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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425950/diversity-analysis-and-bioresource-characterization-of-halophilic-bacteria-isolated-from-a-south-african-saltpan
#1
Ramganesh Selvarajan, Timothy Sibanda, Memory Tekere, Hlengilizwe Nyoni, Stephen Meddows-Taylor
Though intensive research has been channeled towards the biotechnological applications of halophiles and other extremophilic microbes, these studies have not been, by any means, exhaustive. Saline environments still offer a vast diversity of microbes with potential to produce an array of natural products which can only be unlocked by concerted research efforts. In this study, a combination of culture and molecular approaches were employed to characterize halophilic bacteria from saltpan water samples and profile their potential biotechnological applications...
April 20, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424881/screening-of-commercial-enzymes-for-poly-ethylene-terephthalate-pet-hydrolysis-and-synergy-studies-on-different-substrate-sources
#2
Aline Machado de Castro, Adriano Carniel, José Nicomedes Junior, Absai da Conceição Gomes, Érika Valoni
Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) is one of the most consumed plastics in the world. The development of efficient technologies for its depolymerization for monomers reuse is highly encouraged, since current recycling rates are still very low. In this study, 16 commercial lipases and cutinases were evaluated for their abilities to catalyze the hydrolysis of two PET samples. Humicola insolens cutinase showed the best performance and was then used in reactions on other PET sources, solely or in combination with the efficient mono(hydroxyethyl terephthalate)-converting lipase from Candida antarctica...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424262/magnesium-reduces-hepatic-lipid-accumulation-in-yellow-catfish-pelteobagrus-fulvidraco-and-modulates-lipogenesis-and-lipolysis-via-ppara-jak-stat-and-ampk-pathways-in-hepatocytes
#3
Chuan-Chuan Wei, Kun Wu, Yan Gao, Li-Han Zhang, Dan-Dan Li, Zhi Luo
Background: Magnesium influences hepatic lipid deposition in vertebrates, but the underlying mechanism is unknown.Objective: We used yellow catfish and their isolated hepatocytes to test the hypothesis that magnesium influences lipid deposition by modulating lipogenesis and lipolysis.Methods: Juvenile yellow catfish (mean ± SEM weight: 3.43 ± 0.02 g, 3 mo old, mixed sex) were fed a 0.14- (low), 0.87- (intermediate) or 2.11- (high) g Mg/kg diet for 56 d. Primary hepatocytes were incubated for 48 h in control or MgSO4-containing medium with or without 2-h pretreatment with an inhibitor (AG490, GW6471, or Compound C)...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423269/sensing-by-smell-nanoparticle-enzyme-sensors-for-rapid-and-sensitive-detection-of-bacteria-with-olfactory-output
#4
Bradley Duncan, Ngoc D B Le, Colleen Alexander, Akash Gupta, Gulen Yesilbag Tonga, Mahdieh Yazdani, Ryan F Landis, Li-Sheng Wang, Bo Yan, Serdar Burmaoglu, Xiaoning Li, Vincent M Rotello
We present here a highly efficient sensor for bacteria that provides an olfactory output, allowing detection without the use of instrumentation, and with a modality that does not require visual identification. The sensor platform uses nanoparticles to reversibly complex and inhibits lipase. These complexes are disrupted in the presence of bacteria, restoring enzyme activity and generating scent from odorless pro-fragrance substrate molecules. This system provides rapid (15 min) sensing and very high sensitivity (102 cfu/mL) detection of bacteria using the human sense of smell as an output...
April 19, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422452/enantioselective-synthesis-of-s-naproxen-using-immobilized-lipase-on-chitosan-beads
#5
Saeedeh L Gilani, Ghasem D Najafpour, Hamid D Heydarzadeh, Aliakbar Moghadamnia
S-naproxen by enantioselective hydrolysis of racemic naproxen methyl ester was produced using immobilized lipase. The lipase enzyme was immobilized on chitosan beads, activated chitosan beads by glutaraldehyde, and Amberlite XAD7. In order to find an appropriate support for the hydrolysis reaction of racemic naproxen methyl ester, the conversion and enantioselectivity for all carriers were compared. In addition, effects of the volumetric ratio of two phases in different organic solvents, addition of cosolvent and surfactant, optimum pH and temperature, reusability, and inhibitory effect of methanol were investigated...
April 19, 2017: Chirality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422292/high-theabrownins-instant-dark-tea-product-by-aspergillus-niger-via-submerged-fermentation-alpha-glucosidase-and-pancreatic-lipase-inhibition-and-antioxidant-activity
#6
Yuwan Wang, Mingyue Zhang, Zhengzhu Zhang, Hengqian Lu, Xueling Gao, Pengxiang Yue
BACKGROUND: Theabrownins (TB) are bioactive components usually extracted from Chinese dark tea, where they are present in low concentrations. This study aimed to produce an instant dark tea high in theabrownins via submerged fermentation by the fungus Aspergillus niger. Three fermentation parameters that affect theabrownins content, namely inoculum size, liquid-solid ratio and rotation speed, were optimized using response surface methodology. RESULT: Optimum fermentation conditions were modeled to be an inoculum of 5...
April 19, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422089/thermogenic-adipocytes-promote-hdl-turnover-and-reverse-cholesterol-transport
#7
Alexander Bartelt, Clara John, Nicola Schaltenberg, Jimmy F P Berbée, Anna Worthmann, M Lisa Cherradi, Christian Schlein, Julia Piepenburg, Mariëtte R Boon, Franz Rinninger, Markus Heine, Klaus Toedter, Andreas Niemeier, Stefan K Nilsson, Markus Fischer, Sander L Wijers, Wouter van Marken Lichtenbelt, Ludger Scheja, Patrick C N Rensen, Joerg Heeren
Brown and beige adipocytes combust nutrients for thermogenesis and through their metabolic activity decrease pro-atherogenic remnant lipoproteins in hyperlipidemic mice. However, whether the activation of thermogenic adipocytes affects the metabolism and anti-atherogenic properties of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) is unknown. Here, we report a reduction in atherosclerosis in response to pharmacological stimulation of thermogenesis linked to increased HDL levels in APOE*3-Leiden.CETP mice. Both cold-induced and pharmacological thermogenic activation enhances HDL remodelling, which is associated with specific lipidomic changes in mouse and human HDL...
April 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421196/synthesis-of-l-ascorbyl-flurbiprofenate-by-lipase-catalyzed-esterification-and-transesterification-reactions
#8
Jia-Ying Xin, Li-Rui Sun, Shu-Ming Chen, Yan Wang, Chun-Gu Xia
The synthesis of L-ascorbyl flurbiprofenate was achieved by esterification and transesterification in nonaqueous organic medium with Novozym 435 lipase as biocatalyst. The conversion was greatly influenced by the kinds of organic solvents, speed of agitation, catalyst loading amount, reaction time, and molar ratio of acyl donor to L-ascorbic acid. A series of solvents were investigated, and tert-butanol was found to be the most suitable from the standpoint of the substrate solubility and the conversion for both the esterification and transesterification...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420705/synthesis-of-neutral-ether-lipid-monoalkyl-diacylglycerol-madag-by-lipid-acyltransferases
#9
Zhengping Ma, Joelle M Onorato, Luping Chen, David W Nelson, Chi-Liang Eric Yen, Dong Cheng
In mammals, ether lipids exert a wide spectrum of signaling and structural functions such as stimulation of immune responses, anti-tumor activities and enhancement of sperm functions. Abnormal accumulation of monoalkyl-diacylglycerol (MADAG) was found in Wolman disease, a human genetic disorder defined by a deficiency in lysosomal acid lipase. In the current study, we found that among the 9 recombinant human lipid acyltransferases examined, DGAT1, DGAT2, MGAT2, MGAT3, AWAT2/MFAT and DC3 were able to use 1-monoalkylglycerol (1-MAkG) as an acyl acceptor for the synthesis of monoalkyl-monoacylglycerol (MAMAG)...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420354/therapeutic-potentials-of-crataegus-azarolus-var-eu-azarolus-maire-leaves-and-its-isolated-compounds
#10
Eman Abu-Gharbieh, Naglaa Gamil Shehab
BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemia is a complicated condition accompanied with high incidence of infection and dyslipidemia. This study aimed to explore the phyto-constituents of Crataegus azarolus var. eu- azarolus Maire leaves, and to evaluate the therapeutic potentials particularly antimicrobial, antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic of the extract and the isolated compound (3β-O-acetyl ursolic acid). METHODS: Total phenolics and flavonoidal contents were measured by RP-HPLC analysis...
April 18, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416878/imitation-of-soymilk-cow-s-milk-mixed-enzyme-modified-cheese-their-composition-proteolysis-lipolysis-and-sensory-properties
#11
Barkat Ali, Kiran Yasmin Khan, Hamid Majeed, Lei Xu, Fengfeng Wu, Han Tao, Xueming Xu
Combined use of soymilk-cow's milk is a novel approach in food industry and has great potential to developed products with numerous health benefits. This study aimed to develop the enzyme-modified cheeses (EMCs) using soymilk-cow's milk. The curd was hydrolysed using combination of proteinases/peptidase to produce a range of proteolysed products followed by lipolysis to create flavoured EMCs. Results showed that enzymes led to an increase in amino acids (AA), free fatty acids (FFA), complex volatiles, and improved sensory attributes...
April 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416864/synthesis-of-structured-lipids-containing-behenic-acid-from-fully-hydrogenated-crambe-abyssinica-oil-by-enzymatic-interesterification
#12
Marilene D M Morselli Ribeiro, Chiu Chih Ming, Thiago I B Lopes, Renato Grimaldi, Anita J Marsaioli, Lireny A G Gonçalves
Low-calorie structured lipids (SLs) rich in behenic and oleic acids were produced by enzymatic (EI) and chemical interesterification (CI) of high oleic sunflower oil and fully hydrogenated Crambe abyssinica oil in proportions of 60:40, 50:50, 40:60 and 30:70 (w/w), respectively. The immobilized lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus (Lipozyme TL IM) was used for 3 h at 70 °C at a dosage of 7% (w/w) free of organic solvents. The original blend (BE) and the reaction products were evaluated for their fatty acid (FA) and triacylglycerols (TAG) compositions, solid fat contents, thermal analysis, regiospecific distribution of the FA, microstructure and polymorphism...
April 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415797/rab7-gtpase-controls-lipid-metabolic-signaling-in-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells
#13
Xinchun Ding, Wenjing Zhang, Ting Zhao, Cong Yan, Hong Du
Lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) is a critical neutral lipid metabolic enzyme that regulates metabolic reprogramming in myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) through over-activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Affymetrix GeneChip microarray analysis of MDSCs from LAL deficient mouse (lal-/-) revealed upregulation of Rab7 GTPase protein, which belongs to a superfamily of small-molecular-weight GTPase known to regulate intracellular membrane trafficking from early to late endosomes and lysosomes. Here, the physical protein-protein interaction between Rab7 GTPase and mTOR has been detected by co-immunoprecipitation in the cell extract of wild type HD1A and lal-/- MDSC-like HD1B myeloid cell lines...
March 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414683/recurrent-hypertriglyceridemic-pancreatitis-htgp-and-the-use-of-insulin-drip-as-treatment
#14
T Tran, N Lee
INTRODUCTION: Chronic pancreatitis by definition is a recurrent episode of acute pancreatitis and is commonly associated with alcoholism in the US. Another cause of chronic pancreatitis is hypertriglyceridemia (HTGP);, occurring in 1-5 percent of cases. The incidence of HTGP is higher in patients with diabetes and HIV, usually requiring triglyceride levels > 1000 mg/dL. CASE: A 33 year old man with uncontrolled type 1 diabetes and recurrent pancreatitis, first diagnosed 5 years prior, presented as a transfer from an outside hospital for a recurrent episode of HTGP...
March 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414668/autoimmune-diabetes-presented-with-diabetic-ketoacidosis-induced-by-immunotherapy-in-an-adult-with-melanoma
#15
A A Alzenaidi, J Dendy, L Rejjal
INTRODUCTION: Immunotherapy has been approved for treatment of melanoma. Autoimmune endocrinopathies have been reported in trials involving immunotherapy but autoimmune diabetes has not been definitively linked to them. Here we describe a case of autoimmune diabetes presenting with DKA after receiving combined immunotherapy with anti-CTLA4 and anti-PD1 monoclonal antibodies. CASE: A 47year old gentleman with metastatic melanoma presented to our institution with confusion, abdominal pain and decreased oral intake...
March 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413193/effect-of-dietary-purified-xanthohumol-from-hop-humulus-lupulus-l-pomace-on-adipose-tissue-mass-fasting-blood-glucose-level-and-lipid-metabolism-in-kk-ay-mice
#16
Koki Takahashi, Kyoichi Osada
We previously showed that xanthohumol-rich hop extract (XRHE, ~18% xanthohumol) exerts anti-obesity effects in rats fed a high-fat diet through regulation of fatty acid metabolism. In this study, we examined the effects of dietary purified xanthohumol from XRHE (PX, ~91.9% xanthohumol) in KK-Ay mice in order to understand the anti-obesity effects of xanthohumol alone because XRHE contains 82% unknown compounds. Dietary consumption of PX significantly inhibited an increase in the visceral fat weight of mice compared to those fed control diet without PX...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413180/role-of-hormone-sensitive-lipase-in-leptin-promoted-fat-loss-and-glucose-lowering
#17
Mikio Takanashi, Yoshino Taira, Sachiko Okazaki, Satoru Takase, Takeshi Kimura, Cheng Cheng Li, Peng Fei Xu, Akari Noda, Ichiro Sakata, Hidetoshi Kumagai, Yuichi Ikeda, Yoko Iizuka, Naoya Yahagi, Hitoshi Shimano, Jun-Ichi Osuga, Shun Ishibashi, Takashi Kadowaki, Hiroaki Okazaki
AIM: Myriad biological effects of leptin may lead to broad therapeutic applications for various metabolic diseases, including diabetes and its complications; however, in contrast to its anorexic effect, the molecular mechanisms underlying adipopenic and glucose-lowering effects of leptin have not been fully understood. Here we aim to clarify the role of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) in leptin's action. METHODS: Wild-type (WT) and HSL-deficient (HSLKO) mice were made hyperleptinemic by two commonly-used methods: adenovirus-mediated overexpression of leptin and continuous subcutaneous infusion of leptin by osmotic pumps...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413163/angptl8-requires-angptl3-to-inhibit-lipoprotein-lipase-and-plasma-triglyceride-clearance
#18
Jorge F Haller, Ivory J Mintah, Lisa M Shihanian, Panayiotis Stevis, David Buckler, Corey A Alexa-Braun, Sandra Kleiner, Serena Banfi, Jonathan C Cohen, Helen H Hobbs, George D Yancopoulos, Andrew J Murphy, Viktoria Gusarova, Jesper Gromada
Angiopoietin-like protein 3 (ANGPTL3) and ANGPTL8 are secreted proteins and inhibitors of lipoprotein lipase (LPL)-mediated plasma triglyceride (TG) clearance. It is unclear how these two ANGPTL proteins interact to regulate LPL activity. ANGPTL3 inhibits LPL activity and increase serum TG in mice independent of ANGPTL8. These effects could be reversed with an ANGPTL3 blocking antibody. Previously, it was shown that ANGPTL8 requires ANGPTL3 expression to increase plasma TG levels. Here we show that the ability of ANGPTL8 to block LPL activity and increase serum TG does not rely on inhibitory activity of ANGPTL3...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412693/feeding-angptl4-mice-trans-fat-promotes-foam-cell-formation-in-mesenteric-lymph-nodes-without-leading-to-ascites
#19
Antwi Boasiako Oteng, Asmita Bhattacharya, Susanne Brodesser, Ling Qi, Nguan Soon Tan, Sander Kersten
ANGPTL4 regulates plasma triglyceride levels by inhibiting lipoprotein lipase. Inactivation of ANGPTL4 decreases plasma triglycerides and reduces risk of coronary artery disease. Unfortunately, targeting ANGPTL4 for the therapeutic management of dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis is hampered by the observation that mice and monkeys in which ANGPTL4 is inactivated exhibit lipid accumulation in mesenteric lymph nodes. In mice these pathological events exclusively unfold upon feeding a high saturated fatty acid diet and are followed by an ultimately lethal pro-inflammatory response and chylous ascites...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412202/the-immunosuppressive-effects-of-a-novel-recombinant-lipq-rv2485c-protein-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-on-human-macrophage-cell-lines
#20
Anjani Kumar, Manisha, Gurkamaljit Kaur Sangha, Anju Shrivastava, Jagdeep Kaur
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), an intracellular pathogen, still represents a major global health challenge. A number of mycobacterial macromolecules have been shown to target biological processes within host macrophages; however, the exact mechanism for the majority of these host pathogen interactions is still poorly understood. Moreover, the lipid metabolic pathway is one of the most important physiologic pathways that plays a vital role in the survival and infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In present study, we investigated the effect of rLipQ from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv on macrophage functions in vitro...
April 12, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
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