of fatty acid composition of the diet, and play a central role in the regulation of mood and cognition. As such, the endocannabinoid system appears to be an ideal candidate for mediating the effects of dietary fatty acids on mood and cognition. Lifelong administration of isocaloric alpha linolenic acid (ALA) deficient and enriched diets induced short-term memory deficits, whereas only dietary ALA enrichment altered emotional reactivity in adult male rats compared to animals fed a standard diet, balanced in ALA/linoleic (LA) ratio...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903424/inhibition-of-key-digestive-enzymes-related-to-hyperlipidemia-and-protection-of-liver-kidney-functions-by-cystoseira-crinita-sulphated-polysaccharide-in-high-fat-diet-fed-rats
#16
Amel Ben Gara, Rihab Ben Abdallah Kolsi, Rim Chaaben, Nadia Hammami, Majed Kammoun, Francesco Paolo Patti, Abdelfattah El Feki, Lotfi Fki, Hafedh Belghith, Karima Belghith
The objective of this current study was to investigate the possible hyperlipidemic and antioxidative effects of Cystoseira crinita sulfated polysaccharide (CCSP) in rats fed with a high-fat diet, exhibited an inhibitory activity on pancreatic lipase in vitro. In vivo administration of this extract to HFD-rats lowered body weight and potentially inhibited key enzymes of lipid metabolism and absorption as lipase activity in both plasma and small intestine, which led to a notable decrease of blood LDL- cholesterol (LDL-Ch) and triglycerides (TG) levels, and an increase in HDL-cholesterol (HDL-Ch) levels in HFD-rats...
November 27, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902425/virulence-adaptations-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolated-from-patients-with-non-cystic-fibrosis-bronchiectasis
#17
Taylor Evart Woo, Jessica Duong, Nicole M Jervis, Harvey R Rabin, Michael D Parkins, Douglas Gordon Storey
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major pathogen in chronic lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF) and non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (nCFB). Much of our understanding regarding infections in nCFB patients is extrapolated from findings in CF with little direct investigation on the adaptation of P. aeruginosa in nCFB patients. As such, we investigated whether the adaptation of P. aeruginosa was indeed similar between nCFB and CF. From our prospectively collected biobank we identified 40 nCFB patients who had repeated P...
November 8, 2016: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902301/isolation-of-vibrio-tapetis-from-two-native-fish-species-genypterus-chilensis-and-paralichthys-adspersus-reared-in-chile-and-description-of-vibrio-tapetis-subsp-quintayensis-subsp-nov
#18
Arturo Levican, Aide Lasa, Rute Irgang, Jesús L Romalde, Matías Poblete-Morales, Ruben Avendaño-Herrera
Seven isolates recovered from diseased fine flounders (Paralichthys adspersus) and red conger eel (Genypterus chilensis) experimentally reared in Quintay (Chile) were confirmed as V. tapetis on the basis of the MALDI-TOF MS, 16S rRNA gene, DNA-DNA hybridization values and G+C content. The ERIC-PCR and REP-PCR patterns were homogeneous among those isolates recovered from a same host, but distinct to the type strains V. tapetis subsp. tapetis CECT 4600T and V. tapetis subsp. britannicus CECT 8161T. On the basis of atpA, rpoA, rpoD, recA and pyrH gene similarities (99...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900690/a-microtiter-plate-based-assay-to-screen-for-active-and-stereoselective-hydrolytic-enzymes-in-enzyme-libraries
#19
Dominique Böttcher, Patrick Zägel, Marlen Schmidt, Uwe T Bornscheuer
A procedure for the high-throughput screening (HTS) of esterases is described. This includes a pretest for discrimination of active and inactive clones using an agar plate overlay assay, the enzyme expression in microtiter plates and the measurement of activity and enantioselectivity (E) of the esterase variants using acetates of secondary alcohols as model substrates. Acetic acid released is converted in an enzyme cascade leading to the stoichiometric formation of NADH, which is quantified in a spectrophotometer...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899990/microarray-analysis-of-differentially-expressed-genes-and-linker-genes-associated-with-the-molecular-mechanism-of-colorectal-cancer
#20
Xingjie Shen, Meng Yue, Fansheng Meng, Jingyu Zhu, Xiaoyan Zhu, Yakun Jiang
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most prevalent malignancies worldwide and remains the third leading cause of cancer-associated mortality. The present study aimed to fully elucidate the pathogenesis of CRC and identify associated genes in tumor development. Microarray GSE44076, GSE41328 and GSE44861 datasets were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database and integrated with meta-analysis. Differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) were identified from CRC samples compared with adjacent non-cancerous controls using the Limma package in R, followed by functional analysis using the Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery online tool...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
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